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A I.BOBND OF THE NORTH; 



BY 



ESAIASTEGNl^R, , , ^ 



Bishop of WcxiS in Sweden. 



Translated from the Original Swedish 
by 

G. S. 



/ 4/ 






WjVA XFII Engravings J XII Musical Accompaniments, 
and various other Addenda. 



STOCKHOLM: 
A. BONNIEB. 

LONDON: 
BLACK AND ABMSTBONG, 

Booksellers to the Qneen. 



MDCCCXXXIX, 



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STOCKHOLM: 

Printed by G. H. Nordstrom. 



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TO 

ESAIAS TEGNER, 

WHOSE GENIUS IS THE UNITIltG GLOBY 
THE B09IE-LAND OF FRITHIOF S SAGA , 

anb of f^e ^^«<J^ ^2|)<^<*^^3 <^f 
STTDDSSU I 

THE HOME-LAND OF FRITHIOF S BARD, 

THIS TRAISSLATION 

of §(5 jmf^^t wr^ 

IS, WITH PROFOUxVD RESPECT, 

most affectionately/ 
INSCRIBED. 



ivi747063 

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V if a( in 

lEGNi:R9 whom a Swedish Author has magnificently 
denominated **that Mighty Genie who organizes even disor- 
der/' "^ has in no production more distinguished himself 
than in the work of which the following pages are a 
Translation. If his fame is to be measured by the rule 
of Madame de Stael —- * ^translations are a present im- 
mortality^' — then it will not soon perish from the re«» 
£ord's of — the Great, 

Fully aware of the horror every distinguished Poet 
must feel, at having mangled versions of his finest lays 
sent out from distant lands » — the Translator early re- 
solved not to publish this Work, unless it met with the 
approbation of the Author himself. This he has been 
fortunate enough to obtain, accompanied by corrections 
and communications of the highest value. To the ^Intro- 
ductory Letter,'** in particular, we would refer, as con- 
taining explanations indispensable for understanding the 
Original Design of the Poem. It would be superfluous to 
add, that we express our deepest gratitude for both the 
kindness itself which the Bishop has hereby showed us, 
and for the manner in which it was done, — to an m/z- 
Tcnown and undistinguished Student. 

Our thanks are also especially due to the individuals 
who have variously contributed to the elucidation and 
adornment of our pages. The *'Life" by the distinguished 
Poet and Patriarchal Christian franzen,** — the "De- 
scription of Ingeborg's Arm-Ring" ** by flie profound 

* It is difRcult to give at once both the alliteration and the terseness of 
the original: -— den ^'starke anden som ordnar sjelfva oordningen.n 
Cruun$toIpes uSkildringar ,« — De narvarande , p. 496. 

* * In order that these new and valuable Documents may not be lost to the 



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VI 

Anliquarian and gentlemanlj Scholar HILDEBRAND — for, 
thank God, pedantry is fast ceasing to he the mark of 
erudition , — and the Musical accompaniments by the late 
distinguished composer crUsell*, and by the Countess 
MONTGOMERY, now GYLLENHAAL, — are all precious ad- 
denda to the work itself and deserve, as they will receive, 
the thanks of the European Public. 

Conceiving it necessary to a proper appreciation of 
the Poetic Legend, we have appended a Translation of 
the Prose Icelandic Saga, in itself one of the most beauti- 
ful in the whole Cycle of Icelandic Literature. The in- 
cidents relating to the Hero, Frithiof the Dauntless^ oc- 
curred previously to the close of the Vlllth Centuiy of 
our Era, though they were probably not transferred from 
the oral to the written circle of tradition till 3 or 4 cen- 
turies later. 

As to the ^Frithiof of Bishop tegner we cannot do 
better than quote from a beautiful Notice of the Bishop's 
Poem inserted in the "North American Review" No. XCVI ; 
the Author is, we believe, the learned and talented Pro- 
fessor Longfellow,** whom we remember having seen 
in this Capital during his Northern Tour: — '*We consider 

Northern Pnblic we have , wilh the permission of the Authors , pub- 
lished the Swedish Originals as an ^Appendix to Frilhiofs Saga.» 
One great favour .and advantage we have enjoyed — the Translations 
of these three communications have all been read and approved by the 
gentlemen to whom we owe them. 

* It is his surviving Family who have granted us permission to re-print 
some of the very popular airs which he wrote, and which are sung 
in Scandinavia in every dwelling , from the palace to the cottage. 

* * Our quotation begins at p. 151. The «Revicw« in question reached 
us while this Translation was going through the press. The fragments 
translated by the Professor surpass any we have hitherto seen in 
Englisli. 



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VII 

the "Legend of Frilhiof" as one of the most remarkable 
productions of the age. It is an Epic Poem, composed 
of a series of Ballads ... It seems to us a very laudable 
innovation^ thus to describe various scenes in various 
metre , and not employ the same for a game of chess and 
a storm at sea. • . The reader must bear in mind, that 
the work before him is written in the spirit of the past; 
in the spirit of that old poetry of the North, in which 
the same images and expressions are oft repealed, and 
the sword is called the Lightning's Brother, — a Banner, 
the Hider of Heaven; gold, the Day-light of Dwarfs, and 
the grave, the gi'een gate of Paradise. The old Scald 
smote the strings of his harp, with as hold a hand, as 
the Berserk smote his foe ... He lived in a credulous 
age ; in the dim twilight of the past. He was 

"The sky-lark in the dawn of years. 
The poet of the mora." 

" We must visit, in imagination at least, that 

distant land [Scandinavia], and converse with the genius 
of the place. It points us to the Past; to the great mounds, 
which are the tombs of kings. Their bones are within ; 
» skeletons of warriors mounted on the skeletons of their 
steeds; and Vikings sitting gaunt and grim on the plankless 
ribs of their pirate ships. ... In every mysterious sound 
that fills the air, the peasant still hears the trampling of 
Odin's steed, which many centuries ago took fright at the 
sound of a church bell. The memory af Balder is still 
preserved in the flower that bears his name , and Freja's 
Spinning-wheel still glimmers in the stars of the constel- 
lation Orion. The sound of Stromkarl's [the Mer-man's] 
flute^is heard in tinkling brooks, and his song in water- 
falls. In the forest, the Skogsfrun, of wondrous beauty. 



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leads young men astray ; and Tomtgubbe [little Puck] ham- 
mers and pounds away, all night long, at the peasadt's 
unfinished cottage. Almost primeval simplicity reigns over 
this Northern land, — almost primeval solitude and stillness.** 

In translating the work thus commented upon, we 
have preserved the same metre and the same number of 
lines in XXII (or strictly XXIII for the Ilnd Canto differs 
little from the Swedish , if printed in 4 lines instead of 8), 
out of the XXn^ Cantos. * Willingly would we have done 
so in the two remaining Songs also, but found it impos- 
sible without sacrificing the spirit to the form. We wish 
any future Translator belter success. The Translation was 
commenced and almost finished before we met with any- 
one of the Versions which have preceded it, and not- 
withstanding their general merit, the present pages will 
perhaps be acceptable to all who wish to examine TEG- 
NiER * * in faithful echoes , instead of in a Paraphrase ; — 
though the latter is, of course, a far easier task for the 
Versifier. 



* "We perfectly agree -with Professor Longfellow, p. 159, in ihe style 
of Translation always to be adopted: — ««There are ,« says Golhe , 
two maxims of Translation ; the one requires that the author of a 
foreign nation be brought to us in such a manner that we regard him 
as our own; the other, on the contrary, demands of us that we trans- 
port ourselves over to him, and adopt his situation, his mode of 
speaking. Ids pecnliarilies.t We recognize only one of these maxims 
of translation, — the last.^* — 

** The following pages chant, in noble measures, a victory of the 
Religious principle over youthful arrogance , and apparently indomi- 
table hardihood . . . they detail a glorious conquest of the sense of 
female dignity and patriotic duty, over fervent and deep-rooted af- 
fection, in a bosom which «young Astrildw had chosen for his fa- 
vourite shrine.« Bt-r. Mr. Strong'$ Trans, of Frilhiof, Fref. p. XII. 



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IX 

The Notes and Index have been reduced into as short 
a compass as possible, consistent with a tolerably clear 
explanation of the different subjects on which they treat. 
There is little that is original among them, our object 
haying been to use the picturesque descriptions of the 
Ancient North in preference to modern paraphases. Many, 
it -is true, will think them much too diffuse; but our own 
persuasion af the low state of Scandinavian Literature ge- 
nerally in Great Britain , induces the idea that the majority 
of our readers will thank us for our otherwise thankless 
trouble. It will be observed that a large number of ex- 
tracts are from the notes appended to the Translation of 
the Rev. Mr Strong, — but, undoubtedly, both the reader 
and that gentleman himself will acquit us for avoiding 
the stupid and pedantic vanity of again doing what had 
been so well done before. The field of mind, of litera- 
ture, of the ennoblement and civilization of our race is 
so large, so immense, that the "few labourers'' who cul- 
tivate it have all of them more than they can possibly 
accomplish — without wasting their time and strength by 
doing things twice over when once is suflScient. 

Lastly, if this work has any merit, — let the honour 
fall where it is due. — It is to my dear and distinguished 
Brother, the Rev. J. R. Stephens, the tribune of the 
POOR, that I am indebted for having my attention turned 

"from sounds to things;" 
and he it was who recommended to my eager study the 
literature of the North in general, and Frithiofs Saga 
in particular — which he unrolled before me by an oral 
translation — at a time when far away from the shores of 
the North , and when the work was altogether unknown 
in England. 



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But the faults of this Performance are so numerous, 
and so well aware are we of the great degree in which it 
falls short of the beautiful Original and of our own Ideal — 
that it is only with all the modesty becoming youth and 
comparative inexperience, that we venture to lay it, 

*'With all its imperfections on its head," 
before an enlightened and indulgent public. One thing 
we must entreat, — that every thing weak, inferior, or 
unexpressive will be attributed to its proper source — the 
pen of the Translator — not the "immortal plume" of 
the illustrious Author. Do not let the Master suffer 
for the faults of his Disciple. — Should these pages be 
received with favour, it is our intention, at some future 
period, to present to our countrymen a volume contain- 
ing a choice series of the *'Beauties of tegn^r," most 
of them , whether in prose or poetry, unabridged. In 
the mean time, should Criticism — seated on the throne 
of the Thunderer, and wielding the God's own bolts — 

Hurl its indignant lightnings at our head, 
and annihilate a work vainly hoping for subsistence — our 
consolation will be, ^^non omnia possumus omnes^^ and 
we shall abandon the field to some more gifted champion. 

Stockholm, June 21st. 1839. 

a. s. 



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LIFE AND CAREER 



or 



ESAIAS TEGNfSR. 



BT 



F. M. FRANZEN. 



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SKETCH OF THE 

LIFE AND CAREER 

of the 
AUTHOR OF 'FRITHIOF'S SAGA: 

By 

F. M. FRANz£n, 
Bishop of Hernosand, Sweden. 



Translated from the Original Swedish, 



X hree of tlie Provinces of Sweden vie with each other in claiming to 
thcmselTcs the name, so glorious for the whole kingdom, so hcloved by 
the whole nation, — tegner. The first is the iron-veined H^ermlandj 
where the great Bard was horn and grew in years. The second is the 
fruitful Shane (Scania), at whose famed University he suddenly sprang 
forth an accomplished Teacher , instead of what he had been — an extra- 
ordinary and for the most part a self-taught, pupil , — and whence his 
poetical renown flew through the whole of Sweden, and soon through 
Europe itself. The pleasant (trejlig) Smdland is the third; here, as the 
Chief of its Diocese and the guardian of its Educational Institutions, he 
has gained yet greater consideration and yet fresher honours. Indeed he 
belongs originally to this Bishopric, partly through his Father who was 
born there, and partly by his Name which his Ancestors took from the 
village of Tegna {Tegnahy) — at present a part of the Diocese-Estates. 
Thus his vciy name seems to have announced to tegit^r his future station. 
His Father, who was also called esaias tegner, and who was a good 
Preacher, a cheerful Companion, and an active Agriculturalist, had been 



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XII 

nominated to the Rectoi^y of MillesyiV. It was while he was yet waiting 
till he could occupy the Parsonage, and was living at the house of the 
Assistant-Minister at Kyrkerud in the Living of By, that his Spouse, 
whose maiden name was S. M. Seidclius, hore him, on the 13th of No- 
vember 1782, his fourth Son — Esaias. 

While not yet 9 years old he lost his father, and for want of 
means — his elder Brothers having all to be supported as Students — 
was compelled to seek some other path for his future livelihood. The 
Assessor Branting, a Sm&land-man, consequently from the same Province, 
and probably also a near friend of his father, took the lad into his 
House, and he was' brought up there to be his Assistant in the Baillie- 
Office-room (Fogde-Konloret). He soon acquired whatever belonged to 
his employment, and accompanied his Foster-father to all the meetings 
for the collection of the Taxes. As the Bailliwic was extensive, these 
jom'nies taught him to know and admire the beauty with which this 
Province reflects its woods and mountains in its many lakes. A proof 
of this we find in his fine Poem *To my Home-region* ('Till min Hem- 
byggd' *), the first which introduced him to the notice of the Public. 

Tegner cannot himself remember, when he first began to write verse. 
While yet a child, he sang of every event at all remarkable in his uniform 
life. Nay, he even undertook a considerable Poem under the name of 
*Atle,* the subject of which was taken from "Bjorners Kiimpadater," — 
thus the Same collection of old Sagas in which, at a more mature age> 
he found the rough sketch of his 'Frithiof.' 

The Northern Sagas were among his first and dearest acquaintances, 
at a time when — ignorant of every language but his mother-tongue — 
he read every thing he could meet with, particularly in History and the 
Belles Lettres. He sat, with a book in his hand, wherever he happened 
to find himself, sometimes on a stone, and sometimes on a ladder; — 
and one day, during harvest, when he should watch a field-gate, he 
altogether forgot his task, so swallowed up was he in what he was read- 
ing, and -let the cattle wander through into the yet unmown meadow! 

Thus grew he up, like a Wild-Apple-tree in the forest, till he was 
14 years of age. Then it was that Branting , who had long remarked his 
passion for reading, accidentally discovered the profit he drew from it. 
One evening, as they were traveling home from Carlstad and the stars 

* Pablisbed io 1802, in "Stockbolms-posten." Q, S, 



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XIII 

were shining bright above them, his fostcrfathcr, who was a pious man 
of the good old-fashioned School , took occasion to speak of the handi- 
works of God, and of the evident omnipotence and wisdom he had dis- 
covered therein. The boy's answer showed a knowledge of the System 
of the World and of the Laws for the motions of the heavenly Bodies, 
at which the old man was astonished. *How do you know that/? he 
enquired. *1 have read about it in "Bastholms Philosophic for Olarde*** 
(Philosophy for the unlearned) — he replied. Bran ting was silent; but 
some days after, he observed, — *You must become a Student* — How 
decisive were these words! How important not only in the Life of TEGNEa, 
but in the Literature of his Country, in which his name has created a 
new epoch. And how manifold is the good, both in the Church and in 
the Schools of Sweden, which must have been lost had it not been for 
that one sentence 1 It was on that expression depended all the renown 
and pleasure which his Works, translated as they have been into so 
many languages, have excited throughout Europe. Well does the memory 
of the honourable Branting deserve the distinction, to be handed down 
to Posterity conjoined with the name of his immortal Foster-son ! — But 
was it his work alone? — Though we cannot, it is true, regard it as 
direct inspiration that he should begin talking about the Stars to the 
simple office-boy in whose mind lay concealed so great a subject, — still , 
in the whole of this circumstance generally, we must acknowledge the 
guiding hand of l^ovidence, that hand so evident but so oft unseen in 
the life of the Individual no less than in the History of the World! 

To study, had long been the secret longing of the boy, but he had 
not dared to represent his wishes. And even now, however great his 
joy at this glimpse of unexpected light he could not help objecting •^ 
his want of means. <God will provide for the sacrifice;' answered Bran- 
ting, 'you arc born for something better than what you can become with 
me; you must go to your eldest Brother, he will guide your studies > 
and I shall not forget you'. 

This promise he fulfilled, not only by considerable sums to assist 
iji keeping him at the University, but by a fatherly sympathy in all 
that regarded him. And this, notwithstanding he was now compelled to 
abandon the hope he had long secretly cherished, of being able in time 
to leave him his Place — together with his youngest daughter. 

In the month of March 1796, Esaias removed to his Brother Lars 
Gustaf, who was then a Candidate of Philosophy , and was living in Werm- 



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XIV 

land. The latter, a man already distinguished for uncommon learning, 
and who at the University-Promotion was the rival of his younger Bro^ 
ther for the first degree, and who as many thought ought to have gained 
the preference, now hecame the tutor of the youngest The wonderful 
progress which he made, is a proof what determined resolution united to 
commanding talents can accomplish, especially in the warming season of 
impetuous Youth. 

After nine month's instruction from his Brother, who employed the 
old solid method of teaching, he was able to study for himself. He novs 
during the course of 1797, made himself familiar with a multitude of 
Latin Authors, particularly the Poets. The latter fixed themselves so 
firmly in his uncommonly strong memory, that he, to this day, can 
repeat large extracts from their works. In Greek also, and in French, he 
advanced rapidly without any assistance. 

So early as the following year, however, when he had not yet com- 
pleted his 16lh winter , the Youth was compelled to undertake the instruction 
of others, in order to find means for his own further education. The Iron- 
Master (Bruhspatron J Owner of Iron-Works,) Myhrman, who was after- 
wards Councillor of Mines (Bergsrdd) invited him to become the Tutor 
of his Children. In this also was a special dispensation , which influenced 
not only his private and immediate circumstances, but also his future 
happiness. The spot, too, at which he resided was distinguished for a 
wild but imposing scenery. It belonged to those extensive wood-lands to 
which "Yfvakarl,"* as Karl the IXth is still called in this District, 
summoned his colonists from Finland. The owner of the Works was an 
intelligent and persevering Iron-Founder, but at the same time a man 
uncommonly educated for his employment. Being himself well versed , not 
only in several modern Languages, but also in the Latin Tongue, his Li- 
brary contained even several Greek Classics. Among these was a Folio, which 
soon became the object of the poetical stripling's most zealous researches. 
It was a — Homer. Notwithstanding all the difficulties thrown in his way 
by the many anomalous Dialects, and by his own still imperfect know- 
ledge of the Language as a whole and of its various peculiarities , — he was 
not to be dismayed. Even then, the great characteristic of his mind was — 
never to give way; besides which it exhibited all that enei'gy which distin- 
guishes a great genius. With Zenophon also, and with Lucian, he became 

* Karl th€ Ortal, (CharlemagDe) — a Wermland Provincial itm. G. S. 



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XV 

familiaar. But the Bard who principally divided his time and attention 
with old Homer, was — his Horace; and here it was he first became ac- 
quainted with his writings. In the midst of all this, he by no meant 
neglected the Literature of France , whose most classical productions richly 
adorned this Gentleman's shelves. — Thus it was that he was even now 
laying the foundations of that Independence with which he afterwards 
withstood all one-sided or narrow-minded judgements over the Literature 
both of antic^uity and of modern times. But as he did not find a single 
Grerman Poet in this Library and only learned that Language through the 
medium of common elementary books , he acquired a prejudice against it which 
was long before it was entirely dissipated. With English, on the contrary, 
he became poetically acquainted through Macpherson's Translation of 
Ossian. This work produced such an effect upon his imagination, that he 
learned the language without any help. 

In the usual pleasures and amusements of youth , and in Society in 
general, he mixed little if at all. Nor, indeed, did he miss them; for 
his books gave him full employment. He even seldom allowed himself 
time, at this period, to write verses. A report, however, of Buonaparte's 
death in Egypt, occasioned his composing a Lyric Poem which gave Myhr- 
man who exceedingly admired the French Hero, great hopes of the youth- 
ful minstrel. But the Production thus grounded on so false a rumour, 
has never yet been published. 

Having now reached his 17th year, he repaired to Lund, in the 
autumn of 1799, and commenced his Academic course. His object, at 
first, was only to prepare for his entrance into the Royal Chancery. 
Still he would give a public proof of his proficiency in the Greek and 
Roman Languages, and accordingly wrote a Latin Treatise on Anacreon. 
Armed with this Document, he hastened to Doctor Norberg, a Scholar 
famous for his Oriental erudition, and to whose Professorship the Lite- 
rature of Greece also belonged at that time. This interview produced a 
never-changing impression on the mind of the promising young student, 
not only through the encouraging ^kindness with which he had received 
him, but through his whole bearing and manners, which united the 
charms of original genius with a naive and innocent simplicity. From 
the beautiful picture * which tegner has prefixed to the Poem dedicated 

• The Introduction — as Dedication — 'To Norherg.* Q, 9. 



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XVI 

to him — 'Natlvardsbarncn* * — we may be at least allowed to copy the 
following features: 

Yes! the' East's fast Friend art Thou, the North's proud glory, 

A man of Fable's vanish'd days of gold , 
And speech and manners hast of Patriarchs hoary , 

And, — wise as Eld — the Child's pure heai't dost hold! ** 

Norberg is one of those men who have had the greatest influence 
on tegner's career. By counseling him to change his studies at once 
from the civil official-examination to the degree of M. A. — he kept him 
at the University, fixed him to literary pursuits, and prepared the way 
for him to the station which he now occupies in the pale of the Swedish 
Church. 

Norberg offered him gratis instruction in Arabic.^ But the learning 
of the East had no attractions for the young Scald. The great Oriental- 
ist was also a perfect master of the Roman Tongue, and contended for 
the palm with Professor Lundblad, whose Latin School was then in itff 
highest lustre. The style of the former resembled that of Tacitus, in 
shortness, expressiveness, and antithetic pregnancy of diction. The latter, 
on the other hand, who had studied in Leipzig and had there formed 
himself on the model of Ernesti, had introduced his Ciceronianism into 
Sweden. To this School it was that, both by example and by precept, 
he strictly kept the young men who were under his charge. To choose 
between these two 'Masters of their Art,* was not so easy for a stripling- 
student. Tegn^r decided for the Lundblad Party; being induced to take 

* In a Poem f recited at the Promotion to Master of Arts, at Luod, in 1829, 
where Tegner succeeded Bishop Faxe as Yice-Cbancellor of the UuiTersity , 
and where Oehlenschlager was present, and received the Laurel and his D(* 
ploma. — f(*The Children of the Sacrament/ an exceedingly beautiful Poem, 
not yet translated into English, and something in the same style as Gold- 
smith's Clergyman in *The Deserted Village.') O. S. 

* * From the Yllth Stanza in the abave-mentioned Dedication. The original 

lines are as follows: • 

**Du, Orientens van, du Nordens heder, 

Du man frfin fabelns glomda dar af gull, 
Med patriarkcrs sprftk , med deras seder, 
Som ftldren vis, som barnet oskuldsfull !" 
Tegners Samtade Dikter, p. 1 3a. Q. S, 



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XVII 

thai step by his Brother Elof , who was then Reader (Doccns) at the Uni- 
versity and was considered one of the very finest pupils Lundhlad had 
produced. 

But it was naturally to be expected that the other Professors also 
should have their attention fixed on a Student of such distinguished qua- 
lities. He himself acknowledges the encouragement he received from 
Munthe and from Lidback. The former, who was Professor of Moral 
Philosophy and a zealous Kantian , is represented by tegner * in a most 
charming sketch, as one of the noblest men who have ever adorned any 
Academic Chair. With the latter, who had just been created Professor 
of ^Esthetics, and had attempted Poetry without any very great success, 
he came into a relation which cannot be better expressed than by the 
following verses composed by tegner: 

He, who latest has left us. 

Gave me his fatherly care, and taught me the Scale of the Muses 
While, yet young, I requir'd his counsel. Nor would he grow angry 
If, ofttimes, I obey'd him but badly — trying, as rash Youth 
Will, my pinions in regions not his. Yes! nobly he acted I"*' * 
In the Mathematical Sciences he had read little or nothing before he 
came to the University. But, being now engaged in preparing for his 
degree, his clear understanding enabled him to make rapid progress in 
this Department also, and almost without any assistance. The only 
Lectures he attended were those on Physics and on the Differential-Cal- 
culus, and his Notes on these occasions were afterwards a standing loan 
among bis acquaintance, and were highly spoken of for lucidity and pre- 
cision. Thus at the University, also, he continued to be an avro^i^axtog , 
althougb through the medium of books. He commonly worked from 18 

* Id liis **MiDneD" (RecolIectioQs), which constitute so beantifal a group in his 
Poems , and which do so much honoar to his heart no It-ss than to his 
genius. (See Tegnirt Smdrre DAter , p. a33.) 

** "Ed som sednast bar bortgfttt 

Tog mig t faderlig vftrd, och larde mig Skalan till Singen, 
Nar jag var nng och behofde bans rftd; och baa harmades icke, 
Om jag ej foljde dem jemt, meo forsokte, som ynglingar plaga , 
Yiugaroes kraft, i rymder ej bans: det var adelt af bonom." 
The above lines were written at the Promotion ia Lund 1829. G, 8. 



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XVIII 

to 20 hoars a day, sleeping as little as possible. He seldom partook iA 
the pastimes which belonged to his age , or in the Life of a Student 
generally; this gained him the character of a bashful , awkward and 
singular young man. 

Who could believe this of so lively a genius, so cheerful, playfully- 
wilty, and so amiable a Society-man as at a later time he has been 
found to be? — But this was the only w&y by which, within so short a 
time, the could acquire such various and such solid erudition. 

Through the assistance of Myhrman and of Branting, he had been 
enabled to pass near a year at the University, without being compelled 
to break off his own studies by instructing others. But his scrupulousness 
would not permit him any longer to take advantage of their generosity, 
without some effort to obtain his own subsistence. He therefore applied 
for and obtained a University private-tutorship in the family of Baron 
Leyonhufvud, at Yxkullsund in Smiland. His pupil, the Baron Abraham 
Leyonhufvud, who has since risen to be President of the High Justiciary 
Court, is — of all the, individuals he has instructed — the one he has 
most esteemed and loved. And this feeling has remained unchanged 
during a course of 30 years. His habits of life at Yxkullsund were the 
same as at the University — laborious, lonely, and averse to company. 
But after he had written some French verses, on the occasion ofafamily- 
f^tc-day, — the awkward and gloomy Student began to be remarked with 
wonder and esteem. 

After having passed the summer of 1800 at this Seat, he returned 
to Lund, accompanied by his pupil. Here Professor Lidback appointed 
him Extraordinary Amanuensis to the University Library, of which the 
Professor was the Manager. To this, it is true, no salary was attached; 
but it was an uncommon distinction for a youth of 18, who had not 
yet taken his degree. 

That he might accomplish this he now prepared himself with increas- 
ing zeal, mostly studying Philosophy, partly in the Dialogues of Plato, 
and partly in the Writings of Kant and a few by Fichte. He has himself 
declared that, with his concrete mind, he was not disposed for these 
abstract speculations , and that he grew tired of pursuing a long systematic 
Deduction which allowed no foot^hold for the Fancy. His Academic 
Treatises, however, show that he easily penetrated and clearly understood 
Philosophical questions. — What more especially drew him to the critical 



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XIX 

School of Kant was^ its originally sceptical nature and ils great result*, 
which stops short at a something — unknown and never-to-be-fathomed! 

At the Examination for Degrees, which he passed in two divisions 
— '. the autumn of 1801 and the spring of 1802 — - he obtained 'laudatur / 
the highest Certificate, from all the Professors except Norberg. This was 
altogether unexpected, especially as tegniIr was acknowledged, in Greek, 
which then belonged to the same Professorship as the Oriental Languages, 
to be the most accomplished of all the promovendL — But Morberg fixed 
a higher value on the latter Literature, in which also he had gained 
Continental celebrity. 

With such high testimonials, tegner was of course the unopposed 
primus at the Promotion , and was to answer the Magister-Question. But 
in the meantime an event occurred, which threatened to banish him for 
«ver from the University, to destroy all his prospects there, and to give 
his destiny quite another object. 

LundagSrd is the name of an Academic Promenade, shaded by aged 
trees, beneath whose murmur the Students are accustomed to pass the 
most innocent of their evening hours , — if not exactly in Socratic Dia* 
logues , at least with somewhat Platonic feelings of the beautiful. One 
evening, however, a transaction took place there which was not altogether 
so innocent. Without being aware of anything at all extraordinary, 
TEGiTER, alone as usual, was hastening thither to refresh himself after the 
day*s hard toil. He then found assembled there a very large body of the 
Students, all armed with branches cut from the old and venerable trees. 
They, howev<^, had hewed down not a single bough; it had been done 
by order of the Consistory, to promote the growth of the Trees and 
make their tops more leafy. This intention the young men misunderstood , 
supposing that all this maiming foreboded the destruction of their fa* 
▼ourite Lundagard, and the more so as they found that whole Trees had 
been felled. These, however, were old and naked trunks which it was 
thought ought to make room for younger stems. The rising discontent 
was principally directed against the University's then ofEciating Rector 
Magnificus, who was by no means loved, and who was believed to 
have been alone concerned in planning all this ruin, tegnibr, whom the 
eager crowd surrounded immediately on his arrival , with shouts of -^ 
'Primus must go with us' — made representations but in vain against 
the tumult. Clamoured down, and armed like the rest with a branch, he 
was obliged to accompany them. The procession took the route to the 



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Rector's House, which was first saluted with a thundering cry of — 
'Pereat Rector j vivat Lundagdrd.^ — Then all the houghs were thrown 
in a heap hcfore the entrance, completely blocking up the door. After 
this, they went tumultuously up the street, giving hurrahs to several of 
the Professors. For the Theology-Professor, Hylander, vivat was not 
shouted but chaunted in chorus. On their return, when the Rector was 
once more saluted with a 'Pereat/ it was very near happening that they 
proceeded to break his windows also. This, however, was prevented by 
TEGNER and the Magislcr Wallenberg, afterwards Bishop of Linkoping; 
but only by the argument that ladies were residing in the rooms that 
faced the street. 

The next morning tegn^r was summoned before him by the Rector 
to undergo a private hearing, and he there gave a faithful statement of 
the whole event, without at all denying what was culpable in his own 
conduct. But His Magnificence^ paid no respect to this openness or to 
tegner's efforts to prevent the uproar. *You are already,' said he, *an 
officer of this University; you have been nominated primus at the en- 
suing promotion, and might expect great success in your profession here. 
All this now is past. The Academic constitutions clearly direct, that you 
must '^relegari cum infamid/* Sorry indeed I am, that your good for- 
tune should thus be thrown away. Still, it might be possible,* he added, 
after a pause, *that all might be helped and arranged, if you would only 
tell me the names of the Ringleaders in the riot.* — tegner, incensed 
at this question, replied with some warmth, that however it went with 
himself he would not play the Informer against his own comrades. *We 
were,' he concluded, *two or three hundred altogether; and there were 
few among them whom I knew; but those few I never will betray I' 

In the meantime, the whole affair gradually died away; for all the 
other Professors valued too highly the uncommon qualities of a youth 
who was also so irreproachable in his manners, not to rescue him from 
the misfortune with which he was threatened by a man whom even his 
companions could not esteem. 

At this period tegner received the sorrowful intelligence, that his 
eldest Brother, who was only 30 years of age, had just expired. He was 
universally lamented as an excellent Preacher, and in all respects a pat- 

* The Rector of a Swedish Uoirersity is called *Rcclor Magoificvs' or 'His 
MagoificcDce.' 



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XXI 

tern for his class. Esaias felt himself, at his death, again an orphan. 
r(ot only was it from him he had obtained the first elements of that 
learning, for which he was now about lo receive the laurel-wreath "^^ 
-— foremost among 40 — but at his yerj entrance on the dangerous 
years of yi)uth, it was his Brother who had confirmed him in those 
principles of religion and of morals, in which while yet a child he 
had been instructed, but which he had not enjoyed any opportunity of 
reducing to practise. — Deeply aifected by this loss, he made it the sub- 
ject of an Elegy,** which was rewarded with a prize by the Literary 
Society of Gothenbourg. This 'Lament,* together with the before-men- 
tioned Poem *Till min Hembygd* (To my Home-District) which he had 
composed at the same period, first began to attract the general attention 
of the People to this rising Bard. 

After the Promotion, he traveled to Wermland, on a visit to his 
Mother and to his Benefactors Branting and Myhrman. A virtuous young 
man can undoubtedly enjoy no greater pleasure from the success of his 
exertions, than that of delighting his Parents, and those who have cared 
for him with a father's or a mother's tenderness. But scarcely less, nay 
perhaps even greater, is their satisfaction when their efforts have been 
crowned with such results as was now the case. 

This visit to Myhrman changed the childish friendship which had 
already subsisted between his daughter and tegn^r, to a serious obligation 
to which her Parents gave their consent. Four years, however, elapsed 
before circumstances allowed them to enter into the married State. 

It was on this journey that, for the first time, he beheld — resid- 
ing with his Father at Ransater in Wermland — an individual after- 
wards so famous as a Poet, an Historian, and a Thinker, the illustrious 
Geijer. He was at that time only a Student at Upsala, but had even then 
gained the great prize of the Swedish Academy for his Panegyric over 
Slcn Slure. tegner himself has made the following observations * * * con- 

• The Masters of Arts arc adorned, at the Swedish Universities, with a Wreath 

of Laarel on the day of their Promotion. G, S, 
** Found in ^'Gotheborgska Yettenskaps- och Yitterbets-Sallskapets Handlingar 

i8oa." G. 8. 
*♦♦ The above, together with snch other remarks of TBGNBR as occur in this 

Biography, have been kindly communicated by himself to the Author, in a 

private Epistle on the circumstances of his life. 



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XXII 

cerning this acquaintance. ''Even at this, our very first meeting, betrayed 
itself that great divergence in our views of life and literature, which 
time has since only more developed. Our whole intercourse was a con- 
tinued University- Act, though without any bitterness or unfriendliness. 
£ven at this early period I learned to value him, as one of the most 
talented and noble natures in our land.*' 

On his return to Lund, tegnea was appointed by Lidback reader 
(Docens) in iEsthctics. He was permitted, however, to leave the Univer* 
sity for a time and reside in Stockholm, whither he repaired in the be- 
ginning of 1803, being received as Tutor into the House of the Chief- 
Director Slrtibing. This family lived in first-rate style; but the manners 
of Teon^b were, as in Lund, retired and £at himself. It was then he 
became acquainted with the Poet Choraeus, whom he found a cheerful 
witty and amiable, but somewhat singular, man. They communicated to 
each other their poetical efforts, and although Choraeus was far inferior 
to Tegn^r in genius he yet, according to the latin's own statements, 
could — as older and more experienced in the exercise of 'the divine 
art* — assist him with valuable counsel. They corresponded for some 
time after tegner had repaired to Lund, to which place he was accom- 
panied by his pupils. 

fiut having long since been betrothed,* he wished to obtain soon 
some fixed Establishment, and therefore applied for the place of Gymnasii- 
Adjunct at Garlstad. The Consistory did not appoint him; but he ob- 
tained the place by appealing to the King, who then resided in Baden. 
Being shortly afterwards, however, appointed Adjunct at the University 
of Lund, he never entered upon his duties in Garlstad. As Assistant- 
XiCcturcr {Adjunct^ Vice-Professor,) in Esthetics, he was for a whole 
year at the head of the Professorship in this Science, during the Rectoratc 
of Professor Lidback as well as on many other occasions. 

The manner in which he had enabled his hearers to see and under- 
stand for themselves all that Beautiful of which Lidback had only talk- 
ed and produced the opinions of various critics — made the difference 
between them only too remarkable. ^Notwithstanding this, the Teacher 
still preserved the same friendship and goodwill for the Pupil by whom 
he was thrown so much in the shade. For the rest, though it is far from 

* It is still geoeral in Sweden to go tbroogb a form of /«#«/ BetroOuHt as ioti^- 
ductory to the still more solema Ceremooy of Marriage. Q, S, 



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XXIII 

our meaning to undervalue all that was noble in the sentiments of Lid- 
bact any more than all that was solid in his erudition, — we cannot 
lielp remarking, that tbgitkii's peculiar manner of thinking and acting 
makes his superiority, nay even his sarcastic witticisms, pleasing and 
pleasant eyen to those who are their objects. 

There was in Lund another individual who found in Tsoireii a dan- 
gerous rival. It was Ling, who was not less famous for his Northern 
Bfinsti^elsy than for his System of Scientific Gymnastics. To them both, 
"•^ not less than to Geijcr, who harped for us the beautiful 'Song of 
the Viking,** and who invoked (living as before!) «The last Champion** 
and 'The last Scald** from their ancient Barrows, — belongs the glory, 
as Oehlenschlager and Grundtvig had done in Denmark, of having in- 
spired a new life into the Swedish Literature by employing once more 
the Scandinavian Myth and Saga. But if the Bard of the 'Asar'** has, 
like Grundtvig, made us more familiar with the raw force and wild 
greatness of the olden Champions, — the Chaunter of 'Frithiof* has, with 
Oehlenschlager, attracted more general attention to the forms and images 
of Antiquity, by investing them with the milder features of the poetical 
ideal. Even before that period, when the views and efforts of both were 
developed. Ling and TEoirea could not harmonize. It is curious enough, 
that the Gymnastic Fencing-Master, who presented his naked breast to. the 
stabs not of foils but of the points of swords, possessed a temperament 
far more irritable and sensitive. But in spite of all their momentary 
misunderstandings, the honourable truefast and open-hearted character of 
both, caused them always to retain a firm and mutual friendship, and 
to acknowledge uninterruptedly each other's worth and merits. 

In the year 1806, when he added the office of Under-Librarian to 
his Assistant-Lectureship in ^Esthetics, besides being Notary in the Phi- 
losophic Faculty, •— he was enabled to compleat his Nuptial-Contract 
with Miss Anna M. G. Myhrman, who added domestic happiness to his 
literary honours. It was. owing to her care and skill as the Head of the 
Household, together with his professional industry, that — although 
his income never exceeded 60 Barrels of grain*** — they still were pos- 
sessed of a comfortable subsistence. 

* Titles of some of Geijer's finest and most popalar Ballads. 6. 5. 

•• Ling's principal and longest work is entitled *Asarne/ (The Asar). 6. S, 

*•♦ The income of many public fanctioDarics in Sweden, but especially of the 



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XXIV 

At this period a number of the younger Officers in the University 
formed a sort of Club, called the 'Herberge/ and of which tegncr was a 
member. It had no political tendency, and scarcely any Regulations. They 
conversed on Literature in general , and of the government of the Uni- 
versity in particular. "Here,** writes tegncr, "was found the pith of views 
and sentiments which were afterwards not without their influence on the 
University. They played at ball with ideas and witticisms,' — children 
of the moment which might well have deserved to have been more gener- 
ally known.** But among them all, the man who was most willingly lis- 
tened to both for his striking mots and his amiable character was — - 
tegncr: now, no longer compelled to exert himself for his studies, and 
passing an agrcahle family-life, — he had become a cheerful and sociable 
companion. Many of the individuals visiting this Club have gained con- 
siderable renown, as Teachers at the University or in the Church. TEONea, 
as a Poet, and Agardh as a Savan, both enjoy foreign celebrity. Three 
are Bishops, tegncr in Vcxio, Agardh in Carlstad, and Heurlin in Visby. 
The last is also Acting Secretary of State for Ecclesiastical Affairs and 
the Department of Public Instruction. Both Heurlin and Agardh have also 
distinguished themselves at the Diets, and possess a political importance 
which TEGNCR, although esteemed for his independence, has never endeav- 
oured to acquire. 

Through several Lyrical Pieces which displayed a genius of a lofty 
order, tegncr had already gained an increasing reputation as a Poet, •— 
when his Poem Svea, which received the great Prize of the Swedish A- 
cademy in 1811, excited a universal sensation by its patriotic spirit no 
less than its poetic beauty. Among those things which make this Poem 
remarkable, is the change of form which occurs towards its close. From 
Alexandrines distinguished for that refined strength and measured and 
well-preserved harmony which this kind of verse demands, the Scald, in 
a sudden transport, is carried away to a Dithyrambic Song whose various 
tones arc in unison with the richly-varied changes of its subject. This 
is, — a poetical vision, in which the Mythological images of the antique 
poesy shadow forth what the Swedish nation at the present moment thought 

Clergy, is generally reckoned io 'tanDor spaanemftl,* barrels of grain, (half 
rye and half corn), which is also paid in kind. The average value of each 
barrel is regulated annually. It is commonly equal to lo R:dr Bgs. , about 
half a guinea. G. S. 



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XXT 

aad foU, experioioed and hoped. IlTeii although aoch ahoold not have faeea 
the ioteDtion of oiur Bard, BtUl the imion of these two different atylee ahowB 
His opiaions in reference to the great Schism then arising in the Swedish 
Literature. 

Withont at all degrading the Belles Lettres of the older School, He 
himself was bnilding np the new. Bat he nerer went over to onr Fhospho- 
rism^ which was so called from "Phosphoros/* a Literary Beview which was to 
annonnoe a new dawn on the Swedish 'Parnassus' Mount.' On this subject 
he himself writes as follows: "The German Theories and the fashionable 
'Garbnnele-Poetiy' * I coald|not bear. It is true, I thought a change waa 
aecessarj in our Swedish Verse; but it could and ought to be brought about in 
a more independent manner. The New School seemed to me too negative, and 
ita critieal Crusade too unjust. I therefore did not mix myself up in the 
contest, with the exception perhaps of a few pleasantries which I wrote or 
spoke." 

As Lord Byron, in spite of the disrepute into which his enchanting 
Poems brought the older Bards, himself did them justice, — and among the 
rest especially valued Pope, just that Author whom his own admirers parti- 
cularly despised, — so tei^n^s also in the most solemn terms protested against 
the efforts of the Phosphorists to degrade our older Poets, — and especially 
Leopold, whose serious verse rivals Pope's in depth, — and whose more playful 
mose, although She never composed so charming a Song as 'The Bape of the 
Lock,' has notwithstanding surpassed the English Satirist in a flow of light 
lively Voltaire-resembling wit. 

At the commencement of 1812, tegn^b, during a visit in Stockholm, 
made the personal acquaintance of Leopold, Rosenstein and other Members of 
the Swedish Academy. Already had he gained their admiration; he now added 
also their most faithful friendship and esteem. 

Besides the Phosphoristic Coterie, which could in some respects be com- 
pared with 'The Poets of the Lake' in England, and among whom Wordsworth 
may be considered as having some resemblance in depth of thought and feeling 
to Atterbom, there arose one other Literary Union under the name of 
'Gother' (the Goths). Their object was the knowledge and employment of 
the Ancient Northern Myth and Saga in the Fine Arts. The Author of 'Svea' 

* 'Karfonkel-poesie,' a term borrowed from the German, might not inappro- 
priatdy be paraphrased by 'Namby-pamby glimmer-and-glitter School.' (?. S. 

a 



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XXVI 

wu incited to become a member, and in its Magazine, 'Idana/ first appeared 
Specimens. of 'Frithiof/ wbich immediately excited great expectations. 

In the year 1812, a new field was opened for the activity of tegk^e 
at the University of Lund. It was then that the Greek Literatore, which had 
hitherto belonged to the same Professorship as the Eastern Languages, was 
erected into a separate Chair. The Oriental Department remained under the 
care of Norberg, and it was at his recommendation that tegn^b — as a ge- 
nerally acknowledged Hellenist without a rival at the University — was 
proposed by its Chancellor von Engestrom (then first Cabinet-Minister), and 
was nominated by his Majesty without the usual routine, to the Professorship 
of Grecian Literature. He received, on his appointment, the Living of StaQe as 
his Prebend. 

Thus he entered the Ecclesiastical Order, and wrote in consequence 'Prest- 
vigningen' * ('The Consecration to the Priesthood'), a Poem beaming with 
heavenly beauty. But as his actual occupation lay within the sphere of the 
University, he principally devoted — and that with extraordinary zeal and 
energy — his time and labour to that departement. Naturally enough, (and 
the remark is almost superfluous) he, with his poetical mind, was sure to direct 
the attention of his youthful hearers to the Beauties of Greek Literature, the 
surest method to win them over to the Language. But at the same time, a 
thing we should not have expected from a Poet, he united thereto severe 
demands for a solid acquaintance with its grammatical organization and brought 
the study of Greek to a height and splendour hitherto unknown at the Uni- 
versity of Lund. 

Norberg, who had for his sake resigned this branch of his public duties, 
neither showed nor felt, (for all that he felt he showed!) any vexation at being 
thus, perphaps, surpassed by his successor. Their friendly relation to each 
other, was not disturbed for one instant. 

In the meantime, the fame of tegn^k as a Poet was continually on the 
increase. This was partly grounded on a multitude of Lyrical Pieces the one 
surpassed by the other, although all were of the most various kinds, and 
partly on two more lengthy compositions, which have also appeared in Foreign 
Translation, 'Axel'** and 'The Young Communicants* fNattvardsbarnen*)- — In 

* TegfUrs Smdrre Dikter, p. 155. 

* * The finest English Translation I have seen of this magnificent Poem is 

an anonymous free version, in Blackwood* s Magazine for 1826, .CIX, pp. 
184—195. G. 8. 



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xxvn 

conteqnence of this, the Swedish Academy of Eighteen could not delay snmmo- 
ning him to their Body. He was elected successor to Oxenstjerna, whose 
Portait (in teon^s's Inimguration-Speech) has a beauty inseparable from its 
object, but which betrays the coloring of our Poet's Pencil! 

The 'Epilogue at the Promotion in Lund in 1829' *, together with many 
other Occasional Poems, gave him individual importance as a liberal-minded 
clear-headed and deep-thinking man, who followed with his Time without being 
carried away by its illusions. — How well he was able, if he pleased, to ima- 
gine and execute even a Mystic Idea, is proved by his 'Address to the Sun' * * 
('Sftng till Solen'} which Leopold, although still less than tegn^k a lover of the 
mysterious and the fantastic, pronounced the very first of his Minor Poems, 
both in the light and lofty flight of its various Thoughts, and in a purity of 
expression and harmony of verse which are kept up in spite of the most diffi- 
cult of metres. But it is especially 'Frithiof which has raised tegncr to the 
first rank among the Bards of modern times, spreading his fame not only 
around all Europe but even to other regions and far other climes f. 

In the same year, 1824, when this admirable Poem began to exalt his 
character as a Scald, he obtained unexpected Preferment in the bosom of the 
Swedish Church. Although he had enjoyed no opportunity or reasonable occa- 
sion of distinguishing himself as a Theologian, yet so much had he gained the 
respect of the Clergy of Sm&land, as Teacher of the Academic youth and as 
Member of the Chapter of Lund, that on a vacancy occurring in the Bishopric 
of'Vexio he obtained, almost unanimously, the first, place on the list proposed 
for appointment, f f Probably his Idyl 'The young Communicants' (^Nattvards- 
hamen') had contributed to that confidence in his religious feelings which such 
a choice presupposes in his Brethren. He was appointed Bishop in 1824, and 
immediately justified this Promotion by the most zealous guardianship of the 
Educational Institutions of his Diocese. His Speeches on public occasions of 
importance at the Gymnasium and the Schools, excited an extraordinary sensa- 
tion. In these he developed, in the talented manner peculiar to himself, his 

* Tegners Smdrre Dikter, p. 164. G. 8. 

•• Tegners Smdrre Dikter, p. 199. G, S. 

f See Appendix — 'Prithiof and its Literature.' 

tf The National Church of Sweden is vastly superior to the Episcopal Sect 
of England and Ireland in purity and freedom. The disgustiog Cong4 
d^dire is unknown; the majority of votes propose a list of three, one of 
whom the King must nominate. G. S. 



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xxTm 

•nUghtencd viewi on ike qa«8tioii8 •£ the iMj nlmtife to the Reformi proposed 
in the Ettablithamite of Bdaettion. TheM Speeches hiTe nbo been spread in 
forugn lands, by n German Translation. •» How he fulfils his duties as one off 
the Chie& of the Church, we may see in the remarkable Boenment belonging 
to the Assembly of the Clergy in Vexio in 1836. They have not, as nsoal, 
been confined within the limits of the Diocese or the Cloth, but have also 
attracted the attention of the Fablic at large, * and have convinced all classes 
that he does not less deserve his consideration as a Theologian a Priest and a 
Gaardian of Religion and Ecclesiastical mle, than as an accomplished and inde* 
fatigable gaide of all the Edacational Departements. 

He has not, it is trae, been particularly active at the Diets, which he is 
boond to attend in his capacity of Bishop: bat as often as he has raised his 
voice, the listening expectation of something at onoe solid and ingenions, has 
found itself not only satisfied but surprised. 

While yet Professor he had been adorned with the Order of the North 
Star, which has noto become a commoii distinction for Swedish Literati of merit. 
Bat on the breast of one Scald far shining from the North, it reminds os of 
its original signification. Immediately after his advancement to the Episeoptl 
Chair, be was nominated Knight Commander of the same Order. 

Whether it is that his office, although it has not exhausted all his time, 
has turned away his attention from the art of the minstrel, or whether the 
cause may be that his weak health has somewhat darkened his changingly 
cheerful and melancholy disposition, — true it is that, since the publication 
of Trithiof,' he has only occasionally struck the chords of a Lyre which haa 
suffered no change in the tones with which it is wont at onoe to charm and to 
astonish. We hope, however, that he will yet finish, among other more consi- 
derable Poems, one which has been long impatiently expected and of which he 
has given delightfal specimens under the name of 'Gerda.' As for himself iu'- 
deed, he requires for his glory no more than he already enjoys as one of the 
most magnificent geniases of modern times. 

The Author of this Biography will not venture a Characteristique of 
TEGN^B as Poet; nor indeed does it necessarily belong to the task he has 
chosen. But the opinion of that Bard himself as to the causes of his own 
popularity must doubly tend to • excite our attention, as characteristic both of 
his Muse and of Himself. — - I hasten therefore to insert his own observations 
on this subject: — 

* They have been translated into the German Language by Mohnike. 



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zzn 

"The Swede, like the Fmiehnuin, prefers in Poetry the light, the eleat 
BBd the transperent. The profound, indeed, he demands and Tilnee alio; hot it 
most be a depth that is peUooid* He wishes that he may see the gold-iande 
at the bottom of the wave. Whatever is dark and mnddy» so that it cannot 
gifve him any distinct image — let it be as far-fetched as it may — he cannot 
snfEer. He believes that 

Th* obscurely utter'd is th* obscurely thought,* 

and clearness is a necessary condition for whatever shall produce any effect upon 
him. In 'this he differs widely from the German, who in consequence of his 
contemplative nature not only suffers but even prefers the mystical and the 
nebulous, in which he loves to foresee something deeply thought. He has more 
"Gemiith" and gloomy seriousness than the Swede, who is more superficial and 
more frivolous. This is the source of those Mystical feelings and Hemorrhoidal 
eensations (Hemorrhoidal-kanningame) in the German Poetry, for which we 
Imve no taste. 

"As regards the Spirit itself and the views of the world in the Poet's 
own breast, — we iove best the life-enjoying, the fresh, the bold, yes — even 
the overdaring! 

"This is also trne of the Swedish National Character. However weakened, 
fimrolona, or degenerate the People may be, — a Viking-vein stiU lies at th« 
bottom of the National Temperament, and willingly will we reoogniae it also 

* From the remarkable, ^358 lines long, 'Epilog vid Magister-Promotionen i 
Lund 1820.' The whole passage is as follows: I. 156—161. 
"I Febi verld, i vetande som dikt, 
Ar allting klart, klart str&lar Febi sol, 
Klar var bans kalla, den Kastaliska. 
Hvad du ej klart kan saga, vet du ej; 
Med tanken ordet fods p& mannens lappar: 
Bet dunkelt sagda ir det dunkelt tankU." 

In Phoebus' world, in knowledge as in Song, 

All, all is clear 1 Clear shines Apollo's Son, 

Clear was his Fountain, that of Castaly: 

Thou knowst not what thou canst not clearly say; 

Man's lips give birth to thoughts and words together, 

Th' obscurely ntter'd is th' obscurely thought, (r. S. 



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XXX 

in the Bard. The race of Fornjoter * is not yet extingoished. Something 
Titanic fend fall of defiance runs throagh the People like a national feature. 

Northland's Strength defies, and never 

Death can Conquest from ns sever; 

For, e'en should we fall at last, 

Life in Battle's sport was past. 

Roars the Storm — how willing dare we 

Wrestling beard himl Willing bare we. 

Thunder mocking, hairy breast — 

There his arm can strike ns best! ** 
The proper natural image of the Northern disposition is, a cold and 
clear but fresh winter-day which steels and braces all the energies of man to 
contend against and to conquer a hard climate and unwilling soil. Wherever 
this clear breeze is found, wherever this fresh spirit blows, — the Nation 
recognizes its own inward Life, and for its sake pardons other poetic faults. — 
I know no better explanation." 

All whom tegni6r*s works have made acquainted with his noble genius 
know however another explanation, together with the above, which is undoubtedly 
both correctly and ingeniously thought, and has a great effect not only upon 
his Swedish popularity but also upon his European fame. But notwithstanding 
all that is Northern in the spirit and in the subject of his productions, his 
Poetry has all the richi^ess and luxurious Beanty of the South. Indeed as 
respects his fresh bright colouring, and the ever-springing wealth of his thoughts 
and images, — he may be compared to the verdant crown of an Orange-tree, 
whose strong and pure-beaming green is adorned with full-ripe fruit side by 
side with the newly-opened blossoml 

* The founder or representative of the aboriginal Giant (Mountaineer) occu- 
pants of old Scandinavia. G. 8. 

* * "Nordens kraft ar trots, och falla Stormar det, ban gema brottaa 

Ar en seger for oss alia; Emot stormen, gema blottaa 

Ty, om ock man foil till slut, Ludet brost, att Iskan m& 

Pick man andl kampa ut. Vela hvar hon bast kan sll." 

Gerda, Stanza L 



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ZXXI 

APPENDIX. 

Frithiof and its Literatube. 



The first compleat Edition of Frithiof s Saga, hj Bishop T£ON^r, appeared 
in Stockholm, in 1825. The 2nd Edition was published in the same year; the 
3rd in 18271 the 4th in 1828; the 5th in 1831, and the 6th will be published 
shortly. Every Edition has been 2 or 3,000 strong, so that from 12 to 15,000 
copies must have been distributed. 

I. Translations. 

A. — Compleat, 

German. 1. Ludolf Schley, Upsala 1826. — Reprinted in Vienna, 1827. 

2. Amalie von Hdwig, geborne Freyinn von Imhoff, Stuttgart, 1826; 
— 2nd Edition, 1832. 

3. GotUieb Mohnike, Stralsund, 1826; — 2nd Ed. 1830; — 3rd Ed. 
Leipzig, 1836. 

4. JE. J, Mayerhoff; Berlin, 1835. 

Banish. 5. H. Foss, Bergen, 1826. ^ 2nd Ed. Christiania, 1827. 

6. J. P, Miller, Ejobenhamn, 1836: In this Translation, 'Rings Drapa' 
is from the pen of Finn Magnusten, 

7. A» E, Boye, Ejobenhamn, 1838. 

French. 8. M:lle R. du Puget, Paris, 1838. — This Translation is in Prose. 
English. 9. Rev, Wm, Strong, London and Leipsig, 1833. 

10. Anonymous, several hands (ff.G,, W. E, F,, and R, C.) Paris and 
London, 1835. 

11. R. G. Latham, M. A. London, 1838. 

12. 6. S., Stockholm and London, 1839. 

B. — Partial. (In Periodicals, ReTiewa etc.) 

1. K, Lappe, in Prose, in Wiener Zeitschrift fiir Kunst, Litteratur nnd 
Theater. 

2. C. A. Valentiner, in Originalien aus dem Gebiete der Wahrheit, 
Kunst, Laune und Phantasie. Jahrg. 1832. No. 29. 

3. Wah. V. Souhr, in Das Morgenblatt, No. 149—151. 

4. Herman v. Pommer Ephe, in Sundine, 1834. 

5. J. J, Amph'e, 'Ingeborgs Klagan' (Lament). See Litterarische Blat- 
ter der Bdrsenhalle, 1832. 



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xxxn 

6. Blackwood's Edinburgh Magtsiiie, Feb. 1828. 

7. Foreign Qaarterlj Review; No. V. Sept. 1828. 

8. Prof, Ijongfellow, North American Review, Boston and New-York, 
No. 96. July 1837. 

IL Musical Accompaniments. 

1. Tolf Singer ur Frithiofs Saga, af B. Crusdl; Stockholm, 1826. — 
Republished in Leipsig, 1827. 

2. S&nger ur Frithiofs Saga af CruseU, arrangerade f5r Gnitarre, af 
EUdebrand; 4 Parts. 

3. Tre Singer ur Frithiofs Saga, af OrefVinnan Bedda Wrangd, Stock- 
holm, 1828. 

4. S&nger ur Frithiofs Saga, satte i Musik af P. C. Boman. Stock- 
holm, 1828. 

5. Fyra S&nger ur Frithiofs Saga, componerade af Adolf Sandberg, 
Stockholm 1829. 

6. Tre S&nger ur Frithiofs Saga, satte i Musik af 8. M. Zanders, 
Stockholm, 1830. 

7. Schwedische Lieder aus Axel nnd Frithiof, in Musik gesetzt Ton 
Caroline Ridderstolpe, Stockholm, 1829. 

8. Yikinga-Balk (XV Gesang aus Frithiofs Sage) voa Joseph Panny* 
Mainz, Paris, Antwerpen, 1822. 

9. Drey Lieder aus der Frithiofs Sage, von F. SUcher, Tiihingen, 1836. 

10. XII Songs to Frithiofs Saga (4 unchanged from CruseU) in the 
English Translation by G, 8. 

m Engravings. 

1. Baron JET. HamUtons Tjugnfyra Teckningar till Frithiofs Saga, 4 
Parts. Stockholm, 1828. 

2. Franmis och Balestrand, Frithiofs och Ingeborgs hem, m&lade af C. 
J. FaMcrantz, lithografiorade af M. J, Ankarsvdrd* Stockholm, 1828. 

3. Holmbergssona XXIV (unsuccessful) Teckningar. In the 5th Edition. 
Stockholm, 1831. 

4. II Lithographs in Strong's Translation, (from Mohnike), 

5. XVI Original topographical and Antiquarian Engravings on Stone, 
in the last English Translation (by G. 8,) 



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DESCRIPTION 



OF 



Ingehorgs Arm-Ring. 



BT 



BROB EM. HILDEBBAND. 



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DESCRIPTION 

or 



BY 



BROR EM. HILDEBRAND, 

Royal Antiquarian etc. etc. of Sweden. 



Translated from the Original Swedish. 

^ur Poet, abandoning the simple words of the ancient Saga, has described 
this precious Jewel, in his Ilird Canto, in terms perfectly agreeing with 
the spirit of antiquity. It is founded on one of the Chaunts in the Elder 
or Poetic Edda, Grimnismal, Grimner's Song j in whose description of 
the XII Castles or Dwellings of the Grods it has been not unreasonably 
supposed, that we find an allegorical representation of the knowledge 
possessed by the olden North respecting the Zodiac, and the Sun's annual 
course through its XII Constellations, called by the Scald Sun-houses, 
Those who are not acquainted with the above-mentioned Eddaic Chaunt, 
will perhaps find acceptable a short statement of its contents, so far as 
our present subject is concerned, together with a few explanatory remarks 
upon the whole. 

In Gothaland ruled a King, Gejrod by name, who made away with 
his brother, and thereby succeeded to the government after his father. — 
Now there came up to his court an unknown man who called himself 
Grimner^ and who would give no farther information respecting who he 
was, although he was questioned thereupon. The King had been warned, 
hy FuUa the messenger of Frigga, to guard against a man versed in magic 
«rls who had lately come into that land. The description gifen of him 
agreed with Grimrier's person, and Gejrod, disregarding the laws of 
hospitality, commanded the stranger to be set between two fires, that he 



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XXXIV 

might be compelled to give up his real name. Grimner accordingly was 
tortured in this manner during YIII nights, and the fire had already 
begun to take hold upon his cloak > without any one appearing to have 
pity on him. Then came A^nar forward , the son of Gejrod, and now 
ten years old. His father's cruelty he liked not, and reached the sufferer 
a Horn full of li(pior, that he might refresh himself. Grimner, who was 
eventually found to be no other than Odcn himself, thanked the young 
Prince by chaunting to him a Song which received the name of Grimm's- 
mal (Grimner *s Song) from his adopted appellation, and which is one of 
the most remarkable among all the mythical fragments to be found in 
the £dda. — After having described his torture, from the continually 
increasing heat, he praises Agnar for the compassion he had showed, and 
promises that he shall one day be sole Lord over all the district of 
Giithaland. 

He then chaunts the XII Residences of the Gods, as follows: 
I. Y-DALiR (Rain-vallics, or Hunting -vallics) where Uller had 
caused his Hall to be built. Uller, a son of Sif and the step-son of Thor, 
was the God of winter. Beautiful he was to look upon, and so skilled in 
the long-bow and in skaiting, that no one could be compared to him. 
Uller's Castle answers to the Sign of the Archer in the Zodiac, and from 
this date — about the 21st November — the old Scandinavians reckoned 
the commencement of the winter or the year. 

II. aLFHEiMR (Home or World of the Light-Fairies) was the dwelling 
of Frcy. This he had got, in the beginning of time, on cutting his first 
tooth (som tandgafva, at tannfe)* Frey, the son of Niord, was one of 
the clvicfcst among the Gods; he was called the wise^ and ruled over 
rain and sunshine; to him, therefore, offered they for good harvests. 
Alfhcimr answers to the Zodiacal sign Capricorn, from the 20th of Dec. 
to the 20th of January. The Yule-Feast, which occurs within this period, 
was properly consecrated to him. 

III. VALASKiaLF (Vale's in-air-hovering palace) was a splendid and 
lofty Castle, with a roof of shining silver, which Vale in the dawn of 
time had selected as his dwelling. He was the son of Odin (heaven) and 
Rinda (the hard-frozen earth) and was a symbol of the victory of light 
over darkness. His month, in consequence of this, was called Lidsberi 
(Lucifer, Light-bearer) and festivals were held to celebrate the increasing 
daylight. The Catholic Festum candetarum (Kyndelsmessa , Candlemas, 
Feb. 2) had thus its source in heathenism, although Christianity gave it 



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XXXV 

another meaning. Valaskjalf answers to the Sign of the Water-Beai'er, 
(about from the 20 Jan. to the 19th of February). 

IV. socKVABECKR (ihc dccp-streaming beck) over which were alway 
breaking the cold billows of the sea, was inhabited by Saga, the Goddess 
of History, whom Odin daily visited, drinking with her mead from out 
a golden bowl. The Myth seems to relate to the ascent of the Sun from 
the billows of the sea, which now begin to be loosened from their icy 
chains. Sockvabcckr, accordingly, answers to the Sign of the Fishes, 
from about the 19th of Feb. to the 21st of March. 

V. GLADSHEiMR (thc Homc of Gladucss, or light) was the fifth Castle. 
Within its circuit stood the magnificent and gold-adorned Valhall, whose 
halls were covered with lances and hung with shields, and whose benches 
were overdrawn -with coats of mail. A wolf stands bound by thc door 
towards the west, and an eagle hovers over the entrance. There silteth 
Hropter (one of Odin's many names) selecting for himself those who have 
fallen in battle. Gladsheimr answers to the Sign of the Ram — from 
about the 21st of March to April 20 — during which time commenced 
the naval expeditions. 

VI. {)RYMHEiMR (the Thundcr-liomc) was inhabited by the Giant 
Thiasscj who was killed by Thor as he flew, in the shape of an eagle, 
to Asgard that he might recover Idun. Assisted by Loke's cunning, he 
had once before earned her oJOf; but Lokc had taken her back again at the 
command of the Gods. Thiasse's daughter, Skadij came armed to Asgard, 
to revenge her father's death; she however permitted herself to be appeased, 
and became the spouse of Niord. With him she should have lived in 
Noatun, by the sea-side; but she could not bear the screaming of the 
sea-fowl, only remained there 3 nights at once, and then retired to 
^rjrmheimr her father's mountain-hold, to hunt and slide on scate-shoes. 
Here she remained for 9 nights, returned thereupon to her husband, and 
in this manner continued to change her abode, "prj-mheimr answers to 
the Sign of the Bull, — from the 20th of April to the 21st of May — 
when the transition commences from spring to summer. 

VII. BRETOABtiK (the Widc-shimmcring) was the Homc of Balder, 
where nothing unclean could enter. The Myth of Balder, thc Type of 
all that is fan* and noble, and his fall by blind Hoder's arrow and by 
Lokc's cunning, (darkness it is which overcomes the light) is too well 
known for it to be necessary to repeat it here. It is the glory of the 
Mythology of the North, and no heathen people has anj'thing mo»e 



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XXXVI 

beautiful to present us. Brcidablik answers to the Sign of the Twins, 
from May 21 to June 21, when the Sun reaches its zenith in the heavens, 
till at last, on entering the next celestial Sign, it again begins its 
downward course in the firmament. 

VIII. himinbiSrg (Heaven-hill) stood at the end of heaven, where 
Heimdal, the Warder of the Gods, lived to guard their Bridge Bifrost 
(the Rainbow), so that the Giants should not pass over it. So sharp- 

^ sighted is he, that he can see hundreds of miles round about him; his 
hearing is so fine, that he hears the grass grow on the ground, and the 
wool on the back of the sheep. When Muspel's sons, the giant-monsters, 
advance to the final contest (Ragnarok) bloweth he in his Trumpet (Gjallar- 
horn), the sound of which is heard all the world about, to give warning 
to the Gods and summon them to arm for the battle. His Castle 
answers to the Zodiacal Sign of the Grab — from the 21st of June to 
the 23rd of July — when the sun begins to return from its highest 
point in the heavens. 

IX. F^LK-vaNGR (Folk-steppe, plain of the Peoples) is inhabited by 
Frcya, the daughter of Niord and Spouse of Oder. She was the Venus 
of the Northern mythology, and receives in her halls the one half of 
the heroes who fall in battle, Odin receiving the other half. Folkvang 
answereth to the Constellation the Lion — from July 23rd to August 
23rd — the dog-days, when the greatest heat rages. 

X. GLiTNiR (Bright-gleaming) was the tenth Castle, whose silver 
roof was supported by pillars of gold. Here dwelled ForsetCj a son of 
Balder and IVanna, and the most righteous among Gods and Men, he 
from whose Doom-seat all disputants return reconciled. His Castle answers 
to the Sign of the Virgin (from the 23rd of August to the 24th of 
September) a period which ends with the Autumnal Equinox, when both 
day and night are equal, and the Sun advances into the Sign of the 
Scales. The Northern Autumn-Ting was held in this month. 

XI. n6atun (the blameless Niord*s Home) stood on the sea-shore, 
Niord was of the race of the Vaner, but was given as a hostage to the 
Asar, and afterward was adopted among them. He was the God of the 
air and the water, and on this account sacrifices were offered him for 
good fortune on the sea. From these sacrifices, this month was formerly 
called Blot^ or offer-month. Noatun answers to the Sign of the Scales 
— from the 24th of Sept. to the 22nd of October. 



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xxxvu 

XII. LANOvioi (the wide-stretched District) was a great plain ^ over* 
grown with grass and underwood. There dwelled Vidar, the son of Oden, 
and the silent God. Next to Thor he is the strongest among the Asar, 
and at the destruction of the world shall slay the Fenris-wolf, after it 
has been the bane of Oden, his Father. It answers to the Sign of the 
Scorpion in the Zodiac — from the 22nd of Oct. to the 22nd of Nov, 
and was the last month of the year, according to the computation of 
the old North. 



After Grimncr has thus sung the XII Castles of the Deities, or 
the twelve celestial Signs, he proceeds to other subjects in the Mythology 
of the North, and finishes with an anathema against King Gcjrod for 
his cruel crime. — But when the king observed that it was Odin himself, 
his own fosterfather, whom he had tormented, he springeth hastily up to 
free the God from his bands; therewith, however, he stumbles, and fallcth 
dead upon the point of his own Sword. Odin then disappeared, and 
Agnar became long king in that land. 



More detailed explanations of these XII Houses of the Gods, and of 
their astronomical signification, will be found in the Danish Translation 
of the Elder Edda, Copenhagen, 1821—1823; in the «Edda-la;re ,'* Co- 
penhagen 1824 — 1826; and in the Mythological Lexicon to the Eddas, 
appended to the 3rd volume of "Edda Ssemundar bins Froda," Copen- 
hagen, 1828: all these three works are by the learned Professor Finn 
Magnussen. Compare also MonCj "G^schichte des Heidenthums in nordl. 
Europa," Vol. I, pp. 387 etc. Leipzig und Darmstadt, 1822. Ling, 
"Eddornas Sinnebilds-Lara ," Stockholm, 1819; Geijer, "Svea Rikes Haf- 
der," Upsala, 1825, pp. 347 etc.; and Studach, "Saemunds Edda des 
Weisen," 1st. Abth. Nurnberg, 1829, pp. 75 etc. 



Besides the above Edda-chaunt, many other proofs might be advanced 
of the knowledge respecting the path of the Sun through the Zodiac, 
possessed by the ancient Scandinavians. We may instance the XII names 
of Odin, which seem to refer to the same astronomical fact; and the 
express testimony of Jordanes to the learning of the Gothic priests. He 



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XXXVIIi 

at the same time separately distinguishes thcix* Jinow ledge of the XII 
Zodiacal Signs, and of the course of the planets through them etc. 

To this day we meet, among the common people in Sweden, in- 
stances of a familiar acquaintance with many astronomical Constellations. 
This seems to have been perpetuated from the earliest times; and according 
to Jordancs the Goths knew and named 346 stars. With this knowledge 
the Swedish Peasant even now helps himself forward in many districts, 
so as to reckon the course of the Hours, to determine his farming oper- 
ations, and to find his way over the sea. From the very oldest times, 
the Northman had his own Perpetual-Calendar, carved with Runes and 
other marks, commonly upon a flat board or upon a stick or staiF. It 
was therefore usually called Rune-StafF or Prim-Staff, from the word 
Prim J which means the same as what in Catholic Calendars is called 
the Golden Letter. We sometimes find employed for this purpose thin 
slips or leaves of wood or bone, and more lately parchment-leaves which 
folded up like a book. Not seldom these marks were inscribed upon 
weapons, tools, furniture and ornaments, — for instance on the lance- 
staff, axc-shaft and slight boxes etc. 

Such Rune-Calendars or Rune-staves arc preserved in great numbers 
in the Public Collections of the three Northern kingdoms, and are often 
enough found in the possession of private individuals, even among the 
common people, — and their general use only slowly began to give way 
at the commencement of the 17th century, in consequence of the supplies 
furnished of the Annual Almanachs. 

Although we do not know of the existence of any Rune-Staff which 
can certainly be assorted to have belonged to the days of heathenism, 
we may yet from the use of Runes in reckoning time, and from several 
of the tokens occurring among the oldest of them, as well as from other 
reasons, — conclude that the use of the Rune-calendar was known in 
the North before Christianity and its computus ecclesiasticus were in- 
troduced among us. — As this is a circumstance altogether peculiar to the 
Northern nations, the Translator imagined he should confer much pleasure 
on such readers of this Saga as are not Scandinavians, by communicating 
' the Drawing of a Rune-Calendar designed by the late Royal Antiquarian, 
Professor J. G. Liljegren, — such as we might imagine it was engraved 
on ingeborg's arm-ring. — In order to make its use more clearly under- 
stood, and in consequence, as we have before remarked, of there being 
no heathen rune-staff remaining to be employed for the purpose. Professor 



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XXXIX 



Liljcgren belieycd he might venture an anachronism — by adorning thi« 
ancient ornament with a rune-calendar of more modern form, and some 
of whose signs refer to the saints and feasts of the Christian faith. 



The construction of the Rune-Calendar was simple, but perfectly 
suited for the purpose. It was divided according to the XII months of 
the year. In order to mark out the days of the week, were employed 
the 7 first runes in the Alphabet: — \f^ (answering to our F and called 
J^rej), VJ (U— £/r), |> (the English TK — Thorn), + or * (O — O*), 
R (K — Reder)j V (JL^Kon)^ and ;f^ (K — Hagel) — one for every day 
in the week. These runes are repeated in the same order, for all the .365 
days in the year, in the same manner as A, B, C, D, E, F, G, are 
employed for the samQ purpose in the Christian Calendars of the middle 
ages and even of later times. Consequently when one knew on what 
day the year be^an, it necessarily followed that the rune (y marked out 
the same day of the week all the year through. That rune which dis- 
tinguished the Sunday was called Sondags-runa {Sunday-rune) or Sondags- 
bokstaf {Sunday-letter) — the litera dominicalis of the Roman Eccle- 
siastical Calendar. — Every fourth year, or in what are called Leap- 
Years , on the 24th of February there was inserted a day which was not 
marked on the Rune-Staff, (skottdag — dies hissextilisj intercalary day)^ 
from which it followed that in Leap- Years there were two Sunday-runes , 
the first of which was counted up to the 24th of February, after which 
the rune immediately preceding became the Sunday-rune till the end of 
the year. As these changes of the days of the week are renewed every 
28 years, such a period of 28 years was called a Sun-circle or Solar- 
cycle; and, by a particular method of calculation, one could at any time 
find the Sunday-rune for any particular year. — See "Liljegrens Rune- 
lara," Stockholm, ia32, p. 196. 

Under the above-mentioned line of runes for the days of the week, 
the Runc-staif has another rune-row, consisting of 19 runes or signs: — 

r, n, K +, R, p, *, I (i-«), i (A-^r), h (s-^o/), "i (T 

— Txr), B {^—Birkal), h (L — Lager), Y (M.r-Mader), /K (O when 
a vowel, R when a consonant — Or or Stupmader)^ 'f (AL — Almaga)^ 
m (Tvemaga or Tvimader), 9 (Belgthor), — called Prim oy Primstnves, 
answering to the 19 cyphers or so-called Golden numbers of the Church- 
calendar, pointing out the periodical changes or revolutions of the Moon, 



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XL 

which after the lapse of 19 years fall upon the same days again. The 
method of finding the Prim or Golden Number, consisted in a simple 
calculation, which may be seen in the work of Liljegren quoted above, 
page 198. 

For the several annual Feasts occurring on certain definite days 
every year, there were placed over the line of runes for the days of the 
week, certain signs reminding of the feasts themselves. For instance, at 
Yule (Christmas) there ^as a child in swaddling-clothes; on New- Year's 
day, a Knife (Circumcision); on Twelfth-Day a Star; on the Days of 
the Virgin Mary, a Crown etc. What are called the Moveable Feasts, 
such as the Chief days in Lent, Pentecost etc. were governed by Easter- 
day which took place differently for different years — just as the Advent- 
Sundays depended upon Christmas day — for which reason these feasts 
could not be marked on the rune-staff. 

But besides all these, we have other Signs also occurring on the 
Rune-staff which relate to the changes of the Seasons or of vegetation 
and other similar natural circumstances, or to the labours and occupa- 
tions belonging to the different periods of the year etc. — Professor 
Liljegren has placed a number of these tokens on his drawing of Ingeborg*s 
Armring; although, in order to give the whole a more symmetrical ap- 
pearance, they could not be stationed exactly over the particular days 
to which they belonged. 

We now proceed to the explanation of this Design. 



Along the upper part are the present usual names of the months, 
and beneath these the XII Signs of the Zodiac, such as they are com- 
monly represented, placed within an arabesque composed by the Designer 
of twisting ornaments and fantastical figures in the antique northern 
style. The four small vignettes on the upper space give us images of the 
scenery of the north, during the different seasons of the year. In Fe- 
bruary we see a cottage and some fir-trees covered with snow, while the 
sun can scarcely lift itself above the ice-bridged sea. In May the in- 
spiring Spring-sun is shining over a bay, which is shaded by leafy trees; 
along the coast a boat is sailing forward. In August we see the corn-harvest, 
the hot dog-days now fierce raging. In November we have again a more 
than half-stripped landscape, the rays of the sun being hardly able to 
penetrate the down-streaming showers of rain. 



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XLI 

Lowest along the dra:wiug are given the ancient names of the 
Months: — f^RRI (J)uri, ThojTc, Thor*s month); mi (Gui,Groje-month); 
^M|)| (Blidhi, miid month); ntRiit" (Varant, also called Astar-month 
after a Goddess of this name); ^^R^MkII (Hraisi, Journey -month); 
B^nYli'^RI (BlumstW, nower-month); HHYRI (Sumri, Summer- 
month); iit'll^R (Antidhr, Harvest-time); ♦♦Hli'M (Hausti, Autumn- 
month); BhntI (Bluti, OlFering or Home-killing month); HlitRI 
(Vinlri, Winter-month); ^^IRM (Hiuli, Yule-month); which has some- 
times been called KhPlKI (Glugi, Window-hole-month), either because 
the window (glugg) of the sun seemed as it were closed « or because of 
the intercalation here of those days which exceed the 360 or XII months , 
reckoning 30 days to every month. 

Above the ancient names of the months , the waxing and waning of 
the Moon ^ during ils circle of 28 days and nights — is exhibited hy light 
and shade. At the same time a figure is inserted referring to the name 
of every month , or to those expeditions which belonged to the same , etc. 
— 1. An ancient Doom-Seat, consisting of a flat stone resting upon three 
stump-like blocks, as a mark of the Winter-Ting; together with two 
Drinking-horns, which refer to the still continuing Yule-feast. 2. A holy 
Ring, referring to the Disar-Sacrifice. 3. An Egg; hens lay at this time. 
4. A Serpent, awakened from its winter-trance. 5. A Doom-Seat for the 
Summer-Ting; also a Stork, which bird removes about this time to 
Southern Sweden. 6. A Milk-pail, in consequence of this being the 
time when the cattle are led to pastui^e in distant grass-lands and meadows 
in the woods. 7. A Flower, under the high-beaming midsummer-sun ^ 
(the summer-solstice). 8. A ray-darting Sun, marking the beat during 
the dog-days. 9. A Doom-seat for the Autumn-Ting; and a Bee-hive, 
betokening the time for collecting the honey of the bee, which was so 
necessary in the preparation of mead — the favourite drink of the North- 
man. 10. An Ox and a slaughtering-Axe; the time for killing meat. 
11. A G^ose, referring to St. Martin's feast. 12. A Wheel, the sun's 
tropic, winter-solstice; together with a dormer-light or window, referring 
to what has before been said regarding the Yule-month. 

Above this line is the row of runes for the days of the week, 

answering to the cyphers under the lower edge of the arabesques. Between 

these two lines we find a part of the signs occurring on the Rune-StaiT, 

and the object of which has been described above. Their signification is 

as follows: — 

5 



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XLII 

I. 1. Two Drinking-horns J crossed; (Jan. 1). The New- Year's 
feast and the continuing Yule-Festivities, when the Drinking-horns, filled 
with ale and mead, went incessantly around the board. 

2. A rising Sun; (same date). The commencing year, with 
the increasing day-light. 

II. 3. A Star; (Jan. 6). Twelfth-Day, or the feast of the 3 Kings ^ 
when the Star stopped over the manger of the Saviour in Bethlehem. 

4. A Drinking Horn, (same d.); the still continuing Yulc- 
festivltics. 

III. 5. A Down-turned Horn; (Jan. 13). The 19th Yule-day, 
Canute's day, when the Yule-Festivities were regarded as ended ^ accord- 
ing to the old Proverh; 

"Tjugonde dags Knut Knut's nineteenth day 

Kor Julen ut." Drives Yule away. 

IV. G. A JVhip; (same date). Refers to the driving out of Yule. 
7. A Flail; (Jan. 14). The time for the farmer again to com- 
mence his labours. 

a A Doom-Stone^ (Jan. 19); the Winter-Ting. 

V. 9. A Fishing-Net J (Jan. 25); the time for winter-fishing with 
a net under the ice, — what is called the ice-net» 

VI. 10. A Torch ^ (Feb. 2); C9iidi\e-m2iS-A^yy{festumcandelarum)' 
It also refers to a more ancient heathen Feast, to celebrate the increasing 
day-light, as has been remarked before. 

11. A Blowing-horn J (Bldshornj) (Feb. 3); St. Blasius* day, 
probably referring to the name Blasius j which the ignorant might have 
supposed connected with the word blowing, bldsa. It is also regarded as 
connected with the blasts and storms which occur about this time, for 
which reason Blasmassodagen (the mass of St. Blasius), was regarded by 
tlie ancients as unfortunate. 

VII. 12. A Pair of Pincers, (Feb. 6); St. Dorothea's day, this 
saint having been pinched with red-hot tongs. It sometimes belongs to 
the 9th of February, St. ApoUonia's day, in consequence of the teeth of 
this Saint having been pulled out with similar pincers. 

13. A Shoe-sole, (Feb. 10); St. Scolastica's day. The figure 
seems to refer to the name of the Saint , which in the language of the 
Northman was easily corrupted to Shoe-sole {skosula). 

VIII. 14. A Carpenter's axe, (Feb. 15); pointing out the time 
most suitable for felling trees for building-timber. 



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XLIll 

IX. 15. A Stone ^ (Feb. 24); Malhiaa* day, the time for the com- 
mencement of the breaking-up of the ice, — according to an old saw, 
^'MatU kastar keta sten i sjon" Mathia* caats hot stones into the lake. 
This refers to the very natural circumstance that the ice first begins to 
melt around stones which stick up out of the water. 

X. 16. J beaming Sun, (March 1); reminding us of the beautiful 
sun-shiny days which usually set in about March. Instead of the Sun, 
we often sec on some runc-stayes the head of an old man with a long 
beard: this refers to the same fact, according to an old Proverb: — 

'*Mars med sitt Unga skagg March , whose beard so long doth fall , 

Lockar barnen utom vagg.** Tempts the bairns to leave the wall. 

XI. 17, 18. An Arm and a Leg (the latter improperly engraved — 

March 7); St. Perpetua*8 day. She was thrown to wild beasts and torn 

by them in pieces. 

XII. 19. A Tree without leaves j (March 12); the time when the 
*tender buds of trees begin to swell. 

XIII. 20. A Plough J (March 21); reminding us that all farming- 
implements should now be put in order. 

XIV. 21. A Bishop's Cope, (April 1); the day of the Bishop, 
St. Hugo. 

XV. 22. A Boat under sail, (same date); the water is now open 
for sea-voyages. 

XVI. 23. A Tree in leaf, (AprU 14); the shooting of the leaf. 
Tiburtius' day; it is also called Sumar or Sommarnatt (Summer-night); 
because it was from this day that the beginning of summer was formerly 
reckoned. 

XVII. 24. A Shield, (April 20); St. Victor's day. 

25. A Spear, (April 23); St. Goran's (George's) day, referring 
to the spear with which he slew the Dragon. 

26. A Flag, (same date, and sometimes the 2nd of May); the 
commencement of the Viking-expeditions; also, the processions of later 
Catholic times. 

XVIII. 27. A Bird in a tree, (April 25); the arrival of the Cuckoo. 

XIX. 28. A Bird lying on an egg, (1st of May); Laying or 
hatching-time, when all birding was forbidden. 

XX. 29. A Swallow flying upwards , (May 3); the time when this 
bird airives. The Swallow enjoys a kind of sanctity, from its love for 
th« abodes of man; and respecting this bird the Swedish Peasantry still 



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XLIV 

believe that it never removes, but lies in a wiuter-ti^ance at the bottom 
of the water , till the warmth of spring tempts her up again. 

XXI. 30. A Bream ^ (May 31); the breeding-time of this sort 
of Osh. 

XXII. 31. An Ear of corn, (May 18, according to others May 
25); the time when the winter-rye begins to shoot into eai\ The latter 
day is often represented by some flowers. 

.^2. A Pitch-fork^ (May 25, according to others June 12); the 
season for manuring the ground, when this implement was employed. 

XXIII. 33. A Gimlet or Borer, (June 3); the period proper for all 
sorts of repairs and joiners' work, before the hay-making begins. 

34. AMilk'pailj (properly the 31st of May); milking for what 
was called May-butter; — the time when the cattle were diivcn for 
pasturage and milking to the woods. 

XXIV. 35. A young Bird, (June 5); the time when the young 
of forest-birds begin to fly. 

36. A Fishing-rod, (June 8); Fishing-days. 

XXV. 37. A Turnip, (June 17); St. Bololf*s day (the old Turnip- 
man) when turnips began to be sown. 

XXVI. 38. The Midsummer-pole, or as it is usually called the 
May-pole, (June 24); the day before, or Midsummer-Eve, the young 
people assemble to raise a high pole, adorned with leaves flowers and 
ribbands etc., around which they afterwards dance the whole night 
through in the open air. 

XXVII. 39. A Bunch of Flowers , (June 29); the time for collecting 
flowers and plants, for medical or magical purposes. 

XXVIII. 40. A Bundle of leaves , {inly 2)\ the leaf-plucking time, 
when leaf-branches are collected and tied in sheaves, to be dried and 
kept as winlcr-f other for the sheep. 

XXIX. 41. -^^jScj-^Ae^ (July 8); the commencement of the hay-harvest. 

XXX. 42, 43. A Hay-rake and the outline of a Barn, (July 15); 
Hay-Making. In distant meadows small Barns are erected, where the 
dried hay is deposited and kept till the winter, when it is much easier 
to transport it home over the frozen lakes and rivers. 

XXXI. 44. A Net, (day uncei*lain); Fishing-time. 

XXXII. 45. An Acorn, (July 25); the time when the oak begins 
to set its fruit. 

46. A Corn'Crook, (July 29); St. 01of*s day. As the past year's 



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XLT 

slock, of grain and other articles of provision begins to run short about 
this time, many a one now complains of Olsmassekroken , the Crook, of 
Olof 's Mass. 

XXXIII. 47. A Flail J (Aug. 10); the grain of the new crops is 
now thrashed. 

XXXIV. 48. A Harrow J (Aug. 15); the season for preparing th« 
ground to receive the autumn-seed. 

XXXV. 49. A Hop^plantj climbing round a pole, (Aug. 24); the 
hop-season, for ale-brewing. 

50. A Sword J (Aug. 29); the day when St. John the Baptist 
was beheaded; it is also represented by a separated head lying on a charger. 

XXXVI. 51, 52. The Sun and a Crutch j (same d.); the decline 
of the sun or the day-light. 

XXXVII. 53. A Fruit-basket J (Sept. 8) ; fruit is ripe now in the gardens. 

XXXVIII. 54. A Swallow flying downward^ (Sept. 14); the time 
for Swallows to commence their departure; or, according to the popular 
idea, for them to sink to the bottom of the sea, to pass their winter-trance. 

XXXIX. 55. A Boot J (Sep. 22); the rainy-season, when more 
protecting covering is necessary for the feet. 

XL. 56. A Level J (29 Sept.); the autumn Equinox. "We commonly 
find a pair of scales, to denote the market-lime in certain districts. 

XLI. 57. A Fishj (Oct. 4); the sea aulumn-fishing. 

XLII. 58. A ff^ool-Card, (Oct. 7); time for beginning to spin wool. 

XLIII. 59. A leafless Tree, (Oct. 14); the fall of the leaf; Ca- 
lixtus* day. Is also called Winter-night, the ancients reckoning the 
beginning of winter from this day. 

XLIV. 60. A Bow and Arrow, (Oct. 21); the day of the eleven 
thousand Virgins, who, according to the Legend, were shot to death 
with arrows. This day is also marked by a rollcd-up banner, to denote 
the end of the military expeditions for the year. 

XLV. 61. A Boat turned upside down, (Nov. 1); the close of 
the Viking-expeditions for the year, and other voyages. 

XL VI. Q2, Fowls flj-ing, (Nov. 3); the departure of birds of 
passage (especially the Swan) from the north. 

XLVII. 63. A Goose, (Nov. 11); Martin's day. To the proper 
celebration of the feast the preceding evening, (for anniversary feasts 
commonly belong to the vigils or eve before each high day), belongs in 
almost all the Swedish provinces — a roasted goobc. 



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XL VI 

XLVIIL 64. A Horse-shoe, (Nov. 19); a warning to »hoc the 
horaes carefully , that they may not slip on the ice or on the smooth 
roads. 

65. Two Snow-shoes, (Noy. 23); the time for seating on snow- 
shoes, and for hunting game hy tracking them over the snow. (The day 
is also marked by a Bow). 

XLIX. 66. A large Shoe, (day uncertain); it is now needful to 
provide the feet with better covering against the winter-cold; it may also 
refer to the Myth respecting Vidar, who is said to have worn an enorm- 
ous shoe. 

L. 67. A Sledge, (Dec. 4); Sledging. 

LI. 68. A Drinking-cctn, (Dec 9); time for brewing the Yule- ale. 

LII. 69. A Wheel, the Winter solstice. 

7a Two Fir-Trees, (Dec. 20); The old Yule. It was formerly 
customary, and is still so in many districts, to place two Fir or Pine 
trees on Yule -Eve at the entrance of the house. It is still a part of the 
Children's Yule-sports, that a small pine tree, full of candles fruit and 
ornaments, shall be set on their table. 



The Rune-Staff has gradually undergone many changes, in consequence 
of attempts having been made partly to arrange it after the New Style, 
and partly to make it more accordant with more modern reckonings. Its 
use was commonly known up to the commencement of the 16lh Century, 
but was supplanted by degrees, as has been already observed, by the annual 
and therefore more convenient Almanacks. Notwithstanding this , familiarity 
with its signs was long regarded as so important that King Karl XI, by 
a Royal Letter dated July 5. 1684, issued at the request of the College of 
Antiquities, ordered — that all such persons as exhibited the greatest 
skill in carving Rune-stares and inslructing the common people in their 
use, thus persuading them again lo adopt them in general^ should enjoy 
freedom from all payments or taxes to his Majesty and the Crown. — 
They are now preserved as mere antiquarian curiosities and, with the 
exception perhaps of some distant province where the peasantry may still 
be capable of understanding them , — their explanation has fallen within 
the limits of Antiquarian Research. 



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^U Saga of 



Translated from the 



By «. S. 



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Translated from the Icelandic text in "Bj^mcrs KSmpa 
Dater/* as compared with a MS. in the Royal Library of 
Stockholm, and the Danish translation by Rafn, Copenhagen. 



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le Baqa of 
J^viifiiof tHe ©oIH. 






5^6 



c|)U6rcn an6 tf^elr &eat|>» 



^^li (ZdQa teging 06 foriowg. — ^ing »ctc goDcrncb 
Syflna«fytfC| in tTortpayj f^c f^ab tf)rec d&ilbrcnj -Jctgc 
wa« f)i« fir(? fon, rfalfban l&isi fcconb/ anb ^18 t^irb d^itb 
wa8 2(n(jc6or0/ a baugl^fcn 2(n0cbor0 waS fair to loof 
upon, anb of great unbcrjianbing, anb wa^ retfoncb ftrp anb 
bcjl among t^e ropal offfpring* 2()crc, weff of t^e frit^, PrctcJ* 
eb t^e firanb, anb thereupon jloob a conjtberabic t)iHagc caDfeb 
»al&cr*« SdQe, w^cre wa8 a ©anctuarp anb a great SEcmpfc, 
Jebgcb rounb about xoit^ a foftp planf^worf* ^erc were manp 
®ob», hut Odalbev wa* t^t mofi Oonourcb among t^em alTj 
anb fo jcalouS were t^ofe ^cat^tn men, ti)at t^ep l&ab forbibben 
anp l^arm being bone t^erc to eitfjer man or beaflf, nor coulb a 
male t>at>e anp cont)erfe n>t(b a rroman. STt SyrfJranb waS 
tl)e bireHing of t^e ^'ing, but on t^e ot^er ftbe t^e firt{> n>a6 a 
Diaage catteb ScamnA^, wl^ere litjeb tM nian ^ig^t (Cf? or ft en 
t^e fon of Dlf infl, anb })li DiHage lap oppojite t()e rejtbence of 
t^e ^tng* H |> or ft cn'« fpoufe bore {)im a fon caCeb Sritf^iof, 



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xv^o toa6 t^e taffcjl anb flrongcjl of men, anb, from ^i6 t)crp 
pouf^/ n?a6 j)crfeb in aff manner of e;rj>Ioi«j ^erebp got l^e t^e 
name Srit|^iof tf^e 23ol&, anb wa6 fo I)apw in l[)ii5 frienba 
tHt alt mm migfjeb {)im weir» 

SE^e ^ing'6 djilbren were fliff poung,n?^en t{)eir mother bieb. 
3n Sogn Iloeb an ^onouraMe gjeoman, caffeb Silblnsi l&e 
aflfeb to fofler up tl^e baugl&ter of t()e ^ing, anb ff)e wa6 browgt)t 
«p bp {)im mil anb carefuITp, anb wag f^ig^t ^neehovQ t^e 
Saiv. S V i t f> i f alfo \va6 recei\)eb a^ fofifcr^irb 6p (^ 1 1 6 1 n g 
tl^e gJeoman, anb 3ngeborg wa6 therefore l^ia fofler^fifer/ 
anb t^ep two furpafeb all ot^cx d^ilbren. 9^ow Sing 23ele'« 
ric^eg began to me(t awap from I&i6 I&anb6, for l&e wajreb olb. 
Z^ovilen ^ab H)c gimrbian^^ip of t^e t^irb part off^iareafm, 
anb t{)ig xvaB a great jlrengt^ to t^e Sing, on tl^at fi'be w|)ere 
Z^ovHen (ioeb* (C^orflen rcceioeb t^e Sing a6 l&iS guep, 
anb featleb t)m rigf;t coflfp et)erp tl&irb pearj buttle Sing receioeb 
anb feajleb I^orflen t^c otI;er pearS. delge, 23ele'g fon, 
foon became a great facriftcer to ^i5 @obgj ^e anb ^i6 brotl&er 
were but little frienbsfortunate, Hf^oviien ^ab a f^ip nameb 
«lli6a/ w^id^ xoa^ roweb bp XV men on ead^ fibej ^igl^s 
bulwarfeb anb benbeb were it§ jlem anb flern, jlronglp waB it 
buirt rife an oceamf^ip «0r anb itg jtbe6 were )lrengt{)eneb witO 
trom ©ud^ \va6 Sritf^iof*^ jlrengtf; tOatl&e roweb t^e two oar§ 
at «Ui6a'^ jlem: eac^ oar voa^ XIII m tong, anb otf^erwife 
requireb two men to puff it. Srif ^lof feemeb to ercel air t^e 
ot^er poung men of ^i6 time, anb t^e Sing'8 fong enoieb I)im 
tHt l&e got more renown t^an t^ep. Sing aselc now feff jtdP, 
anb, a6 bia fifrengtb faileb l;im more anb more, be fummoneb 
bia fong to bim anb faib: <2;bi^ ftcfnef will be to mp beatb; 3 
prap poll therefore eoer to bcit)e tbe fame frienbg a6 3 l)a\>e bab, 

*} ©ecFcb H^tU 



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for pc fecm to me to require tfe ^elp of bot^ father anb fort , 
Iborflen anb Srltf^lof/ in roorb anb in beeb» 2( Sarron) 
f^air pe raife oux me/ 23ele t^m tvv*ttt\>. ilftex t^i6 Cf^ors 
fien alfo fettftcf, anb fpofe tf)ii^ to Svit^iof ^i^ fon: 'Xt)i^, 
mp fon, 3 beg of t^ee, t^at t^ou benbeft t^p biapofttion to t})at 
of tl;e fong of t^e ^ing, for tf)t^ belong^ to t^eir r;onoiir anb 
bignitp3 iiiUf 3 fnow in mp minb ti&at t^ou affo toilt be ab^ 
oanceb, 2f SBarrow f^aft t^oit biiilb me, oppoftte t^e cairn of 
Sing :^elei on t^is ftbe ti)e frit^ bown bp t^e fea, for tijere 
can we befi l^olb counfel xoitl) ea^ otl^er on tibinga from afar/ 
S V i t ^ i P« fofiersbret^ren were ^ig^t 23)ornanb2I6mun&; 
great men were t^ep anb ftrong* 2r little after, (Cf^orflen alfo 
bieb, anb .]^i6 aSarrow wa^ raifeb ooer l&im a6 ^e r;ab faib, but 
Sritf^iof toof I^i6 lanb anb preciou6 goobS after ^im. 



d^a^. 11. 

^tii^ivf fue^to ^nf^ehotCi, t^e ftfler of tf>e »rot|^er«» 

JCow Svlff)iof became t^e mojl renowneb of men, anb in 
aff manip c;rercife6 anb warlife exploits l&e bore ^im weff. 
25jorn, 1&ia fofiersbrotl&er, regarbeb r;e tl&e mojlj 2(^mun& 
fert^eb t^em bot^» Z^e W\p ^lliba, ti)c mojl precious t{)ing, 
1)e ^eireb after {)i6 father, anb another mlmiU, an Sfrmring, 
w^ofe life roa^ not founb in tlovroay^ ®o generous a d^ief 
toa^ Srlt^iof, tl&at mofi men faib b^ tva^ no wap inferior 
in l^onour to tbe two brothers tl^emfettjea, e;rcept in fingfp birtb^ 
gor tbiS caufe the Sing'g fonS bcib feub anb enmitp witb 
Sritf>iof, bigbfp refcnting t^at be fboulb be calTeb a greater 
man tban tbep, beftbeS wbic5 tbep fuSpecteb ti)at ^ngehoto 
anb S r i f f> i f bab an affection for ead^ otber. 5Wow it came 
to paf tW tbe Stint's ®on6 bab to feef tbe bo^pitatitp of Sri« 



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6 

tpioff t^elr trihitarp, at SvatnnM, anb/ accorbing to i}i^ 
ciijlottt/ l&c fcaficb t^em aff more tttagniPccnttp t|>an (Jcp 
tab been accwftomeb to. Sfngcbotfl wa« alfo t^erc^ onb 
talfeb n)tt& Stitf^iof long^ 'JE^at ®olb:^8ling of pourt/ faib 
t^e «ing'« baug^ter to j^im, *i8 l&eautiful/ 'gtou fap true/ 
replieb Svltf^iof. 3(fter t^li, t^e fdvot^tri journleb l^ome, 
anb t()eir enop againfi Srif f^iof wa;reb greater attb greater, 
©^ortrp after , great t>eapinep of l&eart fetjeb Stitf^iofj »j4rn/ 
j)ia fo|1er5brot()er, quetlioneb bJm t^e caufe fiereof/ anb $e anfwereb 
|)im, '3 am minbeb to aff for Sngcborfli for t^ougl^ in 
bignitp 3 am not equal to l^er brother*, pet ii mp power, 
met^infg/ not lep/ '£et u8 bo fo/ faib X^iotn, anb t^cn 
went Srit|)lof, wit^ bioer6 of fiiS foBowcrS, to meet tfic 
J8rotf>era» Zf}t «ing8 fat on t^eir fatter'6 Harrow, Stitf^iof 
fpoFe rigf)t weff, at raff aboancing t>i8 requejl, to obtain t^e l&anb 
of ^neehovg t^eir jtjier. Z^t «ing6 anfwereb l^im, *3t i« 
not, inbeeb, wifelp fought of tr;ee, tl&at we ff^oiilb gioe ^er to a 
man not fprung of finglp Woobj we now fnffp bi6mi^ t()p fuit.* 
*a;tcn,' faib Sritf^iof, 'ig mp erranb foon ftnif()ebj Int 
remember, on t^e ot^er f>anb, tJ)at 3 wiff neocr gioe pou ^elp, 
t^oug^ pou map werf require it/ Sl^ep repticb, 't^ep f^oulb neoer 
care for t^.' SritI;iof t^cn wenbcb l&ome again, anb ti6 
glabnef of minb returneb unto j^im* 



dfjap. in. 

ain^ dttttg'd war^&efxancc againft t^t foni of JBele, 

^ing xoaB a ^ing f^igi^t wbo ruleb ooer Xin^farifc, a part 
of aortpay. ^e wa6 a rid& anb migl&tp ^ing, anb of goob 
prefence , t^oug^f now ab^anceb in pearS, Z^ui fpof e ^e to ^t$ 



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man; *3 ^i»c founb t^M t^t ®ona of 35clc t^ ^ng ^a^ 
Iroten t^elr frtcnbf^tp xolti} Stritf^iof, a d^lcf tcnowneb abot^e 
all ot^ert, Slow ^ «>iH fe«b mcfengerS to t^cfc ^ingS/W^of^aB 
offer t^cm fttd^ conbitiona/i tf^at t^cp f^aBf fubmitto mpautf^oritp 
mi p(i9^ me tribute, or tf)<tt 3 wlff come mitf) a great armp 
agatnfl tl^» Slot wlH tfi* be bifficutt to bo / for neither r;aioe 
t^ep force* armeb againfl me, nor ^aoe t^p ftltt anb »i«bom , 
anb it mtilb be a great glorp to me in mp olb age tl^ua to 
fttbbue t^ta to mp ^anb/ Jpereujwn went me^nger* to ti&e 
brotJ&er^nngg anb t^tia fpoFe: «^ing Jlin^ fenb* «nto poii tl&i* 
mefage, t^at pe ff^aa fenb tribute unto Utn, or t^at ^e miH 
ravage anb fop wajie pour fingbom^' SEJep anfwereb, *tl^pn)0ulb 
not/ in t^ir poung bap8/ team t^at xoU^ t^ep w>oulb neijer 
fnow vi>im olb, t^at t^cp fl^oulb f|yamcfuttp bo l^im fert>ice: we 
miff now a^emble aU t|>e* warrior* we can*' Z^ii voa6 bone* 
SBut w^en t^ep faw ti^at t^eir pg^ting^mcn were hut few, tffep 
fent ^ilbin^, ^iS ji)jlerfat^er, to Svitf^iof, )oraping |^im 
to come to t|e ^tlp of tfye pxittcei. Svitf^iof wa* fitting at 
6&ef vsifyen «5ll&lnff/t coming in, O^n^ fpofe: 'Cur JJing« 
fenb anb falute tl&ee, aiA j^rop t^at t^ou woulbefi go up to tl&eir 
^crp to iattU againfl ^ing King, w&o wiff t>iorentrp anb 
unjufKp attadP t^elt lanb.' Srit^iof anfwereb I;im not one 
worb, hut faib to Sjorn, wit^ wjom f>e wa8 plaping — 
*SE^ere i« now a fquare, fofierbrot^er, between tl&e piece*, anb 
t^at pou cannot change j. but 3 wiff dpoofe tl^e reb, anb fee if 
it can e*capc/ j^ll&in^ t^cn fpofe again, «3n t^i* manner 
^i^S 6^1 S^ prapeb me to abbre^ t^ee, Svitf^iof, iW 
tfiou f{)ouIbcfl go in tl&i* e;rpebition, or ti&at a terriWe fatef^oulb 
befal t^ee w^cn t^e 33rotl&er8 returneb tl&erefrom/ »jorn now 
crieb out, *S£5ere i« a bouMe game Jere, foller*brot^r , anb 
t^ere are tiro wap* of plaping xt: Sr it |>iof faib, '^n t\^at 
cafe 3 woulb aboife t^ee to bring out tje JSing to hattU 5 t^ere 



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8 

map t^ctt tviCingrp 6c a bonhU pfap for tne/ SRo ofi^er finb l)f 
fenfcncc got i^ilblnff to ^16 erranb, but beparteb baflifp badf 
again to meet tbe ^ingg, anb tofb t^em Sritf^iof^ anfttjen 
S;^cp qiiefliioneb •^il&ing w^at meaning b^ migbt braw from 
Srlt^iof^ worbe?? ^ilbing faib, *2B^en be fpofc of t&c 
fquare between t^e pieced, r;c mull l&aoe been an;riou6 for befap 
in t^i^ erpebition witb pou; hut wl^cn l^e woulb put ^iS Hnt> 
to t^e fair 6bef*piece, be mujl (^aoe t^oug^t of:3n^cbor(y 
pour jtffer, guarb anb watd^ ber tl&erefore weK anb roifefp; t^en 
vo^tn 2 t^reateneb l^im witb pour fierce ret)enge, »jorn rc» 
garbeb it a$ a bonhU p(ap, hnt Sritf^lof faib t^at t^e Mn^ 
fboulb ftrfi be brougl&t to action / anb ti&at fpoFe l^e of ^ing 
Xing.' Z^en preparcb t^ep for hattUr hut ftrjl caufeb 3n* 
gcborff togetber witb Vlii of ber bamfeW to be removeb to 
05albev'i^6(ts^f W^^& tbat Sri tf>i of woulb not be raf^ 
enougb to go anb meet l^er tfierc, for ti^at no one bareb profane 
tW ©anctuarp* SE^e two 23rotl&er^ tl)cn mard^eb fout^warba to 
3a6ar/ anb founb ^ing Xin^ in eofttcsfounb. SB^at 
moft enrageb t^at ?5rince maeJ, t^at t^t SSrotbcr^ bctbfaib *t^cp 
were af^ameb of ftgbting wit^ a man fo olb, ti)at i)t coulb not 
get on l)orfebadf witbout fome ^elp/ 



€J}ap. IV. 

S^tttl^iof 0oe« to malbet'i^^a^e. 

®o foon a« tf)e ^ing6 were gone, too? Sritf^iof upon ^im 
]&i6 mofi preciou6 breg, anb placeb I;i« ®ofb?9iing t^e ®oob upon 
bi6 l^anb^ Sl^en tf)t fojlerbrot^erg went bown to t^e feaftbe, anb 
brew fortb «ni&a» 25j5rn faib, «w|)itl^er fl^aff we now bolb 



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ti6, foflctbrotiiet?' ^Xo ajalbcr'^^^j^aac/ anfwercb Sri* 
i^loft 'to jefl wit^ 3nflcborg/ «3t i« not wett bone/ 
faib. 7&y6vn, *to bran? bown f^c anger of t^e Ooba u}>on «!♦• 
'Sl^at f&att now be friebj* retiirneb Srlt|^lof/ *b«t/ ^owe^er, 
3 rxdut 3 n^cb org'* fat>or more t^an asal&cr'*/ STfter 
t^t^f t^ep romeb oDer t^t fxit^, anb xoetit up to 33alber'6'' 
{Ja0C| anb into ^ngehovQ'i SSowcn ©Jie fat t^erc wit& 
^er VIII poung maib«/ anb VIII were t{)ofc affo to^o ^ab now 
come tl&lt^eri anb all toa6 l^ung about wit^ pearW, anb tapejirieb 
wit^ airioii«Ip*wot)en clotfi. 3nflcborg t^n floob up anb 
faib/ 'SBJp art t^ou fo bolb, Sritf^iof, a« to come ^it^er 
againfl tf;e miff of mp Srot^era, anb bringing bown ti^e wrat^ 
of t&e ©oba upon t^ec?' Sri t|^ to f anftoereb/ '^oweocr tfyat 
map be, jlitt 3 oalue more tf;p looe tr)an t^t rage oftI)c®ob6r 
nngcbotflr faib, «$£^ou f^alt be welcome, anb all t^p mtn 
wit^ tl&ee,' anb t&en mabe @^e room for ^im to ftt bp r;er ftbe, 
anb branf to l^im in t^e f?ne|? wine; anb fo fat t^ep t^ere, 
;efling merrilp together* JEj^en faw ^ngehove t^e beautiful 
Slittg upon I&i6 l&anb, anb ijuejlioneb l&im w^t{)er ti^e jewel waS 
^i« own? Svitjflof faib it wai, anb tl^en praifcb f^e it 
eicceebingrp. *3 wiff,' faib Sr it f^i of, *git)e tf)et t^ig 3ting, 
if t^ou bojj promife net>er to part t()erewit(), but wilt fenb it to 
me to^n t^oxi wift feep it no longer; anb wit^ it wiff we plight 
our trot^ witl& ead^ otber/ ®o were tbcp betrot^cb , d^anging 
9ling§ together. Srltf^iof waa often bp nig^t in »al&cr'6* 
^agc/ anb betoof (^imfclf t^it^er ead^ bap alfo, to jofe wit^ 



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10 

C^ap. V. 

©f ^titkivf anb t^e Son« of f8ele. 

JCoxo ttittf} we f^af of t^e fdm^txi, ^om tM ll^ep ftwiib 
^ing Hiiifff but t^at &e &ab a far Wronger force tlfan l^cp* 
affefcngcrS went Utmetn tf^em therefore/ anb tricb to arrange 
t^e matter / fo t^iXt no ^ofiUttte« f^oulb occur* Aing Hitter 
n)a« faib to it xoiUins to meet t^em t^acefuflPf on condition 
tHt t^ep fubmitteb to l)\& rule, anb gat>e ^im in marriafle t^etr 
ftffer 3nflcbor0 t^c fair, together »it(> t(>e tfeirb part of 
air t^eir property. SEo t^e things t^t AingS agreeb, for t&es 
fan) t^at t^ep ^ab to bo n>tt^ t^etr ooermatd^/ anb aO n>ae 
mabc fafi anb ftrmfp promifeb/ anb t^e marriage wa* to tafe 
place at So(j nc, wjiit^er King waS to go to meet ^i« be« 
trot^eb. Slow mard^ tj^e SBrot^er« ^omc wit^ tl^eir warrior*/ 
anb are to t^c utfermoil enrageb. SBut xo^n gritf^iof t^ouQU 
it lifelp t^at tt)e ^rotf;er6 woulb return, ^t t^ni abbrcfcb t^t 
baugl&ter of t^c «ing : — 'ajjea anb ^o6pita6rp i&aft tl^ou receioeb 
u«, anb aSal&etr our ^ofi ^atf) not been bift)l<afeb witb u*j 
but wl^cn t^ou flnbef! tl&at t^e jiingg are come ^ome, fpreab 
fair linen cIot^« over t^e ^alt of tbe JDifar , for t^at i« tf>€ 
big^ejl in tl)is temple, anb we fbaff fee t^m from our \>iU%e** 
Z^e ^ing'6 baug^ter faib, '2?e bib not follow tl&e aboice anb 
jubgement of ot^er^ w^en pe bib t^i* ; but certaintp mufi we 
finblp receive our fricnbS wben t^ep.b<iuc come to u4/ StU 
t^iof after t^i^ betoof bint bome, anb nejtrt morning went 
earfpoutjanb w^en be ^ab returncb, ^e quob tbi« fong: 

«S£^i« wirr 3 frP our 
2Barrior3 all, t^at 
?5Iainlp are ooer tbofe 
?)Ieafant failing^ ; 
gig^tingsmcn ! mount not 



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11 

g^r now ar€ t^e f^eti aU 
SB^t^elp Bread^htg !' 

Z^tn went e^ep out, anb air faw ti)at t^e ^att of t^c ©{s^ 
far n?a6 cooercb witi^ n^ite Hnem Sjorn aicb ouf, *5Woto mujl 
t^c Jtingi it tcturneb l^omc, anb But f^oxt emns^ w^iDf ^^^ time 
be t^at we ff)att jtt in peace; it woulb be fcejl, ntct^infg/ to 
coffect our force* ;' anb fo bib ti^ep, t^e common pcopfe alfo anb 
manp firong men being afembleb, Z^e a3rotf)er6 foon learneb 
ttH t^efe acts of grlt^^iof, anb ro^at ^16 force* were* ^ing 
gtlgt foib t^en, *S3JonberfuI 3 beemit, t^at »al&er f^oulb 
fiibmit to air finb« of infult from Sritf>iof; but now roitl 
we fenb me^cnger* to ^im, to fnow w1)at term* ^e witt offer 
u6, or propofe to l^im to Icaoe t^e countrpj for 3 fee not tHt 
we ^aoe fud^ flrengt^, at t^e »>refent/ a* t^t we f^oulb be able 
to fig()t againfi i&im.' Srit|>iof'S frienb* anb i5il&in3# 
516 fojlerfat^er, carrieb therefore t^e fatutation of tt)e ^ing* to 
l^im anb ft^ofe t^ii*: — •SS^ ?5rince* wiB be reconcifeb to t^ee, 
Sritf^iof , if t^ou t>o(l fetd& from t^e (Dvfney*3«lan6« t^e 
tribute wjid^ ()a*. not been paib ftnce ^ing aselc bieb; for 
tl^ep want treafure, being ahout to gioe (iw(i\) In marriage 
^iXQehotQ t^eir ftflfer bowrieb wit{) mu(^ weaUl^/ Svit^lof 
anfwereb/ *Dn[p one t^ing can leab to peace between u*/Our 
Dencrafing t^e fin*men we ^aoe ^ab, for no fait^ ^i^nt 3 in 
t^efe 25rot^er*» £)n one conbition, l^oweoer, wiff 3 fJipufate 
quietf tHt aU oinr propertp f^aff rc)} in peace, w{)ile 3 am 
abfent.' 5£^i* roaS promifeb, anb conprmcb witj oat&*» Srls 
tf^iof now prepareb fyim for ^i* ejrpebition, anb ti^ofe out ^i* 
men, aff botb anb fit for war: XVIII were t^ep together. 5E^efe 
quejiioncb Svlt^iof, w^et^er ^e woulb not go to ^ing^clgc 
anb be r-econcileb to l&im, anb beprecate t^ rage of»aI6er? 
J^c repUcbj ^SE^i* wiff 3fwear,not to aff peace offing ^cl^c/ 



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12 

Srfter t^xt, ^e mnt on boatb jetti&a/anb faUeb out along 
QoQnUftit^^ — Slow ml^en grit|?iof ^ab gone from ^li 
]&omc«Ianb, Jling rf a lf& an frofc t^u^ to 6^1 6^ \^^ brother: 
♦SKud^ more energy woulb It ^m on our ftbe, if gritf^lof 
fiifercb fome })uni«^ment for l&i« crime; wc xoxU therefore burn 
]^i« t)iBage, anb ratfe ftid^ a fiorm againji ^im anb ^xi xatn, 
tW t^t\) f^att neper profpcr.' ^clgc falb, xt f{M)wrb fo ht. 
iE^ep t^en burneb up all t^e oiffage at SramnA* , anb plun* 
bereb all l&i« property* after tbi«/ t^ep fent for two»ittl^8/ 
^cl6c anb ^amglamu, anb gaoe tl^em prefentJ tW t&ep 
f^oiirb fenb fud& a l^orrible tempefl againfi Sritf^iof anb l>i6 
fottowerS, t^at tl^ep fl^oulb all peri«]& in t^e fca* 5£^e &agS 
accorbinglp practifcb aff t()eir witd&craft, anb votnt up to a |>ig& 
place *) wit^ manp imprecation^ anb incantation^^ 



^titl^tpf d Cjcpcbifion to t|>c <DrFney«» 

-Jlort) w^en Srltf^lof anb ^i« men ^ab* left Sogni^frit^ 
bef;inb t\)tvx, tbere arofe a great tlorm anb a migi&tp winb/ fo 
t^at t&e n?aoe8 tofeb eyceebinglp anb t^e f^ip n>a8 bripen oiolentip 
along, for it woS unlaben anb a ligbt fwiftsfailing oepel. SJ^jiJ 
fong t^^n ^aunteb grit^iof: 

<aKp mUK(AV\> f&ip from fiJogni 

geatlp 2 let fail forwarbj 

@ore^mourning, maiben^ fat 

•SWib »al6cr'« SEemple^grooeJ^ 

♦) 9!B^en mitd&c^ fj^oulb fpac mDftcricd or iinprecafc' curfew on ej>eir 
enemies / a (offo eittlng^ptace ma* coiiffracrcb of w^i* tjet) toof 
pofefton n>irb man^ magicat ceremonte6t 



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13 

Xt^idf xain^mtxi now faU fafl, hut . 

g>c, fair ntaiM, laug^ jlitt! 

g)e'b lo^)f , e'en f^oulb «IU&a 

giff/ enb fo, anb go bown!' 
«SBea tt>oulb it be/ fatb » j5rn, 'if t^ou ^ab|} fomet^ing 
better to bO/ t^an ftnging about t^e maibend in 33atber'l< 
dagc/ 'Slot t^e lef woufb it be for tl)at,* obferDebgrlff^iof* 
jpereupon t^e nort|>winb brot)e t()em to t^e ©ounb, near t()e 
i«(anb$ caSeb t^e e6lun&er«3^ian&«* Slf^en ma< tf)e fbrm at 
it« &cigf;t» Slow fang S r i 1 1> t o f : 

«'®ainj] t^e ffp now, rowg^ biffow^ 

@wift ba«^et& t^e fea; 

aB^irrb bp witcf; fpea<ong«, 

2eaoe jformswaoeS t()eir beb: 

SSotb 4glir 3 battle not 

?fim 'mib fu(5 breafer«^ 

£et Solunfter fb^ltcx, labSj — 

®wett womemwaoe* |>ere!* 
JC^en bro«g(;t t^ep to, unber &6lnnbev 2Slt6f intenbing 
tfiere to abibe^ 58ut t^t weather fubbenip fatting nearlp calm, 
t^ep ^angeb t^eir courfe again, anb faileb.awap from t^e 
t«anb6. ?Jlcafeb were tl;ep now wit& t^eir. oopage, for t()ep 
r;ab a favourable breeje awhile; but, w^en t^e winb began to 
f ref&en more anb more , Svit^iof quob : 

*gar i^ence, at Svamnii, 

gormerlp toai ^f — 

SWp 3n0Cborg merrilp 

Slowing to mceti 

Slow f^att 3 fail, witb 

®weff«biffow« ooer, — 

Sigl&tlp mp long^bragon 

2eap f^att awap V 



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14 

93ut m^en tl^p ffob come far etu tofea^ tOe ocean taf^eb 
fttrtou6Ip for t^e feconb time/ imb a migi^tp Oorm arofe toitf^ fo 
ntud^ fleet anb fnoxo Hat no man coidb fee tf^ ftem of t^e 
t>e^el from t^e jlem thereof. SB^e waoe* olfo U(U ooer t^e f|)ip, 
fo tHt He men l^oleb mit^ut ceitftng. 2;r>en reciteb Srit^iof 
t^$ #aunt: 

'Sor t0(a>t» anb for wi^Hprung 

SBI^itUH^mS nought fee we^ 

JSoIb Sytfc^&eroe* gong 

gar on t|>c beejs 

J^ibb'tt 96Iunbei: i^arbour* — 

^ere jianb we together, 

@ig^teen men baling 

Klliba to faoer 
23)6rn remarfeb/ ^J^ meet6 nmnp a ^itibtance m^o 
wanberet^ far!' — 'SCrue it iS, fojier brother/ f«ib Svit^iof, 
anb d^aunteb tf)ui : 

••2i5 i^elflc 'galnii ^timfaft 

eetM ^r^in'tf ftoeffing baugl^ter6} 

J^ow biff rent twf hti^fyt ©ribe'6 

a5at6ct^fcen Wb&I — 

SS^e ^ing'l foul \v\Uf anb 3ne'bore*< 

gonb n)i^^/ fyxo n>tbe a))art! 

£)n l^er mp foul reiwfet^/ 

On (>er, mp life, mp lope!' 
•St map weir be/ fap« »jorn/ HM f^e wif^et^ Hte 
better t^n *tiS %txt, hwt eoen t$i« xi not to be complaineb of/ 
— '2Be mufl now/ anfweret^ Srlt^iof, ^trp wM ^efp our 
bolb war^men can gioe vA ; btit 4mre pleafant wmtib it be in 
Satber'i ;>ade.' Z^tn *gan t(>ep prepare rigfit fbutlp 
againfl tf»e florm / for goob mm anb true were tf^ep afembteb 
tf^ere on boarb, anb t(;eir (ig^t Hiip xoai t^e befl t^at coulb 



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13 
ie fnttA in all t!^t 9t^t^*Sanb. St^ereoftrr fnget^ JSrit^iof 

'gor fatt m(n»€9 nmig^t fee tve^ 

J^ere fatltng far wcfltoarb; 

mite, life to af^eS/ 

S^ta'oeS igit afar! 

S3taow6 / f^riir^foiinbing , 

&tDan^flie^t$ tafe i^tfl^lpj 

»2Rib ever^flerce waoessebbic* 

«lll&a i« ^nrPb!^ 
SRow fl&ep f^ippeb a great fea, fo tHt a)erp man flfoob 
faHAailiriQ, S r i 1 1> i o f fang t]&i6 fong : 

^SeaS pfebge me merrttp I 

(gofrtwrb, tbep'ir mourn — f^oiilb 3 

@inf 'mib Cwambreafer^ — 

SB^ere fl^eet« fap w^ttc^bread&ing/ 
*S£(>infefl t^ou, t^en/ faib »i6vn, HHt tfyefe ®ogn« 
maiben* rwnlb let manp tcar« faU after t^ce?' *2)oubtIef tf;cp 
woufb, 2 trow/ anfwereb Srft|>{of. S5ut t^e fea*flream« 
now; /wept fO/ tf;at t()ep pourefe^in life unto torrents^ STtt fioob 
fafff ^owct)cr, for t^cir f^ip wa« goob, anb rigl)t ^arbp were 
tf)e mm on boarb ^en 2^en quob »jorn t^ni: 

*®ure net>er aU tyott 

SBibow fo prebg'b ^er fooer; 

@ure newr bright bribe can 

JBib t^ee fo to ^er ftbe, man! 

aSrine mp epnc brenc^e*/ 

®Mt^um nought queml^eS; 

Wfy big brawntarm rtibt meanip 

(Spe»IJb« Mting fo feenfp!* 
3(6initn6 obferveb: 'no great ^rm i8 t^ere in pour ar;n« 
being trieb a (ittle, for pou ^ab no mercp on uS xofy> lap rubbing 



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16 

our cpcS ft) befl^airtnglp/ w^dt. time me formerip fioob up fo 
carrpln»atbcr'«i5a0c/>a3uftt)^pbofinoeftn9,!M«mun6?* 
faib Srltf^lof, ^Z^at f^att not be awanting' fap« 2C«muii&/ 
anb beginnctj) t^i« fong : 

*©()arp failing it n)a« ^cxe, 

Zf)e f&ip/ — fca6 fore beating; 

a^/ one man 'galnf! eigfyt^ ^ 

jDn boarb ^ab to worf. 

SEo t^e women'* bonder bteaffafl 

SBore 3 more (^atm'b/ t&an 

JClIiba ^ere bailing 

'SWib ^ig() |>orrib waoe« V 
*Zi)on bofi not fap lef about t^p &elp, ti^att it Wi atu 
fcoexS Stitf^lof fmiting, *bwt pet tl^ou wentejJ l^abfong into 
t^e race of t^taa« , w^en t^on woulbflt perforce labour in t^c 
fitd&en*/ Slow rofe t^e fform once more, fo t^at t^e fierce fnow^ 
mountain* w^i^ brofe anb baf&eb on air jibe* againfi t^e f^ip, 
feemcb to aff w^o were on boarb rather to lifcn great rodf* anb 
enormou* clip tban common waoe** Sl^cn qupb S r i 1 1> i o f : 

'®at 3 carelef on cuf^ion* 

3n »al6er'« cool temple, 

S£o tf)C «ing'« baug^ter boubtlep 

SDare 3 tea w^at 3 fnomj 

Jlan'« raoifbing feasbeb 

SRigbt quidf 3 afccnb nottj; 

aSut 3ng'borfl'«/ fomc ot^er 

gonb fuitor foon tafc«r 

»i&tn faib/ «@ore forrow r;aoe we now at banb, fofier* 

brother, anb beSpair ^afl t^ou in t^p worb*.; tbi* i* but iff 

bone in fo goob a bero!' •SReitber/' anftoeretb Sritf^lof, 'i8 

it from be«pair nor from forrow tbat 3 Oaoe fpofe.n of our olb 

pleafaunt 



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17 

j^cafaunt d^aunce*; it ma^ toett 6e, trulp/ t^at t^ep toenoftenex 
mentioneb tH^ was nccbebj int mofl men moufb t^inf f^emfetotf 
furcr of beat^ tJ&an lifc^ if f^ep mere fo i^avb come a« wc. 
©tia wiU 3 anfwr t^cc fomew^at/ Zf>cn d^aiinteb f^e: 

•®o fortune Ja8 faoor'b — 

(gcatg t{>ou canfl not Boajl of) 

SEl^at 'mong eigl^t wefc'ming ^anbmaib* 

SBfiUe 3nfl'borfl3 woo'b* 

Sn »al&cr'« courts d^ang'b toe 

6^a8'b atrm^rlngg together j — 

SJB^erc t^cn, prap, n)a« Ulgli 

^alf&an*« t'anb'6 rocttd^ful ©pirit?' 
•aaBe mufl he content/ faib asjorn/ *wtt^ t^at iD^idEl ^a« 
been/ S;^en (rofe fud^ a fea ooer tf}emf t^t t^e damps fprang 
anb t|yc two fleets were thrown foofe, anb IV men were firudf 
ooerboarb, all of wjom pertf^eb in t^e fea. Zfycn d^aunteb 
Srit^iof t^u6: 

*2;^e faU»f^eet6 bot&.6urjI, 

•aWib t^e big<weaing iittowSi 

©wain* four, too, fanf bown 

3n t^e bottomree fea.* 
*aRet^inf6 now/ fait(> S r it |> I of, H^at fome among our 
men wiff r;aoe to journep bown to 21 a n a , anb we f ^aff foof 
hut poor ambafaborS xoJ)m we come t^itfjer, unfcp we ^olb 
ourfefocS life mm, rig^t jloutlp. @oerp foul of uS f^oulb 
therefore, 3 counfel, ^at>e fome gofb ahont ^im/ Sl^en ^eweb 
1)e afunber t^e SRing ^e ^ab got from 3ngcbor0/ bioibeb 
it among ^iS men, anb quob t^iS fong: 

•SE^e goob 3llng t^e rcb, wjid& 

j5alfban'« rid^ father 

Dwn'b, mil we bew — ere 

3 



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18 

^(jlv embrace ui. — 
®^oulb we guefl ir^cre roaw* bntfle, 
©learning golb ff)aU bright jVartte j 
£)own 'mib Rana'i beep cctt 
SDaring g^icfS it (mt» mttV 

»jont faib, '9Jot fo certain i8 t^i«, pet i8 not aff ^ope 
gone/ 2^en founb Svitf^lof, wit^ t^e reff, tf;at t^e f^ip ^ab 
t>ti\>tn Derp far onwarbj but nothing fnew t^ep of t^e courfe 
t^ep faifeb, for fo tt;idffp barf ^ab it grown on all |tbc3 rounb 
about t^ent/ t^t t^ep coulb not fee from jiem to jiern of t^e 
De^cf,— be|tbe6 tl;e ttm^tH anb rolling of tl^e fea, together wit^ 
fnow^fleet/ frojl, anb a tremenbon« colb. SJ^en went Svltf^iof 
tip on to tl)t majl/ anb fo foon a^ ^e came bown tf)ni fpofe to 
^iS foffowerS: 'SKanp wonberfuf jtg^t6 f;aoe 3 feen; a great 
SB^ate lap arounb tf)e f^ip/ anb 3 fiifpect we mujl ^aoe come 
near to fomc fanb l&ereaboutS, but t^at ^t witt bar ui from t^t 
coajl* 3 befieoe not tl&at ^ing i^elgc bearet^ u6 anp frienbf^ip, 
nor ()atf) ^e fent u6 anp frienbfp mepage* SJwo women fee 3 on 
t^e badP of tOat SB()arej tl^ep it i« w^o, wit^ t^eir worff fpeff^ 
anb bfacfetl witchcraft, caufe t^ia horrible ^eab^fform* Slow witt 
we trp w^etl^cr our fortune or t^eir incantation^ at>aif tf)t nioji; 
peer pe rigl^t onwarb aS before; mpfelf/ wit^ a bart^club, witt 
bruife tt)efc eoil bemont?.' Sl^cn fang ^e t^iS fong: 

'2Beirb witrf;e« fee 3, 
SEwo, on t(;e wa^jc t^ere; — 
i^elflc M fent t^cm^ 
^it^er to mett «g : 
e.llxba f5aa fnap a* 
©unber i' t^' mibbefl 
S:^eir badpa, — ere o'er iiUowi 
^ounb6 ff}e rig^t onwarb/ 



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19 

fdut , a8 it i« tcratcb , tt;i6 qualUp foaorocb rt;c f ^ip « 1 1 i 6 a / 
tM i^ coufb unbevfianb ^uman fpccd^. Zt}tn fatbSjorn, 
*9?ott? n)c f^aC fee t^efe S3rot]^er6' \)irtuea towarbg x\%: ^txtxoxti) 
fprang »jorn to tl^e rubber; but Sr Itf^iof grafpeb aia^jelin 
anb teopt to t^c ffem of tl^e f^ip, jtnging t\)\t d&aunt: 

'J^aU! ottwarb eUifea! 
I'eap tt9f> on t^e fea^l^iirs — 
Z^M flrim SBitdEi'g templeg 
anb ^cet^ breaf 2;^ou t^roufll^ ; 
fflreaf jaw*bone avb cf;eeF*6one 
3n t^e be^jitsborn ^ag! — 
gor ti^at ot^er foul gianteg 
93reaf a foot or two quidPfp!' 

SE^ereafter lanceb \)t ti^t for? at t^e one i^am^Ceaper*^), 
wMie &llib(Ci frontsfecl brot)e on tl&e barf of t^e ot^er* Sll^uS 
were bot^ t^cir barf6 brofen. 23ut tl^e 2Bf)aIc bbeb unber anb 
fwam oxoa)), anb tl^ep nether faro ^m afterroarba* Sl^en began 
t^c roeatl^er to grow jiiff, Hi i^t fl^lp roa6 roaterloggeb* %xU 
t^i f tl^ercforc caffeb foublp-to l&iS mtxi,t^(kt t^ep fl^oulb ball 
out t^e oeper. ©ap^ Sjorn, 'Ufetef rooulb it be for u6 to 
roorf at t^at/ — '9?ap/ fojier brother, netjer befpair/ faib Srl» 
t^iof, 'eoer ()at^ it Utn t{)e jtout^^earteb ^ero'^ cuffom togi\)c 
xo\;}Ckt {)erp ^e can a8 (ong a6 it i6 po^ibte, come ro^at roiff 
thereafter/ SE^en quob ^e: 

'9ie\)er f^oulb 6()ampiona fore 
©orroro at beat^ ; 
Sourage, tt^tn, courage mp 
3}?crrp men all ! — 
©ear anb beceitfe^ 
9lig{)tsbream6 ^a\)e ta\x^\^t me 



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20 

Z1)at, in fpitc of aU t^inbratice, 3 

2ne'hovs fHU get!' 
SE^cn balcb ti^ev t^e f ^ip dear , anb mere come near t^e 
coafff iut bab weather again blew againfl t^em. Z^tn too! 
Srltf^lof again two oarS at tf)t prow, anb roweb tolt^ t^em 
tig^t flronglp forwarb^ SE^e meatier now d^angeb/ anb t^ep fan) 
t()at t^ep were come off JEfju-founb/ anb tj^ere came t&ep to 
lanb. ^i* d'^^*' d&ampionS were fuK weaf anb wearpj but fo 
frefi^ anb bolb wa6 Sr it f^iof, t^ I;e bare o\)er t^e f«rf VIII 
of ^i« men, »jorn carrieb II , anb Vimnnb one* iE^en 
cfianntcb Srit^iof; 

*2i) t^e fire^imnep came 3, 
anb carrieb rig^t jioutlp — 
SE^rong^ brift«foam fierce^{)irling — 
SKp feebfesgrown fea^folf* 
SE^e fair on tr;e fanb 3 
©afelp iau reeo'b now j — 
'©ainflf t^e prcttp pate fea:*maib« 
%i6 not pleafant to fi^^tV 



djfap. VII. 

vlngantyr roa& at ftfju, w^cn Svitf^iof came af^ore. 
3^ wa« ]()ig cufiom , w^en ^e branf , t^at a man f ^outb fit at 
t^e lattice of 5ig2)rinfing5jpaff, anb feep a goob lookout feawarb, 
ftolbing careful watd^» Qut of a ^ornrgobfet f(;ouIb {^ebrinf, anb 
w^en it toaS emptp another wa^ ftttcb up for r;tm» i^alltjar 
was {)e {iigl;t, w()o fcpt wat(^ wf;cn Svl.t^iof came to (anb. 



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21 

SB^cn gallvav faxo {>ow U went, wUJ Stiffs iof anb {>{« 
i^ampioni, ^t quob tf)ii fong: 

«Dn boarb.of «Ill6a, 

aSating 'mib \loxmMUowS, 

fSUn ftic fee 3 ftanbing, — 

a3ut fe^en ton? forwarb* 

2ife t|)e battfc::fani'b fearief 

S^ung Sriff^iof, t« r;e w^o 

fOaxtffmcpi piitti poTO'rfuI 

SRifl^t tip at t^e prow!' 
Sirnb nj^en f)t ^ab brunf out t^c ^orn, caflf 5c it in t^roug^ 
t^e wtnbow, t5«8 fpeaf ing to tf)t woman w^o po«rcb out tje 
brinf: 

•SEafc up from t^c floor, mp 

gair.jlepping bamfel, 

SE^e SDrinflng^^orn bowmturn'b; 

S'oc brain'b it again* — 

On t^e waoe, d^ampionS fee 3 

SBJo goob ^elp wilT want 

©re, tcmpefi^tofl forelp, 

Z^c ^arbour t^ep'ir readj/ 
Zie Sari ^earb w{)at gdltvav quob, anb quefiioncb ^im 
of (118 tibingg. «2Ren arc come af&ore^ere,' anfwerSi^allrar, 
•But ^elplef anb awearieb are tl&ep; iTout feffow6 tnbeeb fecm 
t^ep to be; hnt fo ilrong anb fref^ li one of t^em, tl&at ^e 
caxxktl} t^e otI;er6 to t^e f^ore/ «®o t^ou,' faib t^e 3arl, «to 
meet tj^emj anb receive tl&em finbfp if It 18 Srltf^lof, t^e 
fon of mp frienb I^orffcn i5cvfir,anb renowneb for aU 
goob qualities'. Slow began tofpeaf a man ^ig^t 2Ctlc, a great 
SSifing, t{)uS: 'Sfjow fH( be prooeb w^at i8 faib of grit |>i of, 
t&at l&e l^atf) fworn ne\)cr to be tf)e man jtrjl to beg for peace/ 
X were t{)ep toget()er, bab men anb greebp, anb w^o coutb go 



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22 

tt)e taoing a3erfcvr«^Courfc. @oon a« tf>cp foiinb Sfi* 
tf^lof, 2Ctlc faib: '5«on) counfcl 3 t^ee, Sritf^iof, eomm 
t^ec ^it^cr; for cagleS f^oulb ctaw anb Uaf cad^ ot^er, Srif 
tl^iofj _ ixit 3 couttfet t^ce to enb tt)p worbS, anb not to aft 
firjl for peace!' Srit|>iof t^en turneb ^im rounb to t^m, 
anb (l&aunteb t{)i« fong: 

'g)e neoer can conquer ni , 
Sleoer, no neocr! 
Sa^^trouMeb »crfcvt«/ 
S^Ianb^bearbg <^J btadf j — 
SRat^er, alone, bib 3 
SDefp'rately bare it/ 
Dne aflainjl ten, t^an 
^rap tl^ee for peace!' 

Sr^en came :iallvav «p, anb faib: *Xf)e ^art wim tM 
pe ft;aa att be welcome, nor fl^aa anp one mofetl pou ^ere/ 
*2;^i6 ojfer,' faib Srltf^iof, *tafe 3 wilTingtp, but am pre* 
pareb for bot^/ Sifter tf)at went t()ep to meet t^e 3arl, anb 
l&c recei^eb SritT;lof weir anb alt ^16 men thereto* 5111 t^e 
winter were t^ep wit^ ^im , anb t^e Sari mabe mnd^ of tf>em. 
Sften affeb ^e tl;em of tl^eir aboentureS, anb t^en d^aunteb 
»j6rn t^ui: 

'2opou6 we war^mcn, 

'SWib xoa\>c^ baf^ing o'er u6, 

Seafelef fept baling bp 

fdotb tf>t iW^ ftt>^^* 

gor tm bap6 togetl;er 

Slnb thereunto eigl^t , 

21 an fore plagueb our feas^orfe 

3n tf;e trough of tf;c fea!' 

♦3 3*lfl«^«^* 



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23 

Z1)^ 3arl falb: «a trap ^at^ ^ing ^clgc laib for pow/ 
anb fud& ^ingg are but Itt eficcmcb, w^o are reabp for not{)ing 
but to caufe men to perif^ by witd^craft/ '3 fnon? alfo/ fap6 
2lnffantyr, *t&at it 16 t^p erranb ^it{>er, Sritf^iof, tM 
t(;ou art fent after t^t tribute. Slnb a fr>ort anfwer f^alt tf)on 
t)a\)e to t^i«j no tribute f^alT Jting i^clgc H^t of me, but 
t^ou fl&alt get a6 mud^ treafure a6 t&ou wilt, anb tribute mapeji 
t^ou call it an tbou wilt, or fomc ot^er name map'fl tbou gi^^e 
it/ Si^itf^lof faib, t^at ^e mulb tafe ti)t monep. 



(El^ap. VIIL 

Jtow mufl be faib, w^at n)a6 bone in tlovvoay xo^itt t^at 
Stltf^iof roai abfcnt therefrom* SE&en caufeb ti)e SSrot^er* 
princes t^e wMe »iffage at Sramnd* to be burneb up. Slfic 
two n)itc55ft|7er6 alfo were at t^eir incantation*, but in t^e mibflf 
thereof timblei tl;ep bown from t^eir ^igt; conjuringsflfanb, anb 
fo brofe bot^ tl;eir batf6, ZHt fame autumn came King, t^e 
^ing, nortl&warb in Qogn to ^ii webbing; anb rig^t nobfp anb 
^o6j>itabfp feajieb ^e at bi6 marriage^caroufal, after t^e nuptial* 
mvt to Sngeborg. S?e queftionebber, whence f^e M got tbe 
Siing tl^e ®oob wbid^ f^e bore upon ^er arm? ^t {)ab befongeb, 
f^e anfwereb, to b^r gather* '9i^p,' faitb tbe fiing, «Sri* 
t^iof wa« it* owner, anb tafe it tl^i* inffant from off tbp 
(;anb, for neioer fbaB bright golb fail tbee wf;en tbou comeflf to 
2IIf^cm/ SEben gaoe be tbe Sting to t^t mfe of i^elgc, 
tetting ^er to let Sri tf^ I of ba\)e it xc1)m be fboulb return. 
Sing &in0 t^en journieb bomewarb* witb bi* fpoufe, anb 
great roai t^t affection wbic^ be bore unto ber. 



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24 

€.ffap* IX. 

%tit^iof cornet^ batf wit^ t^e tribute. 

^ftcrwarW, in t^c ftrlng, went Sr I t^iof from t^e ©rfncyij 
anb parteb fo from llneantyx toit^ mn^ tou. gallvav 
fottowcb roit^ Srlt^iof. 25ut/ w^en ^e came to XXotway, 
learneb ^e t^at &i8 oillaflc waS fturncb^ Sramnd« read&eb 
Srit^lof at la)}, anb faibj *25larf ^an grown tl^e buUbingS 
It^erc/ anb traces t^crc arc none of t^e t^anb* of frienb«/ Zi}cn 
quob ^e t^iS d^aunt: 

•grienWp/ at Sramn4«/ 
gormertp branf goob 
@n)ift»fworbeb ^eroeg, toit^ 
I^orflen mp ®ire» 
SEo bfadf aff;e3 burn*b/ now 
SBowet^ mp oiffagej — 
3 })romtfc t^ofe princes 
©rlmlp to pap!' 

SEf^en aj?eb ^e counfel of ^i« men , wl^at courfe now t^ep 
f^oulb tafe? SE^ep tab l&im becibc t^at for ^imfcrf. 3lfter tH«/ 
roweb t^cp ooer tf;e frit&, anb bown to Syrjlran&, Jpere wjcre 
t^ep tofb t^at t^c ^ingg were in »al&cr'« 6<te^^ ^^ ^^^ 
3Difar<acrlftcc. Zf)€n xomt »jorn anb Sritf^iof up 
t^it^er. Svitf^iof hai 6allvav anb 2C«mun& tW t^ep 
f^oulb, in t^e mean time, breaf f}oUS in aU t^t f^ip«, bot^ 
large anb fmaU, tHt were near thereunto. Zi)ii bib tjep. Zi)en 
toot Srlt^lof anb ^ia fojlerbrot^er tl;eir wap to tf)t &oor6 of 
»al&cr'«s^a^c. Stit|>iof woutb go in. »j6rn bab 
{^im treab cautiouSlp, aS ^e woulb go atone. Svit|>tof begircb 
l^im to remain outjtbe, anb feep watd^ meanw^ire. Z^en fang 
5e t^u«: 



CCV, 



3" 



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25 

*3tt t^tt>nsl^ lit court at 

gone xoiU 3 go} 

^erp^olf few «ceb 3, tl^ofc 

®rcat men to finb* 

^lamti cdf}/ coninmin^f mint! 

D'cr tje cronm«t)iaagc , If — 

23adf 6p ftrfl ntg^t^fatt/ 3 

a3e not rctutn'b!' 
•SBctp wea fatb/ t^at!' anfwet* asjorn. SS^crcaftcr went 
Stltf^iof In, anb fatt> t^at tf)ett were but few people In tfic 
^aU of t^e JDifar* SE^e «lng« were t^en buft) wtt^ t^e »lfar« 
offering^/ anb fat at t^e brinflng^aMea* gire xoaB t^ere on 
t^c ffoor; t^cir wtoe« fate t^erebp anb warmeb tl&e ®ob6, wr;ld^ 
ot^er« were anointing anb t^m brplng wit^ a clot^^ Up to «lng 
gelge t^m mnt Sritf^iof, anb faib, «9jow wilt t^ou, 3 
bo trow/ receioe t^ tribute/ SE^ercwlt^ pfurfeb l^e out t^e purfe 
in w^idj t{)e ftfoer wat, anb t^rew it fo l&arb iufi ooer ^i« nofe, 
t^at two of ^15 ttet^ were brioen out/ anb ^e fell fenfele^ from 
t^e ^ig^^®eat. rfalf6an/ ^oweoer, gra^peb ^im tig^t, fo t^at 
^e feir not into t^t jtre* 2^cn quob Srltf^iof t^: 

*S£af e now , S^tef of t^e 

2Bar«men, t^p treafurej 

Safe , bearing t^p front^teet^ — 

Sf more 3 not beg ! 

©iloer ric« fafe at tf)e 

Sought ?5urfe'6 bo«om j 

asjorn anb 3 bot^ l^aoe 

Some ittfyee ^if^er!' 
gew men were t^ere in t^e Stemple^^aff, for t^ep were 
brinfing in anotf)cr place^ 5«ow birccrtp a« Sritf^iofwa« 
going out along t^e jtoor, ^e faw tW t^e wife of ^elge wore 

4 



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26 

|)i« ating t^t ©oob, a8 f^e waS warming » alter before t^e 
pre* Sritf^iof gripeb t^e Sting tig^tlp/ but it toai fafieneb 
to ]&cr, anb ^e brem ^er out along t^c Poor towarba t^c boor* 
»albev fea into t^e pre, anb aS j^alf&an'g wife f^apifp 
laib l&olb of it to fat)e it/ t^at image w^id^ f^e n)a6 warming 
fea alfo bown among t^e Pameg* Soon now began bot^ tl&e 
®ob8 to Maje, for t^ep were iot^ anointeb wit^ oil. SE^e Pame^ 
t^en caug{)t t^t roof, anb t^e w^ole builbing xoa^ on pre. aSe^ 
fore ^e mnt out, ^owet>er, Srif f^lof got »)ofepion of tl&e Sling* 
Slow afl?cb asjorn t^e ncwg of wl^at ^ab ^appencb, wl^itc ftc 
wa8 inpbe, Sritf^iof ^efb up tl^e Sling, anb d^aunteb t^i» 
fong: 

'iJclgc, *)oor wretd^, bp t^e puxfc toai 
^it ^arb enough o'er tl;e nofe; 
S)wfp t]()en galfban"$ ira^e brotfyer 
aSow'b ^im from ^ig^ e^air^^of^pate: 
35aI6cr tl^en feff anb ^igl^^Pam'b, int 
giercelp t^e ©oob Sling 3 feis'b, ere 
©rawing ^er along — ti^e' olb^woman from 
Jpeart^s^preS 3 bauntteffp bragg'b/ 
(Some men fap, t^at Svitf^iof ^ab caP prebranb6 up 
among t^t lat^S of tl;e roof, fo tf;at t^e w^ote ^aU toa^ wrappeb 
in Pamea* Z^en fang l)e t^n&i 

*Jpapen we now to tf)t f{;ore, — t^eres 
Sifter we'll counfel wifelpj 
23lue Pameg brig^tlp curl 'mib 
»al&cr'« facreb grotje!' 
©0, hereupon, went t^ep out to fea. 



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27 

€Jfap. X. 

^tifi^ivf flics |>i« (Country. 

JCo fooncr ^ab Sing i^clgc come to ]()imfclf again, t^an l^c 
commanbcb t^at rt;cp f ^oulb firaig^twap purfuc after Sritf^lof/ 
anb Wr ^tm wit^ aff 6i6 fottowerS : — 'gor / faib ^t, H^ii man 
forfeieeb l&i« fife, w^en ^e fpareb no place ^owet^er facreb/ SRow 
Men) t&ep tl^e gat^eringsfoimb for t^e ?5rince«'s:®ttarb«, anb a» 
t^ep came out of t^e JDifar^f^all t^ep faw t^at it toa6 in a 
Maje» Z^it^cxf therefore, went Sing i^alf&an witl^ fomc of 
^i6 men, rol^ife Sing i^elge Oafifcb after Sritf^lof anb ^i6 
fottowerS; hut afreabp were t^ep on boarb t^eir f^ip, faffing 
gentlp bown t^e jlream. Sfjow founb Sing -Jelgc anb ^13 
troopg tl&at all t^eir f^ipS were brofen ani unfcroiceabf e , anb 
t{>cp were forceb, to fanb again, loftng t^erewitl^ fome of tf;eir 
mtn. ^ereat became i^clgc fo enrageb, t^at f;e raoeb a« 
t^ougl^ l&e were mab, Sl^en benbeb f)e ^i& bow, anb laib an ar« 
row on t^e firing, intenbing to fl&oot it at Sri t^) I of. 23ut 
t^iS ^c bib wit^ fo mud& force, t^at hoti) t^e necfa of t^e bow 
fnoppeb afunben 9?ow birectfp xof)cn Srif^iof faw t{)ig, {)e 
graft)cb two of t^e oarS on «Ui6a, anb roweb witb t^em fo 
mig^tifp tl&at t^ep brafc* ^erewit^ d^auntcb ^e: 

'Sif b 3 poung 
^ngehOTQ, 
SDaug^ter of »clc, 
3n Salbev'i grooe, — 
®o f^outb tbe oarg 
©f «Ui&a 
Sot^ breaf, — 
£ife ^clgc'S bow!' 
Srfter t^at, t^e winb frefbeneb merrilp bown tbe ftrt^, anb 
t^ep i&oijieb fail anb put to fea. Sritf^iof faib tbep fboufb 



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28 

tafe care anb manasc fo, if)^t t&ep temaiitcb tj&eres^aboiiW no 
longer. Z^tnaftex, faileb t^cp out along tf)c coajl of So^n. 
X^en fang Svitf^lof t^i* d&aunt: 

<@0/ latelp/ on f^t|>^6oacb 

SBc fairb out of eo^nlj 

O'er tf)e iotnei of our gathers 

2^en plap'b tl&e fierce pre6} — 

'SWib »al&cr'« Ble^'b ^agc 

9lott) t^e pprc 'gin* to burn; 

aSut IcmplcstDolf now 

ma t^ep caa me, 3 wot!' 
»j4rn quejiioneb Svit^iof, '2B{iat f^att we now nn^ 
bertafe, gojferbrot^er ?' — '3 ma9 not/ fap« Srit^iof, 
*be ^ere In tlorway; 3 wilT learn t|)e cu]iow6 of tl^c QWfif 
anb win go out a6 a S3if tng/ @o i^(anbd anb feafCliffiS feari^eb 
tr>ep aU tl&roug^ t^e fummer/ winning t^em 6otl& goob* anb 
renown/ hxit towaxU axttumn fleereb t^ep to t^e <Dffney$« 
aingantyr reccioeb t^em tocUf anb wit^ ^Im remaincb t&ep 
att t^e winter. JBut wi^en Sritf^tof l^ab journepeb out from 
nor way, t^e ^ing« ^b a Tlnfj, anb beclareb Svit^iof 
outUxoch from att t^eir lanb* , feising to tf)cmfer»e« aU j^iS 
pofe^ion^. ^alf&an, t^e JIing,fettteb at St^amnd^/— • buitb« 
ing up t^e t>ir(agc w^ere^jer it xoai burneb. Odalbex'i^^aee 
alfo refloreb t^e 23rot^er« a6 it wa« before; long Ij^ab it Uen 
ere t()e fire wa6 quend^eb tl&ercim 3t fell ^ing gelQt tf)e 
worjt, t^at t^e ®ob« were burneb up. 2Jerp great xoai t^e cojt/ 
ere »al6er'«s|5a0C xoa& built up equattp a6 at firfl. «ing 
i^clgc litjeb now at Syrfiran6^ 



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c 



29 

€ffap^ XI. 

Xj5^crc\>cr ^c went, wajreb Srit^lof Ciccccbinglp in rlc^c* 
anb in fame* SBirfcb anb cruel men anb grimful SQifingg f)e 
jlctt) , hut peafant* anb merd&antg let ^e go free* STgain , t^eret 
fore, toai ^e catteb SvltI;iof t^e »oI&» Slight manp men, 
ilont4^<ixttt> anb mte, ^ab ^e unber ^im, anb in alt finba of 
preciou6 gooba abounbeb f)t e;irceebingtp» fftoto w^en, a^ a S3is 
fing/ ^c {)ab traocrfeb tl^e feaS IV winter^, menbeb ^e rounb 
eafiwarb/anb cafi and^or in t^e fdap. 'trf^ore/ faibSrltf^lof/ 
mufi 3 &^f ^^^ P^ f^^ff fotap att t^roug^ tt)e winter* SKearp 
begin 3 to be of t^efe e;rpebition« , anb to Uplanb wiff 3 jour^ 
nep/ anb t^ere bifcourfe wit^ King t^e «ing* 3n tt;e fummer 
f^aff pc Diftt me ^ere j bacf f^all 3 come, t^e ftrfi bap of fum*^ 
mer*' — *gar from wife', anjbereb »jorn, 'i^ t^i6 t{)p counfcf. 
@tiB, nat^Uh mapfl t|)ou ^a^e tH> wap» 3 n^oulb ^a^e l&ab u« 
ropage nort^warb to Sogn, anb jlap t^e ^ing« t^ere, bot& 
(5cl(jc anb j^alf&an/— «9Jot atalT/ rcturnet^ Svit^iof, 
^wiU tHt feroe uS; rather will 3 go anb f!nb *lng King anb 
3ngcborg/ »j4rn anfroer«, 'Unwitting am 3, tW t^on 
f^oulbf} t^u^ truji t^pfelf alone in ^i6 power; for wife i« King, 
anb of r;igl) birt^y , t^oug^ now fomew^at in pear6/ — «3 mufi 
counfel,' quob Srit|^iof, *but t^ou, Sjovn, muji counfel 
OHx our men in t^e ;mean w^ile/ Z^m bib t^ep a6 ^e f>ab com« 
manbcb. Sritf^lof now jlournepeb Uplan&«n)ar& towarbS 
autumn , for f)e wa6 impatient to fooF upon t^e lotjeg of 3 n* 
gcborg anb of King* Slow before ^c arrioeb t^it^er, toof 
^e ouer aU ^i& ot^er garment* a great broab cloaf , w{)ici^ wag 
attogetl&er ^airp; two f1aoe« ^a\> ^e in ^i« ^anbS^ I^i6 face toaS 
cojjereb witf; a maj?, anb f)e went a6 one bowcb^bown wit^ pear*. 
2rfterwarb6 met ifie fome ^erb«men. SE^en totter* f)e forwarb 



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30 

anb affet^ whence t^cp were? 'Our Joined/ anfwereb t^ep, ^are 
6p Streltalanfe/ on t^e king's bomatn8/ Zf)e olb man af?5 
again, '2« Xin^ a mig^tp Sing?' — ^^t feemet^ to u«/ tj^cp 
replieb, 'aS tf)Oug& t^ou wert fo olb/ t^at t^ou mig&tjl fnoro 
n)f;at f inb of 6^ief Sing KiriQ ii in all refpectf.' — *aWorc ^aoe 
3 minbeb mp burning of fatf ,' faib t^e becrejjib jlranger/ 't^an 
tl^e manner^ of great SingS/ Sl^en wcnbeb l^e onwarb to tt)e 
Sing'6 ^oufe, anb tomarbS etjentibe entereb ^e t^e ^att tI;ereof. 
SBeaf anb wap^worn appeareb l&e, anb fioob t^erc far bown bp 
tl)e boor, bracing t(;e cowl ooer ^i& face t^t ^e migl&t be con* 
ceateb t^e better* SE^en quob Jling t{)e Sing to 3nflcbovflf 
*2;&ere came a man e'en now into t^e J^aff, taCer bp far t^an 
ot^er men.' ZU .Queen replied to bim, '©matt inbeeb are tbofe 
tibingS, D Sing!' Z^m talfeb be to tbe feroingt^man tt)(;o ffoob 
bp tl^e boarb, anb faib: *®o tbouj quejiion tbi^ eowr=:6toafeb 
man tt)f)0 f;e i6, whence be cometb, anb w^at ^ia fin map be/ 
Sbe fmain leapeb now along tf)e floor to t^c new-come man, 
anb faib: *^f)at art tbou bi9&t,olb felTow, anb wf^ere wajl tbou 
tbi« nigbt, anb xo^at i6 tbP finbreb?' Z^e gloaf^aRuffleb am 
fweret^ : 'aSud^ aj?eji tbou , fwain j but canji tbou gi\)e anp goob 
account tbereof, f^oufb 3 teir t^ee now?' Jge faib tbat ]()e coulb* 
Z1)e 6owr*fflearer anfwerg : *If>iof [If^lefJ am 2 ^ig^t, witb 
Ulf [Z^e wolf] mi 3 lail nig^t, anb in JCngri [pcn^ 
tcnce] wa6 3 brougl^t up/ SE^^e fwain t^en ^ajlcnetl^ to t^e 
Sing, anb tettetb l&im t^e gowfcman'5 anfwer* *3yea ^ajl tbou 
comprebenbeb l&im, fwain,' faib t^e Sing; *tbat bijirict fnow 3 
w^id^ is Jlngrl catteb. g)et map be, t^i6 man ^ai not peace 
of minb. 2r wife man, bowe^^er, be mull be, anb 3 t^inf 
rigbt wctt of &im.' — *3t is a wonberful cufiom,' obferocS tr;e 
Qntcrif H^at tbou bojl wif^ fo eagerip to tatf witb eoerp olb 
feffow tl)at cornet^ ^itl^er; anb wbat is tbere in bint, t^at \)t 
is wort^ taff ing to?' — ^Z\)at; faib t^e Sing, <cantT t(^ou not 



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31 

fnow better t^an % ^e t^lnfett^, 2 fee, ntud& more t^an f)t 
fpeafg/ anb cojtet^ ^16 cpe6 ct^erp w^ere arounb/ Sffter tHt/ 
fcnt t^e ^ing a man to fctd^ ^im x\p, anb r;e came before t^t 
Sing* Somewhat croofeb floob f;e, anb roit^ a Ion? i>oice be 
f»»fe. SEbe ^ing faib: 'SQ^at art tf)on bigbt/ tbou tarr^buUt 
manV Z^t doaf^mufjTeb ©tranger anfroereb witb tbi* (baunt: 

'Zf)en bigbt 3 Stitl^lof [pcace^l^lcfj 

SBben witb 83ifing« 3 banbeb, 

aSut i^crtf^iof [2trmysl^lcf] wben SBibowg 

3 mabe to weep fore, 

(Beivtyiof [Spcar^lC^ief] wb^n goob fpear« 

3 grimlp laun^eb, 

(Bnnt^iof [»attlc*lf^icf] wben glablp 

3 gafb'b in t^e fdattUi 

eytf^tof [^Sles'If^iefJ inbeeb wben 

<SeastfIe« 3 raPag'b, 

i^cltbiof [3E)eatf)=^n:t>ief] wben carctef 

Zo beatb 3 caff cbifbren, 

Valt^iof[t^e SIatn'«^If)icf] wben i^aliant 

3 oanquifb'b otber6: — 

SWott) jtnce bat)e 3 wanber'b 

asitb falt^burnera fablp, 

^etp biflblp necbing ere 

^itber 3 came !' 

S£be Sing faib: *grom manp tbinga f)aii tbou tafen tU 
name of ICI^iof [Iblef]* 25ut wberc tva\i tbou tbi^ nigbt, 
wbere iS tbp bome, wbere waf? tbou breb, anb tof)at f)a^ ^afieiu 
eb t^ee bitber?' 2be .5ibe::gooereb anfwerebj — «3n 2Ingri 
[Penitence] wa« 3 breb, at nif'i [t^e tpolf^] roa6 3 
lail nig^t, ^ugur [inclination] b^fieb me bitber, anb 
bome b^oe 3 not at all.' — '3t map be fo,' rcpfieb t^e Sing, 
't^t tbou baff Been brougbt up fome time in JCngri [peni^ 



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32 

tenet], anb \)et it map t)crp mU happen tW t^<>« wafl bom 
in Sittf^l [peace]. 3n t^e woob mufi t^ou ^aoc been e^i« 
nig^t/ for no pcafant W tjiere f)ett In t^e neig^bour^b wl^o t« 
ccinteb Ulf [tt>oIf]» 23ut a» to xo^ t^on fapcji, t^t tf>t>u 
^ajijno ftome/ mapf^ap t^ou ti^inhH it to he of but little xt>ott^, 
againfi tHt ^Uffur [inclination] w^i* ^a6 brougl&t 
t^cc l&it^cr/ SE^en faib ^naehotg: 'SEurn t^ec, ICf^lof 
[Il^icfJ to fomc ot^cr gcafKngsj^arr, or get t^cc to t^e ©ucfling* 
d&ambcr6.' iE^c «ing anftoetet^: 'Dlb enoiigl^ am 3 now, to be 
able to bift)ofe of mp guejW e'en a« 3 wiOj anb get tbee out/ 
mp goob new comet/ from t^t« tjp cfoaf t^txe, anb feat t^ee 
bp mp jtbe/ — «3nbeeb a little too ofb tnnil tl)on be/ returnet^ 
t^e jQueen, 'to tbinf of ptocing olb fl[aff»men*) bp tbee berc/ 
@aib If^iof: *3t neebetb not/ mp Sorbj anb better i« it a8 
tbe iQucen botb fap/ for tomp falt«burning am 3 more accufiom* 
eb tban to fttting witb ebief-SRen/ S£f;e «ing faib ; «2)o tbou 
a6 3 xoiUf for it muflf be tf)at 3 rule in tbi« matter.' Z^en 
tbrew 16 1 of bt* cloaf from off bim; a barNMue firtle toa6 
tbereunber/ tbe SRing ti)e ®oob glittereb on bi^ b<^«b, a broab 
tbirf @ilt)ers58elt ^e bab about bim/ anb tberefrom a great ?5urfc 
wai banging wetl^^Ueb witb fbining ftloer^monep* S/t» (Bvooxb 
xoaS girbcb on bi* jtbe/ anb a great gur^Jpoob bore ^e on bi* 
^eaif for [to bi6guife btmfelf tl)e better] b^ bab trembling epe8 
anb wai b^irp o\)ex all bi^ face*— <9iow tbat 3 calf to be mud^ 
better bont/ faitb tbe Sing; 'Sbou/ mp iDueen/ fbalt get for 
bim a mantle, a goob one fucb a« be rcquiretb.' — '3t ii for 
tf>ee, mp JJorb,' anfroercb tbe Qiutm, Ho birect aC; but Httle 
value put 3 on tbi« If^iof/ SEb^rcafter a gooblp cloaf wai 
giocn unto bim / anb be waa fet in t^e •^igbsSeat togctber witb 
t^e Sing. SSfoob^rcb became t^e Queen, ro^tn ©be fan) bi8 Slrm* 

Sting 



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33 

Sling tJe®oob, hnt t^en mutb fjc not eyd&onge one ftngle mxh 
xoit^ l^int* Z^t Jting/ ^owtHt, wa& riQ^t pUafatit anb frienbfp 
towarba l^im/ faping; <9{ goobtp Sling ^ajl tl^ou t^ere on t^p 
f>anb, anb long muff tf)ou l&at)c burncb faU therefor/ — *2ra i« 
It/ cinfwcrct^ t^c Stranger, «n)^i(l& wai left me 69 mp gather/ 
*St map be/ faltl) t^e fiing, *t{>at t^ou l&a|I more tl&an t^ati 
but t^ere arc few olb falt^sburnerS , 3 txow, equal unto tf;ee, if 
age ]^a8 not too mud^ bimmeb mine epe6/ Q:|>iof remaineb 
wit^ Jling aB tje winter t&rougI>. Df great conftberation toai 
^t, anb ^igf^Ip roaS ^t efieemeb bp aD; for generoud ^e toa» in 
gift*/ anb finb^carteb anb d&cerful towarb* ct>erp man. Sittfe 
anb felbom fpofe t^e jQueen to ^im, but bp t^e ^ing (^ wa9 
regarbeb e^er toitf) a glab anb fmiling countenance. 



^jfap* xil. 

^inQ SUttig journiet^ to a 33anquettn0. 

JCow it i« relateb, tjiat it came to pa^ tW ^ing wourb 
iournep to a great feafi/ together wit^ I&t6 jQueen anb manp 
fbffower«. S£&en t^e «ing queflioneb Ifjiofj *2B^etr;er wirt 
t&ou go tt?it& u« now/ or wilt tl&ou remain at f)omeV ^t axis 
fwereb, &e ^ab rather go wit^ t^tra. *5£5i6 life 3 better alfo/ 
faitl^ tl&e «ing. Sifter tWf beparteb t^epj anb it fo xoat>, tHt 
tifep fjoulb iournep oDcr a lafe. If^iof obfcrueb to t^e ^ing 
*S£^i« ice/ mp Sorb/ feemet^ to me wcaf anb bangerfomej hnt 
careleflp/ trow 3, ^at>e we trat>eleb/ — <lDften \)a\>t we founb,' 
faib t|>e «ing, HW t^ou fiafi t^ougf^t xotU for u6/ 21 moment 
afterwarb/ aa t^e ice brafe in. JE^cn Ua'ipt If^lof forwarb 
anb fnatd^eb t^e ©lebge unto V^xtif witb aff t^at wa8 in it anb 

5 



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34 

thereon. JBot^ t^e Sing anb JQween fat tf^erej aB t^ft puUtt> 
lCf>iof up out of tl&c icc/ together wjt|> tj&c &orfcg tt>l&ii§ tt>ere 
{)arnefeb to t&e @lebge^ ^ing Kitiff faib: ^^ow id all tvtU 
brawn out/ If^iof; nor coulb Stitf>lof tf^e 23ol6 iimfttf 
1)a\>t braggeb more fironglp^ t^oug{i &e l&ab been prefent l&ere. 
®ud& men, trufp/ are rigl^t bolb anb ^eartp. fottowersr Z^tn 
came t^ep up to t^e feaji/ but nought wort^p of note occurreb 
thereat. J^omewarb iournieb t^e ^ing, mit|> oaluable gift* anb 
cotKp* ®o pafeb t^e bept^ of t^e tpinter an^ap, anb toxDarbS 
©pring began t^e weather to be more milb/ t^c woobg to bub 
anb Moont/ tl&e graf to grow, anb f^ip6 were feen glibing from 
t()e one lanb eoen to t^e ptj^er. 



CJfa^ XIII. 

ainff SWtttfl ri6e« to t^e Sorcjl. 

©ne bap it ^appeneb, t^at t^e ^ing fpofe unto ^i« guarbS anb 
d^ief men faping : *9?ow witt 3 — t^at pe go out to t^e SBoob wit|i 
me t^i6 bapf pleafantlp to pap awap t^e time, anb to fee tl^e 
beautp of tf)c lanb^cape/ @o bib t(«p t^ttfoxt , a oerp great 
train going out xoM^ tf)t ^ing into t^e fprefi* Slow it came to 
paP tf)at t(>ep two, tlf^c ^ing anb Sritfjiof, were atone 6ot& 
together in t^e 2Boob, far from oi^x men. Sj;i;e *ing faitji: 
•^caop am 3 wit^ jlecp, anb ^ere muff 3 repofe/ _ *9lot fo,* 
anfwerctl^ Svit^iof, 'hut let mp £orb journep |omej for fo 
itbecomct^ great men, rather t^att to refi t^em in t^c open air/ 
^ZW 3 cannot bo,' faib tl&e jling. Jt^en l^c taib |>im bown, 
faffing fajl ajleep, anb fnoring aloub. If^lof fat near unto 
^im, anb brew ^i6 ®worb from ita fcabbarb, anb flung it from 
^im oerp far awap. ©^ortlp tf;ereafter, tl^e Jling rofe up anb 



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35 

faib: ^^ai it not fo, Srlt^of/ t^^t m«d^ cdtnc into U)9 
mtnb, hnt wl&icl^ toaB meff fcf?ffcb? jponot «n& tegarb, t^cre:r 
fore, f^aft t^Du now ^aoe xoit^ uS, for immcbiatcrp fncw 3 
tl&ee t^at »crp ftrft evening w|icn t]|oa cantefl to our ^air^^ SRot 
foon f^aft t^ou pari omap from 116* ©oubtfcp, alfo, cornet^ 
fomct()ing great to befal t^ee ^erC — *2BeK tnm 3/ anfmerct^ 
grlt^lof, Uf)at t^on ^a)I weH anb ftnblp recebeb nte, D 
^ingj but foon mujl 3 now «w>ap/ for mp men roiff come 
eagerlp to meet me, et>en a6 3 ^a\>t before appointeb for tf)cm 
10 bo/ S^creafter robe ffiej^ ^mewarbS , tl&c attenbantg of tl&e 
SbtQ coming together to ^im from out tl)e foreff* JE^en came 
i^9 l^ome, anb at nlg^ rig^t merrilp branf tl&ep In t^e ^aff. 
dloto mad it alfo oyenlp beclareb to aU t1)t people thereabout, 
tW Srit^iof t^e %o(& ^ab pafeb t^e winter wit^ t^ie 
^ing. 



3 



€i^ap\ XIV. 

^tit^iof ohtainetp ^n^ehot^- 

It w>a« fo one morning earip, t^at a great fnodPing wa« ^earb 
at t^e boors of t^e ^aU »I>ere t^e ^ing anb Queen bib fleep, 
together wit^ manp ot^er folf* *SB^o fnodP* t^m, on tbe boor?' 
afPetf^ t^e «ing. SE^en repUet^ ^e w^o |foob without, *S t i t f>l of 
it i«, anb reabp am 3 now for mp beparture/ 9Iott) were t^e 
boorS thrown open, anb Stit^iof went in, anb quob t{)id 
fong: 

'gor all t^p t^oug^tfur rinbnef 

3 now, D Sing, wiff t^anF SE^ee; 

?5repar'b t^e ^ero jlanbet^ 

SEo go — anb l&arb oar8 lianbte. 



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36 

3nQ*hove 3 ttmtmhev 
grom infancp tl&rougj liffej 
3n welfare tin ®{)e, wearing 
jaJrifi^iewel for tnanp* a fifr 

SE^en t^rew ^t to ^tXQehove tU Wing t^e ©oob, faplng 
t^at it r^ourb be l^erd. 9(t t^iS fong t^e Jttng fnttfeb/ anb 
quob, *®o wa8 itf fioweper/ t$at f^e wa« better tj^anfeb for tW 
tointcrn^ifit t1)an 3; anb pet ^at^ f^e not been more frienbrp 
towarbS t^ee tjan 3 fiave been/ JCl^en fent tl&c ^ing bi8 feroing# 
men to feef brinf anb foob/ anb faitfi t^at t{iep f^oufb now aff 
feaji anb jJlebgc Sriff^iof before t^at ic f^oulb bepart. K^e 
SQueen a(fo bab ^e rife upt anb be d^eerful wtt{i t^ttn. ®^e 
quob/ tf;at fje coulb not eat fo earfp. Z^e Jting anfweret^: 
<2Be wia now all tafe our meal together/ ®o bib t^ep alfoj 
anb, after tf;ep l^ab brunf for a time, Jlinff faib: 'J^ere woulb 
3 t^at t^ou ffyoulbjl be, Srit^iofj for mp fon8 are hut 
(^ilbren in age, anb 3 am now olb, anb am no longer capaMe 
of being t^e bulwarf of mp countrp, if anp one f^oulb feef tl^ig 
lanb wit& unfrienblp purpofe/ Sritf^iof replietj: ^Z^iB mo^ 
ment f&att 3 journep, D SJief/ ^e d^auntetj^ now tUi fong; 

«£ong anb in weal, Wb 
Jlinflf map'ji t^ou liw, — 
STOonart^ befi, ^igjieff, on 
2^e @art$*8 broab^firetd&'b bofom! 
®uarb, SBife S^ief, welT t{ip 
SBBife anb tf)p Eountrp ! 
TinQ'hovQ anb 3 — meet no 
a)?ore in t^iJ worfbT 

SE&en quob Xing t&e Sing; 

«5Wap! but not fo fare, 
Sritl^iof, from u«; 



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37 

JDearefl (>c(m*b fiero — 
mt^ ^eat)p foul! 
3erocW anb pajl prcfent6 
SWuji 3 rcspap t&ec,— 
@ure better t^an e^ett/ 
2()pfelf, frienb, woulbjl tjinfr 

Srnb thereafter fang l^c t^S : 

*Sro Sritf^iof tjc Samou« 

SWp fair ©poufe 3 gtoe, 
Sinb ®oob8 t^at ^ ^au 
m abbeb tj^ercto!' 

SE^en anfiDereb Sritjiof anb faib: 
*®ift« fu* a« t^efe/ wia 3 
Slet)er tafe from t^ee, — 
Unlc^ Hiitfl'* rafi ftdP ncp faK 
gatal anb fafir 

'3 boubtref f()oulb not fltoc t^ec fud^/ faitb t^e «infl, 
•unleP 3 feltroit^in me tf)at fo it tt)a8; ftdP, inbeeb, 3 ami <i«b 
n^ininglp toontb 3 t^at t^i8 marriage f^ou(b be enjopeb bp 
ii)ce, for ftrjl art t^ou among aU t^c mm in aor»ay. S£|)e 
JEitle of 5ing alfo toiU 3 gipe unto t&ec, for 3ngcbor0'« 
SBrot^erS wif^ t^ce morfe bignitieg/ anb witl^ a nwrfc ©poufe 
woulb web t^ec, t^an 3/— *2Wanp tl&anfg, mp goob 2orb, f|>alt 
t^ou Me/ anfwerct^ Sritf^iof; 'f^r aH t^p manp finbnefcg 
more tH'^ 3 ^ab ^opeb^ a3ut onlp t^e name of 3arl n>ia 3 
accept a« mp |yonorarp title^* Sl^en gaoe Jling Kins «»t«> 
Svit^iof, anb wlt& ^i^ rig^t Hn\> conjtrmcb it, aut^oritp 
ooer all t^at realm «>bicl& it &ab gooerncb/ anb t^ercwit^ t{ie 
name of 3a r I* SEJ^ereooer f^oulb Svit ^i of rule, until tl^e 
fon« of H i n ff f ^oulb be of age tI>emfrtoe8 to gopem tl;eir lanb» 
®l^ort roai t^t time ti)at Jting King (ap on Ui beat^>beb, 



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anb w^en t^at (ic expinb, great xmt t^ uwnmlng <tnb lament^ 
ation ooer (>im t^roufl^ aU ^i& fingbont* « 6alrtt tf^en raifcb 
t^ep above j^tnt/ anb mud) soobd cafl t^ep t^mln^ t\>en a6 ^e 
l^ab babe t^em. after t(fi«/ gaoe Srit|>ldf an bonourable 
banquet/ anb thereto came up oil l^ii mm. Z^n^, at once 
together, branf t^cp jJtnj King't ^unnaU^e anb t^e 2Beb# 
bingsgeajl of^ngcborflf anbSritf^iof* S^ereafter fettleb 
Srltf^lof t^ere, ruling ot>er tbe lanb, anb etTecnteb anb 
famou« was ^e in t^c fig^t of att men, SDTanp d^irbren bore 
3n0cborfl unto ^im» 



(tl^ap. XV. 

®f ^tttl^tof anb t^e 23rot^r<$ ^el^ anb ^alfban* 

Jim it xoai tolb t6e ^ing« in Sogn/ t^e a3rot|)er3 of 3 n^c^ 
torfl/ l^m t]&a> SritHof {>ab gotten t\)t d^ief fwap In 
Hfngarifc/ anb ^vtb oBtaineb in marriage tl&eir ftjier TSnQti 
feorff. i^cltfc t^^en fal^l^ unto ^aff&an f)i8 brother, 
^SKonfirou* inbeeb anb inforent beponb meafure i« it, tW a 
rferfe:** [S^ief gaptaitt'g] fon fboulb t^wi pofe^ f)er!' 9?on) 
therefore a^mble tl^ep Derp great force*, anb mard^ tberewifb 
into Xingarlfe, t^inflng tt> flap Svit^iof anb fubbuc iiff 
5i* fingbom unber tlytxn, aSut w^en Sritfjiof wa6 informeb 
^reof, gat^ereb be ^18 troop8 together anb fpofc t^nS to 2nQt^ 
hoxQi '2Bar 16 now come into our fingbom^ ^x\t xoi^at^ux 
map be t^e enb tl&ereof, t^ee witt we neper fee Toot unfinblp/ 
«@o far iJ it now come/ anfweret^ f^e, «tl&at we mufl let tbee 
be t^c ^igjeff/ ®o it xoaS alfo, t^at »jorn, aboancing 
from t^e eafl, came in to tbe r;er») of Srltfjiof* 5Wow 
mardj tf^ep to t^e hattU^ anb it wa* a6 it r>ab eper been before, 



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39 

t^at St'it^iof tt)a« forcmofj in t^e fj^ldPcfl of t^e ffg^t. 3t 
^appcncb now, (^at l&c anb ^clgc t^c ^ing came to ex^atiQC 
Mott»6 wit^ ead& otf^cr^ anb ^i« beat^^wounb fo got &c front t^e 
5anb of Srit^of. SE{icn caufcb Srit^^iof t^e @^tclb of 
?)cacc to 6c llftcb up/ anb ficrebp wa* t^c contcji brofcn off, 
Z^en fpofc Stit^iof unto galfban t^e Sing anb/aib: 
'2tt)o conbitlon* arc t^crc now &crc before t^cej citl&cr t^at tl&ou 
put all unbcr mp power anb rule, or t^at ti&ou get t&p banes 
blow cDcn a6 t^p brotl&er before t^ec, for to me it feemet^ t^t 
^ere 3 ^a\)e t^e better in t^e quarrel/ SE^ d&ofe rfalfban, 
tl^creforc, tf;at ^imfelf anb aU l;i6 realm fl&oulb be in t^c ^anbS 
of Sritf^iof* ©0 wa« it t^en^ tM Srit^lof toof t^c rule 
ot>cr ©Oflnc*Sylfi/ int ^alf&an became ^crfc thereof, 
papin^ unto Stltfjiof a tribute fo long ai 1)c gopcrneb l^itxQa^ 
rife* iJ^ereafter toof Sritf^lof t^e name of ain^ opcr 
SogncsrSylfi/ for Xingarifc gape &c badP unto t^e @on« of 
Klnflf. 2lfter t^ig won f)C unber ^Im tl&at lanb ^igW ^ar&e* 
lanb. @ong two ^ab ]&e, (Bunlntf^lof anb rfunnt^iof/ 
bot^ ftout men anb famou8 in t^eir bap» — HBnlftti) 60 ^tvt 

m Sug^ of ^ii^iof i^e ^ol^ 



The peculiar alliterative metres of the Recitative'Chaunts, 
and that general tone of vigorous simplicity, 

"Then most adorn'd when unadorned the most," 
which pervades the Original as all the other Icelandic Sagas, 
— have been preserved throughout in the above Translation, 
which is as literal as a due regard to the genius of the two 
languages would admit. 

The text has been rendered in a style rather antique, — 
but old-fashioned spellings, and Archaisms decidedly unintelli- 
gible to a common Reader, have been purposely rejected. 



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INTRODUCTORY LETTER 



TO 



FRITHIOFS SAGA. 



BT 



ESAIAS TEGNER. 



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TRANSLATED) 

INTRODUCTORY LETTER, 



FROM 



Bishop TEGNMiR 

TO 

THE TRANSLATOR. 



Dated Ostrahoj April as, t83^. 



At the time when 'Frithior was composed , it was com- 
monly enough believed among the Literati of Sweden — 
and I need only mention Leopold as an example — that 
what was called the Gothic Poetry was, notwithstanding 
the talent it w^as admitted had been employed on it,* 
altogether and organically unsuccessful. This Poesy, it 
was asserted, rested for fundamental support on a wildness 
of manners and opinions and an only partial developement 
of the relations of Society, impossible to reconcile with 
the Poetry of present times. The latter was , properly 
enough, regarded as the Daughter of Modern Civilization, 
and in Her countenance it was that the Age recognized, 
though beautified and idealized, the features of itself. 
And, indeed, it is quite true that all Poetry must reflect 
the progress and temperament of its Time ; but still we 
find those general human passions and circumstances, 
which must remain unchanged in every period, and may 
be regarded as the foundation of poetry. Even before 

♦ For 'Iduna' bad long since been published. 

6 



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44 

this , though with various success , Llug * had treated 
several Northern Subjects, — for the most part in a 
Dramatic form. It has been observed that his great poetic 
talent lay more in the Lyric than the Drama, and that 
he paints exterior Nature far better than the ever-changing 
Soul. That the Northern Saga can successfully assume 
the Dramatic form is, however, abundantly proved by the 
Tragedies of Oehlenschlager. It is with pleasure I acknow- 
ledge , that his 'Helge' first gave me the Idea of 'Frithiof.* 

It was never my meaning, however, in this Poem, — 
though such seems to have been the opinion of many — 
simply to versify the Saga. The most transient comparison 
ought to have shown , not only that the whole denouement 
is different in the Poem and the Saga, but also that 
several of its parts, such as Cantos II, III, V, XV, 
XXI, XXIII, and XXIV, have either little, if any, or 
at least a very distant ground in the Legend. Indeed it 
is not in this one, but in other Icelandic Sagas that we 
ought to seek the sources of the incidents I have chosen. 
My object was, to represent a poetical image of the old 
Northern Hero-Age. It was not Frithiof, as an individual, 
whom I would paint; it was the epoch of which he was 
chosen as the Representative. It is true that I preserved, 

in this respect, the hull and outline of the Tradition, 

but, at the same time, I thought myself entitled to add 
or to take away, just as was most convenient for my plan. 
This, as I supposed, was a part of that poetic liberty, 
without which it is impossible to produce any independent 
treatment of any poetical subject whatsoever. 



The Translator regreta to Uate, that tlii* distinguished Gymnasist- 
Savan and good Poet expired a few days ago. 



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45 

In the Saga we find much that is high-minded and 
heroic, and which , equally demanding the homage of every 
period, both conld and ought to be preserved. But, at 
the same time, we meet occasional instances of the raw, 
the savage, the barbarous, which recjuired to be either 
altogether taken away, or to be considerably softened 
down* To a certain extent therefore, it was necessary to 
modernize; but jusi the difficulty here was to find the 
fitting lagom. * On the one hand the Poem ought not 
too glaringly to offend our milder opinions and more 
refined habits; but on the other, it was important not to 
sacrifice the national the Uvely the vigorous and the na- 
tural. There could, and ought to, blow through the Song 
that cold winter-air, that fresh Norlhwind which charac- 
terizes so much both the climate and the temperament 
of the North. But neither should the Storm howl till — 
the very quicksilver froze, and all the more tender emo- 
tions of the heart were extinguished. 

It is properly in the bearing of Frithiof 's character 
that I have sought the resolution of this problem. The 
noble, the high-minded, the bold which is the great 
feature of all Heroism — ought not, of course, to be 
missing there; and materials sufficient abounded both in 
this and in many other Sagas. But together with this 
more general Heroism, I have endeavoured to invest the 
character of Frithiof with something individually Northern 
— that fresh-living, insolent, daring rashness which belongs, 
or at least formerly belonged, to the national temperament. 
Ingeborg says of Frithiof, (p. 89) 

* "Lagom** is a beandfal word, which it is impossible always fnlly to 
translate. It occurs frequently in S^redish, and answers to our 'just 
the thing,' 'just right,* 'medium ,' 'moderate,' etc. — G. S. 



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46 

How glad, how daring-all, how full of hope! — 
His good Sword pointing to the norna's bosom, 
'Thou shalt,' saith He, 'Thou shalt give way.' * 
These lines contain the key to Frithiof's character, and, 
in point of fact, to the whole poem. Even the mild, 
peace-loving, friend-rich old King Ring is not destitute 
of this great national quality, at least in the manner of 
his death; and it is for this reason I let him "Carve 
himself with Geirs-odd,'* — undoubtedly a barbarous 
custom , but still characteristic of the time and the popular 
manners. 

Another peculiarity common to the people of the 
North, is a certain disposition for melancholy and heav- 
iness of spirit common to all deeper characters. Like 
some Elegiac key-note, its sound pervades all our old 
national melodies, and generally whatever is expressive in 
our annals , — for it is found in the depths of the Nation's 
heart. I have somewhere or other** said of Bellman, the 
most national of our Poets, 

And mark the touch of gloom his brow o'ershading — 
A Northern minstrel-look, a grief in rosy-red!^* 
for this melancholy, so far from opposing the fresh live- 
liness and cheerful vigour common to the nation, only 
gives them yet more strength and elasticity. There is a 
certain kind of life-enjoying gladness (and of this. Public 

♦ "Hur glad, hnr trotsig, hur fdrlioppningsfull ! 
Han Salter spetsen af sitt goda svard 
P^ Nornans brdst, ocli eager: du skall vika!" 
Frithiofs Saga, p. S9» 
** "och mark det vemodsdraget ofver pannan, 
elt Nordiskt SSngardrag, en sorg i roscnrSdll" 
These lines are from Tcgn^r's very beaatiful Verses on the Jubilee of 
the Swedish Academy, in 1836. — (Stanza X), — O. «. 



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47 

Opinion has accused the French ,j which finally reposes 
on frivolity; — that of the North is built on seriousness. 
And therefore I have also endeavoured to develope in 
Frithiof somewhat of this meditative gloom. His repent- 
ant regret at the unwilling Temple-fire, — his scrupulous 
fear of Balder, (p. 151) 

*Who sits in yon sky, gloomy thoughts sending down; 
ne'er my soul from their sadness is freed!' * 
and his longing for the final Reconciliation and for calm 
ivithin him, are proofs not only of a religious craving, 
but also and still more of a natural tendency to sorrow- 
fulness common to every serious mind, at least in the 
Nortb of Europe. 

I have been reproached (though I cannot help think- 
ing, without good reason) with having given the love 
between Frithiof and Ingeborg, for instance in *The Part- 
ing' — too modern and sentimental a cast. As regards 
this I ought to remark, that Reverence for the Sex was 
from the earliest times, long before the introduction of 
Christianity, a national feature of the German Peoples. 
On this account it was , that the light inconstant and simply 
sensual view of Love, — which prevailed among the most 
cultivated nations of Anti(juity, — was a thing quite foreign 
to the habits of the North. Song and Saga overflow with 
the most touching Legends of romantic Love and Faith 
in the North, long before the spirit of Chivalry had made 
Woman the Idol of Man in the South. The circumstances 
assumed between Ingeborg and Frithiof seem to me, there- 
fore, to rest upon sufficient historical ground, — if not 

* '<8om sitter i skyn, skickar tankarna ued, 
8om formorka milt siune alltjemt." 

Frithioft Saga, p» ti8. 



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48 

personally, -* in the manners and opinions of the Age. 
That delicacy of sentiment witli which Ingeborg refused to 
accompany her Lover, and rather sacrificed her inclination 
than withdrew herself from the authority of her Brother 
and Guardian — seems ta me to find its reason in the 
nature of each nobler female, which is the same in every 
Period and in every Land. 

The Subjective thus contained in the Events and 
Characters demanded^ or at least permitted, a departure 
from the usual Epic uniformity in their treatment. The 
most suitable method seemed to me, to resolve the Epic 
form into free Lyric Romances. I had the example of 
Oehlenschlager, in his Helge, before me ; and have since 
found that it has been followed by others. It carries with 
it the advantage of enabling one to change the metre in 
accordance with the contents of every separate song. Thus , 
for instance, I doubt whether 'Ingeborg's Lament' (Canto 
IX) could be given with advantage in any Language in 
Hexameters or Ten-syllabled Iambics, whether rhymed or 
not. I am well aware that many regard this as opposed 
to the Epic unity, which is, however, so nearly allied to 
monotony. But I regard this unity as more than sufficiently 
compensated by the freer room and fresher changes gained 
by its abandonment. Just this liberty, however, to be 
properly employed, requires so much the more thought, 
understanding, and taste; for with every separate Piece 
one must endeavour to find the exactly suitable form, a 
thing not always ready for one's hand in the language. 
It is for this reason that I have attempted (with greater 
or less success) to imitate several metres, especially from 
the Poets of Antiquity. Thus the Pentameter Iambic , hy- 
pcrcatalectic in the third foot, (Canto II) — the six-footed 



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49 

Iambic (C. XIV) — the Aristoplianic Anapests (C. XV) 
— the Ti'ochaic Tetrameter (C. XVI) — and the Tragic 
Senarius (C. XXFV), — were little, if at all, heard of in 
Swedish previous to my attempts. 

As I'egards the language in itself, — the antique sub- 
ject invited one sometimes to use an Archaism, especially 
where such an expression, without beiug obscure, seemed 
to carry with it any particular emphasis. Still this care 
is at all events lost abroad,'^ and sometimes even at home. 
It demands, nevertheless, very much prudence — for the 
great stream of words in a modern Poem must, naturally, 
flow from the language of the day, although an obsolescent 
word or two may occasionally be employed. 

Es. Tegner. 



* The Translator hopes he has succeeded in preserring the same an- 
tique cast in his Version as in the Original. This he has attempted, 
however , rather hj what he has omitted — the modern and the con- 
versational — than hy -what he has inserted, though a few cMmMthf^ 
received and venerable archaisms are sometimes to be met with. 



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FRITBIOrS SA&Af 



A MORWEQIAR STORT. 



From the Original Swedish 



OF 



ESAIAS TE6NER. 



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Names of the Personages 

who figure in the 

LEGEND OF FRITHIOF. 



BELE, Fylke-King (Independent ChieO of Sogne-District, m 

Nonvay. 

BUSLGE 7 

nA«»««l«r I ^'^ sons, co-heirs to his throne and lands. 

MMjkMjWOAM f 

INGEBORG, His only daughter, foster-sister and Beloved of 

FRITHIOF. 
THORSTEN, A rich and powerful Yeoman (Bonde), friend, 

chief stay, and brother-in-arms of King BELE. 
FRITHIOF, His son, Lover of INGEBORG, and the Hero of 

the Poem. 
HILDING, A venerable Peasant, the foster-father of FRITHIOF 

and of INGEBORG. 
BJORN, His son, sworn friend and weapon-comrade of FRITHIOF. 
RING, Fylke-King of Ringe-Rike, in Norway. 
ANGANTYR, Jarl, (Earl or reigning Chieftain) of the Orkney 

Islands. 
ATLE, A Berserk, one of his War-men. 
Priests, Warriors, Scalds, Peasants &c. 



Scene, Framnas and its neighbourhood (in Sogne-District) , and 
the Orkneys. 



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Extract of a letter 

from the 

AUTHOR OF FRITHIOrS SAGA. 



Dated Ostrabo^ 4 December, 1838. 

"Det sir min ofvertygelse att ingen af de foregaende 
ofversattame som jag haft tillfalle att lara kanna, intrangt 
sa som HeiT Professoren i Originalets ursprungliga anda 
och s& respekterat dess Nordiska egenheter." 

Es. Tegn^r. 



Translation. 

I am of opinion^ tbat no one of all the previous Trans- 
lators with whom I have had an opportunity of meetings have 
penetrated so deeply into the fundamental spirit of the Original 
and have so much respected its Northern characteristics as — 

yourself. 

Es. Tegn£r. 



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?^».r.'> :: *t-J- \ <CTl-^ ■ > v Vi^ ■^f hWrmu 



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OAMTO t. 



JVttfiiiJf ajrtr 3tt0<frirr0» 



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Argument. 

In this simple Ballad-Canto, so beautiful in the Original, 
are related the youthful graces and exploits of ingeborg and of 
FRiTHiOF, their slowly ripening and tender affection, and the 
bold resolve of frithiof to assert and abide his choice, "come 
what will." — Never was pure, lofty, fervid Love, that 
"feeling from the godhead caught. 
To wean from self each sordid thought; 
A Ray of Him who form'd the whole ; 
A glory circling round the soul!" *) 
painted with more impassion'd artlessness! The frithiof and 
INGEBORG of the North, how different from the romeo and juliet 
of the South, — and yet how much the same! Climate and 
customs modify, but Nature changes never! 

The metre in the Translation is that of the illustrious Author, 
except that the latter half of every verse has always feminine 
rhymes in Swedish. — We need not remind the English reader 
how scarce such Rhymes are in his Tongue, notwithstanding 
its acknowledged richness. 

*) BYRON, The Giaour, 



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• CANTO I. 



J^vittfiot attH Sngetorg. 



Iwo Plants, in HiLDDfo's garden fair. 
Grew up beneath his fostering care; 
Their match the North had never seen. 
So nobly tow'r'd they in the green! 

II. 

The one shot forth like some broad Oak, 
Its trunk a battle-lance unbroke; 
But helmet-like the top ascends. 
As HeavVs soft breeze its arch'd round bends. 

m. 

Like some sweet Rose, — bleak winter flown, — 
That other fresh young Plant y-shone; 
From out this Rose Spring yet scarce gleameth. 
Within the bud it lies and dreameth. 

lY. 

But cloud-sprung Storm round th'Earth shall go. 
That Oak then wrestles with his foe; 
Her heav'nly path Spring's sun shall tread, — 
Then opes that Rose her lips so red! 



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V. 

Thus sportful, glad, and green they sprung. 
And FRITHIOF was that Oak the young; — 
The Rose so brightly blooming there. — 
She hight was INGEBORG the FAIR. 

VI. 

Saw'st thou the two by gold-beam'd day, — 
To freja's Courts thy thoughts would stray 
Where , bright-hair'd and with rosy pinions , 
Swings many a bride-pair — Love's own minions. 

vn. 

But saw'st thou them, by moonlight's sheen. 
Dance round beneath the leafy green — 
Thou'dst say, in yon sweet garland-grove 
The King and Queen of fairies mov^. 

vm. 

How precious was the prize he earn'd 
When his fii'st rune the youth had learn'di — 
No King's could His bright glory reach, — 
That letter would he ing'borg teach. 

IX. 

How gladly at Her side steer'd he 
His barque across the dark blue sea! 
When gaily tacking FRITHIOF stands. 
How merrily clap her small white hands! 

X. 

No birds' nests yet so lofty were. 
That thither he not climb'd for Her; 
E'en th'Eagle, as he cloud-ward swung. 
Was plunder'd both of eggs and young. 



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XI. 

No streamlet's waters rush*d so swift, 
O'er which he would not ing'borg lift; 
So pleasant feels, whea foam-rush 'larms. 
The gentle cling of small white arms ! 

The first pale flow*r that spring had shed. 
The strawberry sweet that first grew red. 
The corn-ear fii-st in ripe gold clad, •— 
To Her he offer d, ti'ue and glad. 

But Childhood's days full quickly fly; 

He stands a stripling now, with eye 
Of haughty fire which hopes and prayeth ; — 
And She, with budding breast, see! strayeth. 

XIV. 

The Chase young frjthiof ceaseless sought; 
Nor oft would hunter so have fought; 
For, swordless spearless all, he'd dare 
With naked streagth the sayage bear: 

XV. 
Then breast to breast they struggled grim; — 
Though torn, the bold youth masters him! 
With shaggy hide now see him laden — 
Such spoils refuse — how can the maiden? 

XVI. 

For Man's brave deeds still Woman wile; 
Strength well is worth young Beauty's smile ; 
Each other suit they, fitly blending 
Like helm o'er polish'd brows soft bending! 



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8 

xvn. 

But read he , some cold Winter's night , 
(The fire-hearth's flaming blaze his light) 
A Song of ValhalVs brightnesses. 
And all its gods and goddesses ; — 

xvni. 

He'd think: *Yes! yellow's freja's hair, 
A corn-land-sea, breeze-wav'd so fair; — 
Sure ing'borg's, that like gold-net trembles 
Round rose and lily. Hers resembles! 

XIX.. 

*Rich, white, soft, clear is idun's breast; 
How it heaves beneath her silken vest! ---- 
A silk I know, whose heave discloses 
Light-fairies two with budding roses. 

XX. 

*And blue are frigga's eyes to see. 
Blue as Heav'ns cloudless canopy! — 
But I know eyes, to whose bright beams 
The light blue Spring-day darksome seems. 

XXI. 

*The Bards praise ^gerda's cheeks too high. 
Fresh snows which playful North-lights dye ! 
I cheeks have seen, whose day lights, clear. 
Two dawnings blushing in one sphere. 

xxn. 

*A heart like NANNa's own Tve found, 
As tender, — - why not so renown'd? 
Ah! happy BALDER; ilk breast swelleth 
To share the death thy Scald o'ertelleth. 



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xxm. 

'Yes ! could my death like BALDER*s be , — 
A faithful maid lamenting me -— 
A maid like nanna, tender, true — 
How glad I'd stay with HBL the blue !* 

XXIV. 

But the King's Child — all glad Her love — 
Sat murmuring Hero-Songs, and wove 
The' adventures that Her Chief had seen , 
And billows blue , and groves of green ; 

XXV. 

Slow start from out the wool's snow-iields 
Round, gold-embroider'd, shining shields. 
And battle's lances flying red. 
And mail-coats stiff with silver thread; — 

XXVI. 

But day by day Her Hero still 
Grows FRITHIOF like, weave how she will, — 
And, as His form 'mid the' arm'd host rushes. 
Though deep, yet joyful, are her blushes! 

xxvn. 

And FRITHIOF, where his wanderings be. 
Carves i and F i th' tall birch-tree; 
The runes right gladly grow united. 
Their young hearts like by one flame lighted. 

XXVin. 

Stands DAY on Heav'n's arch — throne so fair! 
King of the world with golden hair. 
Waking the tread of life and men — 
Each thinks but of the other then! 



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10 

XXIX, 

Stands NIGHT on HeayVs arch — throne so fair! — 
World's mother with Her dark-hued hair. 
While stars tread soft, all hush'd *mong men — 
Each dreams but of the other then! 

Thou earth! — each spring through all thy bow'rs 
Thy green locks jeweling thick Mrith flowers •— 
Thy choicest give I fair weaving them. 
My FRITHIOF shall the garland gem/ 

XJLXI. 

*Thou sea! in whose deep gloomy hall 
Shine thousand pearls, hear Love's loud call! — 
Thy fairest give me, to bedeck 
That whiter pearl — my ing'borg's neck!' 

xxxn. 

*0h crown of oden's Royal Throne, 
Eye of the world , bright golden suN ! — 
Wert thou but mine, should FBXTHIOF wield 
Thy shining disc. His shining shield/ 

*Oh lamp of great allfather's Dome , 
Thou MOON , whose beams so pale-clear roam ! — 
Wert thou but mine« should ing'borg wear 
Thy crescent-orb among her hair/ 

Then HILPING spoke: *From this love-play 
Turn, fosterson, thy mind away; 
Had wisdom rul'd, thou ne'er hadst sought her — 
))The maid», fate cries, »i6 sele's Daughter !» 



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11 

X3LX.V. 

*To ODEN, in His star-lit sky. 
Ascends her titled ancestry; 
But thorsten's son art thou; give way! 
For »like thrives best with like)) they say.' 

3LXXVI. 

But FBITHIOF smiling said; *Down fly 
To Death's dark vale my ancestry; 
Yon forest's King late slew I; pride 
Of high birth heir'd I with his hide. 

xxxvn. 

rrhe freebom man yields not; for stiU 
/His arm wins worlds where'er it will; 
Fortune can mend as well as mar, 
Hope's ornaments right Kingly are! 

xxxYin. 

*What is high birth but force? Yes! THOR, 
Its sire, in Thrudvang's fort gives law; 
Not birth, but worth, he weighs above; — 
The sword pleads strongly for its love ! 

XXXIX. 

\*Yes! I will fight for my young bride. 
Though e'en the Thund'ring God defied. 
Rest thee, my lily, glad at heart; 
Woe him, whose rash hand would us part!' 



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5 



5 =>^ 












i 






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MMllM 



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OAKTO n. 



Hind MiU 

atdf 



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Argument. 

King BELEy worn down with years and feeling his end ap- 
proaching, summons his sons and frithiof, and with hildiitg 
at his side counsels them in sumy a proverb of Northern wisdom. 
^Life's changing scenes', then exclaims the aged hilding to the 
King, 'have we shared together, and in death we wiU not be 
divided.' — He also then exhorts the three in sharp sayings 
and Scandinavian lore. 

Both then interchange words of friendly greeting; and, 
again saluting the young warriors they love so much, they 
conclude by commending them to the care and blessing of frey, 
of oden, and of thor. 

It was not possible to retain in this Caaito the metre of the 
original, of which we subjoin' the first Terse as a i^pecimeo: 

"Kung BELE, st5dd pa svardet, i Kungssal stod, 
hos honom thorsten vikingsson, den bonde god, 
bans gamle vapenbroder, snart hundraarig, 
och Unrig som en runsten, och silfverharig." 

Tegners Frithiofj p. 10. 



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CANTO IL 



Minq Utlt aitu Etfot^tm vmm^^on. 



In regal Hall King BELB stood. 

His sword a staff of light. 
And near him lean'd that Yeoman good 

THORSTEN VIKINGSSON hight; 

His weapon-brother old was he, 

A hundred years well nigh. 
And scarred all o'er as Rune-stones be. 

And silver-hair'd on high. 

n. 

They stood as up and down a hill 

Two offring-houses stand; 
Once, shrines for Heathen Gods to fill. 

Now, ruin'd in the land; 
But wisdom's runes, carv'd deep and fast. 

Those broken walls still hide. 
And high traditions of the past 

On each arch'd vault reside. 



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16 

m. 

'The shades of ev'ning hasten on ,* 

So speaketh BELE now; 
*My mead-cup's flavour all is gone. 

The helm weighs down my brow; 
My vision fails to trace the lines 

Of human weal and woe : 
But nearer, brighter, Valhall shines, — 

My death's at hand, I trow! 
rv. 

*My children have I call'd; and, friend. 

Thy son is summon'd too; 
For still together should they wend , 

As we were wont to do. — 
A warning shall they have to day. 

Those eagles proud and young. 
Before all counsel sleeps for aye 

Upon the dead man's tongue !' 

^' 

Then, as the King's commandment ran, 

Advanc'd they up the Hall. 
The first was helge, pale and wan 

And gloomiest of them all; 
He, where yond' altar-circle lies, 

Mong spaemen lov'd to stand. 
And came from groves of sacrifice 

With blood upon his hand. 

VI. 

HALFDAN appear d the next, a youth j 

With locks as bright as gold; I 

I 



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Noble his features were, m sooth, 

Though womanly their mould. 
His sword was belted round about 

For sport, apparently; 
And, in the guise of hero stout. 

Some girl resembled he. 
VII. 

But close behind them frithiof goes, 

Wrapp'd in his mantle blue; 
His height a whole head taller rose 

Than that of both the two. 
He stands between the brothers there — 

As though the ripe day stood 
Atween young morning rosy-fair. 

And night within the wood. 
, VIII. 

*My children', saith the dim-eyed King, 

*Soon sets my Ev'ning's sun; 
Govern the realm in peace, nor bring 

Discord 'mid Union. 
For Union all in one enfolds; 

The Ring she likens most 
Which grasps the lance; — where no ring holds 

The lance's strength is lost. 

IX. 

*Let Force stand, like a sentinel. 

Before the country's gate; 
Let Peace within the hedg'd land dwell. 

Blooming and consecrate. 
The sword defence alone should yield. 

Else is its steel too hard; 



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Forg'd for ft padlock was the Shield, 
The peasant's barn to guard* 
X. 

*His own good land who'd fain oppress — 

Is but a simple man ; 
For Kings can do, as all confess. 

But what their People can. 
When , on the rocky mountain's side , 

The sapless trunk is dead^ ~ 
The thick-leav'd crown that was its pride 

Soon, too, is withered. 

XI. 

*0n pillars four of up-heap'd stone 

Stands high Heav'ns lofty round; 
The throne can only rest upon 

Just Laws' all-holy ground. 
When Diets sanction feard Rings' wrongs, 

Stands ruin near at hand; 
But gloiy to the King belongs. 

And good unto his land. 
XII. 

'Full well in Disarsal reside 

The Gods, o helge; but 
Not as weak snails^ that still abide 

Within their shells close shut; — 
Far as bright day-light shines on high. 

Far as the voice can sound. 
Far as man's thought can upward fly, — 

The Mighty Gods are found! 



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*How oft, in lungs of offer'd hawk , 

Stand faithless token-signs! 
And falsely many a rune doth talk, 

Though deeply-grav'd the lines: 
But, HELGE, on a heart v/hose lore 

Is sound, glad, upright, just — 
Has ODEN written runes all o'er 

Which gods and men may trust. 

XIV. 

*Firm hut not harsh , my son , '— let Might 

The touch of Mercy feel ; 
For sword that bends the most, will bite 

Most sharply on the steel. 
Know, HELGE, it becomes a King 

Gentle to be, though bold, 
As flowrs adorn the Shield; — soft Spring 

Brings more than Winter-cold* 

XV. 

*A friendless Chief, however fear'd 

However bright his day, 
Dies like a trunk in deserts rear'd, 

Its bark all peel'd away; 
But whoso claims fast faithful friends — 

Grows like the woodland tree. 
Bound whose deep roots the streamlet wends. 

Whose branches shelterd be. 

XVI. 

'Boast not the fame thy dead Sires gainM , 
Each hath his own, no more; 



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Hast thou to bend the bow vain strain*d — 
The bows not thine, give o'er. 

What wilt thou with that bright esteem 
Which down i'th' grave doth sleep? 

With own fierce waves, the rushing stream 
Flows onward through the deep. 
xvir, 

Thou, HALFDAN, hear! — A pleasant wit 

Is wise men^s profiting; 
But idle talk can none befit. 

And least of all a King ; 
Mere honey can no mead afford. 

With hops 'tis brew'd alway; — 
Put steel, young man! into thy sword. 

Put earnest in thy play! 
xviir. 

*Too much good sense none ever show. 

However wise it fall — 
But little' enough full many know. 

Who have no wit at all. 
An ignorant guest is but despis'd^ 

Though seated on the dais; 
But clever men's discourse is pris'd. 

However low their place. 

XIX. 

*Thy true-fast friend is close at hand. 

Thy fosterbrother dear. 
Although, to reach his welc'ming land. 

The road be not so near. 
But, HALFDAN, far enough away 

That mansion proves to be, — 



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Be short llie journey as it may, — 
Which holds an enemy* 
XX. 

*Let not a forward man be made 

Thy bosom-counselor; 
An empty house stands wide display'd, 

Barr'd is the rich man's door. 
Choose one; unnecessary 'tis 

To seek a second friend j 
And the world's secret, halfdan, is. 

What with the third should end J' — 
XXI. 

Then upstood thorsten , and began 

In words like these to speak: 
*Not thus , alone , King bele can 

ODEN's Valhalla seek. 
Together have we shar'd, o King! 

The changing scenes of life, — 
And Death, I hope, will never bring 

Occasion for our strife! 
xxu. 

*01d Age, son frithiof, in mine ear 

Full many a warning speech 
Hath whisper'd soft; list now, and hear 

What wisdom they can teach. 
r th' North-land oden's birds sweep down 

On cairn and hero-mound; 
On the'old man's lips , — ah I sweet renown , 

Sit wise words, thoughts profound! 



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22 

XXIIT. 

*And first, the High irods reverence 1 

For good and evil come. 
Like storm and sunshine, not from hence. 

But Valhall's shining home; 
The heart's most secret vaults they see. 

Though clos'd with fast*nings strong. 
And long years' penance shall there be 

For but one moment's wrong. 

XXIV. 

*Obey the King. With force and skill 

Shall one the sceptre sway; 
With stars dim Night the sky may fill, 

But one eye hath bright Day, 
Willing the better man will pledge 

The best, glad praise his deeds; — 
The sword not only wants an edge, 

A good hilt, too, it needs. 

XXV. 

'FRITHIOF, great strength the Gods bestow, — 

And good it is, my son! 
But, without wit, mere force we know 

Is soon out-spent and done. 
By one man slain — the bear can wield 

Twelve men's strength , in his paw ; ^^ 
Yes! 'gainst the sword-thrust's held the shield, 

'Gainst violence — the Law! 

XXVL 

*By few the haughty chief is fcar'd , 
Hated he is by all; 



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And arrogance « by few rever'd. 

Is father to a fall. 
How many have I seen high soar — 

Now on a crutch bent low; — 
Seasons, not men, the harvest pour. 

And Heavn's winds fortune blow. 
XXVU. 

*When down the setdng sun hath sunk — 

Then, frithiof, praise the day; 
Ale may be prais'd, too — when 'tis drunk; 

And — followed — counsel may. 
Fond youth on many things for aid 

Will trust itself, indeed; 
But battle proves the keen sword-blade. 

And want, a friend in need I 
XXVIII. 

•Trust not to night-old ice, or snow 

Which some spring-day may see, 
Or slumb'ring snakes, or words that flow 

Frae th'girl upon thy knee; 
For, on a wheel that nothing stills. 

Is tum'd fair Woman's breast. 
And 'neath those soft white lily-hills 

Inconstancy doth rest! 

XXIX. 

'Down to the grave thyself must go , 

And what thou hast, away; 
But one thing, frithiof, well I know 

Which never can decay, — 
That is, the' unchanging doom decreed 

To evry dead man's Spright; — 



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Will, therefore, ev'ry noble deed. 
And do thou ev'ry right!' — 
XXX. 

His warnings thus gave hoary age 

In bele's Kingly Hall, 
As since the Scald whose warnings sage 

Yet sound in Havamal; 
From race to race the Proverbs go 

In pithy sentence forth, — 
And deeply, from the tomb below. 

Yet whisper in the North. 
XXXI. 

Thereafter talk'd the Heroes both. 

In many a heartfelt tone. 
Of their long friendship's faithful troth 

Through all the Northland known, — 
And how their truefast union, 

In weal and woe the same , 
(Like two hands firmly grasp'd in one) 

More tight-knit, still, became. 

XXXII. 

*Our arms, my Son, in danger's path 

We back to back did wield; 
However, then, came norna's wrath. 

Still struck she 'gainst the shield. 
Before you now, with years bow'd down. 

We two to Valhall wend; — 
But may our spirits, ye children! crown 

Each Ysrish, — each step attend!' 



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XXXIII. 

And mucli and long the King talked o*er 

The brave young frithiof's worth. 
And warrior-might, which alway more 

Was priz'd than Royal Birth; — 
And much and long doth thorsten praise 

The Northland's high-fam'd Kings, 
And all that glorious fame whose blaze 

From the' ASAR-Heroes springs. — 

XXXIV. 

'And now, together as one man 

Hold fast, ye children three ! 
Your overmatch, — that know I — can 

Our Northland never see! 
For strength, to Kingly rank and blood 

Indissolubly bound. 
Is like the darkblue steel-rim good 

Which flows the gold-shield round. 
XXXV. 

*My last salute fail not to tell 

ing'borg, that rose fresh-blown; 
In peace, as it became her well. 

Her lovely form hath grown. 
Hedge round the Fair; let no Storm-wind 

Come down, in evil hour. 
And to his helmet-bonnet bind 

My tender blooming flow'r! 
XXXVI. 

'helge! be thou her guardian. 
Thyself her father prove ! 



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26 



ing'sorg, my child, my dearest one 

Oh! like a father love. 
Constraint revolts the genrous soul. 

But, HELGE, softness leads 
Woman and man to Virtue's goal — 

Just thoughts and noble deeds! 

'Beneath two Barrows, in the earth. 

Lay us, ye children dear! 
One on each side the billowy firth. 

Whose murmurs we may hear. 
For pleasant to the Hero's Ghost 

Resounds the sea's low song; 
Like soft sad Drapas on the coast. 

The wavelets roll along. 
xxxYin. 
'Pouring pale splendours round the hill. 

When bright the moon hath shone ; 
And midnight dews, all calm and still. 

Fall on the Bauta-stone ; — 
Then shall we sit, o thorsten, there 

On our green Cairns so round 
And, o'er the waters' rush, declare 

How coming fates astound! 
XXXIX. 
*And now , ye Sons , farewell ! farewell ! 

Hither no more draw nigh. 
With great allfather shall we dwell; — 

We long to be on high. 
Like as the wearied flood-streams long 

To reach wide ocean's deep. — 
And now, FREY guard you, sons, from wrong, 

THOR bless , and oden keep !' 



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pwgi&iaf!3~ sz Kr: " 



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OAHTO in. 



JVitfiiaf succeeds 



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Argument. 

Iq the beautiful Hexameters of his third Canto the Author, 
like another homer working up the ^^rhapsodies'" of national 
tradition, paints with a bold and yet elegant simplicity the 
picturesque manners of an age remarkably Homeric in its barbaric 
civilization and its pirate independence. . 

On the death of his father frithiof succeeds to his lands, 
wealth, and Hall, which is described at large. Then follows a 
detailed History of his three principal valuables — angurvadel 
his falchion, — his arm-ring the famous, — and his war-ship, 
ELLiDA, the gift of the Sea-god! 

Assembling his friends and retainers, the young Hero 
pledges them at the Grave-ale (funeral banquet) of the Deceased , 
and then, in the midst of the applause of the Scalds, steps into 
the vacant ^seat of his father, now his." 

English Hexameter verse is so uncommon, and its laws 
so uncertain, — that we are afraid we have trespassed rather 
too largely on the patience and good humour of the reader by 
presenting him with the following "attempt." The "attempt" 
however, was worth while. We need hardly add that, in 
English, tone accent and emphasis must be our guide in con- 
structing the Hexameter — rather than syllabic quantity, of 
which we have so little that is absolutely determined. So far 
as its comparative novelty would admit , the Translator has aimed 
at a natural and national verse, differing from the strictly 
classical Germanic Hexameter on the one hand, and tfeTe loose 
unequal Hexameter of Southey on the other. — How far he has 
succeeded • — is another question! 



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CANTO in. 



Jfvittfiot mttttrt^ to ttft ip^ttitmtt 
of ]&i0 ifatiftm 



Ooft, now, in th'earth were laid ag'd THORSTEN and BELE 
his sovereign 

Where they themselves had bidd'n; one on each side the 
firth rose their barrows. 

Shielding beneath their round two breasts, now death- 
sun der'd ever. 

IL\LFDAN and HELGE then, as the People decreed, were 
successors 

After their sire in the realm; but frithiof divided with 
no one; 

Peaceful he heir'd, sole son to his father, and settled in 
Framnas. 

Far to the right, and the left, and behind his homestead 
ascended 

Hills and low vallies and rocks , — but its fourth side fronted 
the ocean. 

Forests of birch crown*d the mountain-tops, while their 
sides smoothly sloping 

Flourished with golden corn, and with man-high bright- 
waving rye-crops. 



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Lakes full many their glittring mirrors held to the 

mountain , 
Held to the woods, too, above, — in whose depths had 

high-braaching elk-deer 
Range as they royally trod, or drank of a hundred fresh 

streamlets. 
Pasturing Herds were seen in the vallies, cropping the 

green-sward. 
Or with sleek sides standing, and bags which longed for 

the milk-pail. 
'Mid them were spread, here and there o'er the meadows, 

white-woolly sheep-flocks, — 
Wand ring careless and free; as, (when soft winds herald 

the Spring-time,) 
Heav'n's blue vault small far-scatter'd cloudlets flockwise 

besprinkle. 
Rang'd in their stalls, like winds close-fetter'd, and proud 

and impatient. 
Pawing there stood twice twelve chain'd coursers, sweet- 
grasses champing; 
Knotted with red were their manes , and their hoofs shone 

brightly with steel-shoes. 
Wide, and a House by itself, was the Drinking-Hall , built 

of tough heart-fir; 
Not five hundred men, (though ten twelves went to the 

hundred) , 
Fill'd that spacious Hall, when at Yule they gather'd to 

banquet. 
Right through the Hall's whole length ran the Board, of 

scarlet-oak timbers, 
Polish'd and bright like steel; the two High-seat pillars of 

honour 



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Stood at its upper end, God-shapes both carv*d from hard 

elm-wood, — 
ODEN with lordlike features, and FREY with the sun on 

his bonnet. 
Lately, — between them, thron'don his bear-hide (th' hide 

was all coal-black. 
Red like to scarlet its jaws, but the sharp claws shodded 

with silver,) — 
THORSTEN sat there 'mong his friends. Hospitality sitting 

with Gladness! 
Oft, while the Moon flew along through the sky, the'old 

Chief would tell, cheerly. 
Marvels which out in strange lands he had seen, and his 

Vikinga-rovings 
Far o'er the Baltics waves, and the Western seas, and in 

Gandvik. 
Mute sat the listening guests, their looks firm fixing on 

the*old man's 
Lips, like the bee on its rose; but the Scald thought, 

silent, on brage 
As, with silvery beard and runes on his tongue, he sits 

calmly 
Telling, beneath some thick-spreading beech-tree, a Saga by 

mimer's 
Fount whose waves ever murmur, himself a Saga undying. 
Midst on the straw-strewn floor, shot the fire-flame cease- 
lessly upwards. 
Glad in its stone-wall'd hearth; while down through the 

wide-stretching chimney 
Heav'nly friends, blue-twinkling stars, glanc'd bright on 

the Hall-guests. 



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32 

But , round the wall , on nails of hard steel , all in rows 

were suspended 
Helmet and mail alternate, — while here and there from 

among them 
Lighten'd a sword, as in Winter-ev'nings a shooting-star 

Hght'neth. 
Yet, more bright than or helmet or sword, in the Hall 

shone the war-shields. 
Clear as the Sun's bright orb or the pale moon's silvery 

surface. 
Went there at times a fair maid round the board, upfilling 

the mead-horns, — 
Blush'd she with down-cast eyne , — in the mirrowing shield 

her image , 
Even as she, blush'd too; — how it gladded the deep- 
drinking champions! 

Rich was the House; wherever thou lookedst, still met 

thy gazings 
Close-fill'd cellars, and crowded presses, and well-victuall'd 

store-rooms. 
Many a jewel there , too, was hidden, the booty of concjuest. 
Gold carv'd o'er with runes, and silver artfully graven. 
Three things yet, among all this wealth, most precious 

were valued. 
First of the three , that sword which from father to son 

went an heir-loom; 
AnguTvadel the brand was bight, and the brother of 

lightning. 
Forg'd had it been in some Eastern land, (saith ancient 

tradition,) 
Harden'd in Dwarf-fires red; and at first BJdRN BLaTAND 

had borne it. 



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33 

BJdRN, nathless, both the Sword and his life lost soon at 

one venture, — 
Southward in Groningasund , when he fought gainst the 

powerful VIFELL. 
VIFKLL had but one son, hight viking. — Now, old and 

decrepid , 
Dwelt there at UUeraker a King with a fair- blooming 

daughter. 
Just thereupon, from the woods' deep shades, came a grim* 

looking Giant, 
Taller by far than other men, and all hairy dnd savage; 
Fierce from the' old Chief, then he combat claims, or his 

daughter and kingdom^ 
None could accept his challenge, for* steel was not in the 

country 
Edg'd that it bit on his iron -hard skull; so they nam'd 

him GRIM IRON -head! 
VIKING alone, who his fifteenth winter newly had finished, 
Brav'd the wild foe — on his Arm and Angurvadel de* 

pending : 
Then, at one blow, he the foul fiend clave, and the Fail* 

One deliver d. 
ViKiNG to tHORSTEN^ his Son, this Falchion gave ; and from 

THORSTEN 

Went it to FRitHiOF, his heir; when in wide Hall drawn — 

it glitter'd 
Like quick lightning-flash therethrough, or a sky-streaming 

Northlight. 
Hammered gold was the hilt, but the blade was covered 

with runic s. 
Wonderful, all unknown in the North, but known at the 

Sun's Gates — 



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34 

There, where our fathers dwelt, till the* ASAR led them up 

hither. 
Dead-pale flicker'd those runes, when blest Peace rul'd in 

the country; 
But, should HiLDUR begin Her sport, then bum'd ev'ry 

letter 
Red as the comb of the fighting- Cock i quick lost was that 

Hero 
Meeting in battle's night that blade high-flaming with runics. 
Widely renown'd was this Sword, of swords most choice 

in the Northland! 

Next most precious in price was an Afmring, all 
over famous; 
Forg'd by the halting VAUlund 'twas, the'old North-Stoiy's 
VULCAN. 

Three full marks weigh'd the Ring, and of pure gold VAU- 
lund had wrought it. 

Heav'n was grav'd thereupon, with the twelve iwoviORTALS* 
strong castles — 

Signs of the changing Months , but the Scald had Sun- 
Houses nam'd them. 

Alfhem there was beheld, frey's Castle; the Sun 'tis 
who, new-born, 

HeavVs steep heights slow 'ginneth to climb, uprising at 
Yule-time. 

Soquabdch also was there; in its Hall sat ODEN with SAGA 

Drinking his wine from a golden bowl; that bowl is wide 
Ocean 

Tinted with gold from Morn's red beams; but' SAGA the 
Spring is 

Trac'd on the- green-blooming plains with flow'rets, 'stead 
of with rune -marks. 



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35 

fiAlD&R WftS aho there on his throne, hot Midsummers 

Stin, which 
Down from the firmament pours rich beamings, of Good-' 

ness the token; — 
For in all Good is streaming light, but Evil is darkness. 
Alway to tread, tires the Sun in Her course; and GOOD- 

♦ NESS is like Her, — 

Soon turning giddy at such far heights; with a sigh both, 

wearied. 
Sink to the Land of the Shades, hel's Home : 'tis balder 

on Death -Pile. 
There, too, saw one the Peace-fort, glitner, where FOR- 

set' the' Appeaser 
Balance in hand grave sat, — the' Assize -and -Autumn 

Judge faultless. 
These fair signs, and many thereto (Light's conflicts betoke- 
ning 
Far o'er the sky's arch'd vault, and in each man's breast 

when he museth) 
The' Artist had carv'd on the Ring, while a splendid firm- 
clasping Ruby 
Crown'd its embracing round — as the bright Sun crowneth 

her Heaven. 
Long this Ring had an heir-loom been, for the race reach'd, 

backward , 
Though by the Mother's side, great VAULUND reckon'd its 

Founder. 
Yet was this jewel once carried off by SOTE, the Pirate, — 
Who, o'er the North Seas, pillaging rov'd , but afterward 

vanish'd. 
Fame gave out, at the last, that sOTE had buried in Bret^ 

land 



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36 

Ship and rich goods and live Self on the coast, in his 

wall'd-about Barrow; 
But no rest found he there, and his Cairn was ceaselessly 

haunted. 
THORSTEN, also, that rumour had heard and with bele, 

his friend-chief, 
Climb'd his good Dragon -Ship, salt billows clove and 

steer'd to the cairn * strand. 
Wide as a Temple's arch , or some Palace , firmly im- 
bedded 
'Mong hard gravel and verdant turf, upheap'd was the 

Grave -mound. 
Light from its depths shone out; through a chink of the 

doorway i^i- gazing » 
Saw those champions the Viking- ship well-pitch'd and 

well fasten'd — 
Anchors and yards and masts still secure ; but a figure all 

grisly 
High on the stern was sitting, a blue -flame mantle about 

him. 
Dreadful and grim, fierce- scour d he the blood- stain'd 

blade he had wielded. 
Yet could not its stains scour aWay; all the gold he had 

plundered 
Lay heap'd up and about; himself on his arm bare the 

Bracelet. 
'Now', whisper'd bele, 'We'll straight go down and fight 

with the goblin, 
Two against one Fire-spirit ! — But half-wroth answer'd him 

THORSTEN, 

'One 'gainst one was the use of our Fathers; alone will 
I fight him!' 



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37 

Long was it now contended, which of the two should en* 
counter 

First that pei'ilous foe ; till at last took bele his steel-helm. 

Shook two lots, and decided the quarrel. Glimmering 
star-light 

Show'd his lot to brave thorsten again. At one blow of 
his iron -lance 

Locks and strong bolts gave way. — If a champion ques- 
tion'd him ever 

What in that night -gloomy deep he*d seen — he silent- 
ly shudder'd. 

Chauntings wild heard bele first, most like to a Spell- 
song ; 

Then came loud - clashing sounds, as of swords cross'd 
fiercely in conflict; 

Lastly a horrible scream. — Then was silence. — Out 

tOtter'd THORSTEN 

Stagg'ring, pale, and confus'd, — for with Death, demon- 
Death, had he battled. 

The'Armring yet grasp'd he tight; — *'Tis dear-bought' — 
often observed he ; 

*Once, but once, in my life Fve trembled; 'twas — when 
I took it!' 

Widely renown'd was that Gem, of gems most choice in 
the North- Land. 

Lastly; the swift -wing'd ellida rank'd 'mong the fa- 
mily-treasures. 
VIKING, 'twas said, as he homeward return'd from a far- 
stretching foray. 
Sailing along his coasts one day, saw a man on a shipwreck 
Who yet merrily swung up and down , as sporting with 
Ocean, 



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38 

Tall was the man, and nobly form'd, and his features 

were open. 
Glad, and yet changeable, just like the Sea when it plays 

in the sunshine. 
Blue was his Mantle; of gold his belt set about with red corals ; 
White like to wave -foam flow'd his beard, but his hair 

floated sea-green. 
yiKiNG right to the spot steers his Snail « and resques 

him helpless; 
Home to his Halls then led he him shivVing, and feasted 

him nobly. 
Yet, when his Host bade him sleep in peace, light -smil- 
ing he answer d, — 
*Fair is the wind and my Ship, as thou saw*st, is not to 

bo slighted ; 
Full this night some hundreds of miles , hope I well to sail 

forward. 
Thanks, nathless, for thine offer; 'tis well-meant; — would 

that I only 
Had some keepsake to give; — but my wealth lies deep 

'mong the sea -waves. 
Yet on the shore some present, perchance, thou'lt find 

in the morning.' — 
There by day-break was viking, when lol like a sea-eagle 

darting 
Fierce on his prey through the air, flew a Dragon- ship 

right in the haven! 
None on board could be seen , not ev'n could a steersman 

be notic'd. 
Yet trac'd the rudder its winding path 'mong the cUffs and 

sunk shoal -rocks — 
Just as some Spirit had dwelt therein. As it near d the 

smooth beech -sand 



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39 

Reevd of itself was the sail, no mortal touching the canvass; 

Down to the bottom, too, sank the hook*d anchor, Ocean's- 
sands biting! 

Mute stood VIKING and gaz'd ; — but then sang the fresh- 
sporting billows, — 

•agir, the Rescued, forgets not his debt. See! he gives 
thee yon Dragon!' 

Royal the present was; for the 'oak-beams, gen tly-inb ending, 

Join'd were not, as is wont in a ship, — but had grown 
altogether. 

Dragou-shap'd it lay on the sea; full high o'er the waters 

Rose its proud head, while its wide throat flam'd, with 
red gold thickly cover'd. 

Speckled with yellow and blue was the belly; but back, 
towards the rudder, 

Curv'd its strong -knit tail, in a ring all scaly with silver. 

Black were its wings, with edgings of gold; when each 
one was full-stretch'd — 

Flew She with th' whistling Storm for a wager; — but 
the' eagle came after! — 

Saw'st thou the vessel, with arm'd men fiird — thou 
straightway had'st fancied 

Some King's City was floating past, or some quick- swim- 
ming fortress. ' 

Widely renown'd was this Ship, of ships most choice in the 
Northland! — 

These, and yet more thereto, young frithiof heir'd 

from his Father. 
Scarce through the North was there found an Inheritance 

richer or larger. 
Kings' Sons' only excepted, — for Kings are still the most 

mighty. 



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40 

Yet, though not a King's Son, was his Temper kingly by 

nature — 
Friendly, and noble, and gentle; thus daily grew he more 

famous. 
Champions twelve, too, had he — grey-hair'd, and princes 

in exploits — 
Comrades his Father had lov'd, steel-breasted and scarr*d 

o*er the forehead. 
Last on the Champions' bench, equal-ag'd with FRITHIOF, 

a stripling 
Sat, like a rose among wither'd leaves; BJdRN, call'd they 

the Hero — 
Glad as a child, but firm like a man, and yet wise as 

a grey -beard I 
Up with FRITHIOF he'd grown; they had mingled blood 

.with each other. 
Foster-brothers in Northman wise; and they swore to 

continue 
Steadfast in weal and woe , each other revenging in battle. 
Now 'mong his Champions and crowding Guests who had 

come to the Grave -Feast • — 
FJIITHIOF, a sorrowful host, (his eyes full of fast -falling 

tear - drops) 
Drank, as his Sires had before, — 'to his Father's mem'ry' — ; 

and thoughtful 
Lists to the Song of the Scalds in his praise — their loud- 

thund'ring Drapa. 
Then to his Father's Seat, now his own, stepp'd he boldly, 

and sat him 
Down 'mid its ODEN and frey; — that is tHOR's own 

place up in valhall ! 



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CANTO IV. 



fvUhiots €0uvi$hip, 



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Argument. 

There is an abrupt though harmoDious sentcntiousness id 
this Canto, exceedingly well adapted to the gloomy and forebo- 
ding incidents it describes. 

FRiTHiOF is love -sick. He invites the brother -kings to his 
Halls, hoping that 'their Sister the fair' vf^ill not be left behind. 
— Nor is he disappointed; but the meeting is short, and he is 
again left to loneliness and despair. The Courier -dove which 
he sends returns not, and — roused from his dreamy inaction 
by the reproaches of bj6rn — he casts ofiF the moorings of 
ELLiDA^ and sweeps over the firth to the Courts of tte Princes. 
He ehanees to find them dlstnlmting justice to the People, and 
embraces the opportunity to declare his passion for ingeborg, 
and to demand her hand. 

HELGE, with many biting taunts, insultingly refuses her — 
whereupon the bold Suitor, in a tempest of ungovernable but 
noble indignation , cleaves in two the Shield instead of the skull 
of the royal tyrant, and 

'Homeward returneth o'er dark -blue waters.' 
The two last lines of every stanza end in feminine rhymes 
in the Original. 



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CANTO IV. 



JfvitftioV» Cotirt0|^tp. 



Xiight well peals the Song in the Chieftain's Hall, 
And Scalds the high deeds of his Sires recall : 
But that Song cheereth 
Not FRITHIOF; he heeds not the Scald nor heareth! 

n. 

And the'Earth is once more clad in waving green. 
O'er the Seas Dragons swimming again are seen; — 
But War's Son wanders 

Thro' deep woods, and sad on the pale Moon ponders. 

in. 

Yet late was he happy — so ha*ppy, so glad — 
For cheerful King HAX.FDAN as guest he had. 
And HELGE glooming, — 

And with them their Sister brought they, the blooming. 

IV. 

He sat by her side, gently pressing Her hand, — 
A pressure at times felt he back, warm and bland ; — 
And still, enchanted. 
Saw features so dear, so noble, so vaunted 1 



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44 

Of those joyous days spoke they long, with delight. 
When Morning's fresh dews still on life glitter d bright ; 
Ere Childhood closes 

On scenes, in high souls, still fresh like group'd roses. 

VI. 

She playful salutes Him from dale and from park. 
From the names which grew on the birch-tree's bark. 
And thence where flourish 
(On the green hill planted) the'oaks Heroes nourish. 

vn. 

*Over- pleasant the Palace now scarce could appear. 
For HALFDAN was childish, ajxd HEiiQE: severe; -^ 
Those two kingly heirs 
They listen to nothing but praises and pray'rs. 

vni. 

* And Friend found she none (here she blush'dlike a rose). 
With whom her sad heart could its plaints repose; 
The King's Halls compare 

To hilding's free vallies , — how stifling they were ! 

IX. 

'And the Doves «hey had tam'd and fed day by day 
Had fled, frighten'd off by the hawk, far away; — 
All are bereft me, 

But one pair alone ; — take one of those left me ! 

X. 

*Home, doubtless, again the sweet bird will fly, — 
Sure longs she, like others, her Friend to be nigh; 
Runes kindly tender 
Bind fast 'neath her wing; none marketh the Sender.'' 



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45 

XI. 

So sat tliey, close whisp'ring tbe whole day through. 
Still whisp ring as close when towards Ev'ning it grew; 
When Spring's day dieth — 

So, whisper d 'mong green Limes, its soft hreath sigheth. 
xn. 

But now is She absent; and frithiof's light heart 
Is absent with Her; — His young blood, at the smart. 
Mounts quick to his cheeks. 

And he bums — and sighs alway — and never speaks, 
xin. 

His sorrow, his grievings, he wrote by the Dove, 
And glad sped she off with the letter of love ; — 
Alas! she never 

Came back; from her Mate she would not sever. 
XIV. 

But BJoRN was notpleas'd with such trifling as this; — 
'What is there*, cried he, *our young Eagle amiss? — 
So silent, so tam*d -*- 

Has its breast been pi erc*d through, or its strong wing 

lam'd? 
XV. 

'^Vhat wilt thou? — For have we not more than we need 
Of rich yellow bacon , and brown - foaming mead ? 
And Bards, too, many 

Drawl rhymes night and day, if thoii lackest any. — 

XVI. 

"Tis true — thy good Courser paws fierce in his stalls — 
And for prey, for his prey, screams the Falcon's wild call, 
But FRITHIOF getteth 
Up cloudward to hunt, and sad- pining fretteth- 



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46 

xvn. 

'ELLroA, too, now has no sport on the sea; 
How ceaseless her cable she jerks to get free. — 
ellida! still thee; 

FRITHIOF, the peaceful, no war- sport will thee! 
xvm. 

*Who dies in his bed also dies; ere 'tis past, — 
My good spear, like oden's, shall carve me at last. 
That cannot fail us; 

HELA, the blue -white, will welcome and hail us!' — 
xni. 

Then frithiof his Dragon's tight moorings set free. 

And the sails fill'd fast, loud snorted the sea: 

Right over the bay. 

To the King's Sons steer'd He his course through the 

spray. 
xx, 

On bele's Cairn sitting the Kings he saw. 
Their People they hear'd and judg'd after law; 
But FRITHIOF speaks out 

With voice that is heard hills and dales round about: 
XXI. 

*Fair ing'bORG , ye Kings I right dear is to me ! 
I ask her now from you, my own Bride to be. 
For doubtless, bele. 

Our long- foreseen union had sanction'd freely. 
xxn. 

*He let us grow calmly in hilding's grove, . 

Like young trees up-shooting together above ; 

And Love's freja bound 

Their tops, with gold twine rich-encircling them round. 



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47 

xxm. 

*No King was my Sire, not a Jarl, eVn — 'tis true; 
Yet Scald-songs his mem'ry and exploits renew; 
The Rune -stones will tell 

On high-vaulted Cairn what my Race hath done well. 
XXIV, 

*With ease could I win me both empire and land; — 
But rather I stay on my Forefathers' strand; 
While arms I can wield — 

Both Poverty's hut and King's Palace I'll shield. 
XXV* 

*0n BEUa's round Barrow we stand; each word 
In the dark deeps beneath us he hears and has heard; 
With FRITHIOF pleadeth 

The' old Chief in his Cairn: think! your answer thought 

needeth!' — 
XXVI. 

Then HKLGE rose up, and right scornful begun; — 

*Our Sister is not for a Peasant's Son: 

Proud North-Land Chiefs shall 

Dispute, but not thou, for the Daughter of Valhall. 

xxvn, 
*Boast on, that the Northmen their Hero thee style, — 
With hand-strength win men, with words women beguile: 
But blood ODEN- sprung 
I never can give to an arrogant tongue I 

XXVIII. 

*My Kingdom requires not thy service ; I can 
Protect it myself. — Wouldst thou yet be my man, 
A place I proffer 
'Mong those of my Household, — such can I offer I' — 



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48 

XXESt 

*ril scarcely be thy man'; was frithiof's i*eply. -^ 
*Like my Father, a man for myself am I; 
From thy silver slide 

Fly! angurvadel! not a breath may*st thou bide!' — 
XXX. 

The falchion's blue steel in the Sun bright glanc'd. 
And redly the runes on that flame-blade danc'd* — 
*Thou, ANGURVADEL, 

Thou at least', said frithiof, 'art high-born and noble. 
XXXI. 

*And, but for the peace this Barrow should crown. 
On the sp6t Fd hew thee,' Swarthy -King, down! 
But dear 'twill jcost thee, 
r Hereafter^* to() near my good sword to trust tlieel' — 

XXXII, 

This^said, at one blow clove his Battle-brand keen 
Grim helge's gold War-shield, as't hung on the green ; 
Its halves straight follow. 

Clashing the C^irn; -^ that* crash downwards sounds 

> hollow. 

X3DXIII. 

* Well struck ! my good blade ! Lie thou there now, and 

dream 
Of exploits more noble. — Till then hide the gleam 
Of rune-mark'd slaughter; 
. Now Home-ward we'll sail o*er the dark-blue water !' — 



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jirgument. 

How rich the calm repose flung over the picture with which 
this Canto opens! — And ring, the wise 

'King of a land like the groves of the Gods', 
RING the chief venerable for his years and his virtues, — in 
how few words does the genius of the Poet give him pos- 
session of our hearts! 

This aged Prince, who fans lost his Partner and wishes 
to give ^a Mother to his Country and his Children', hears the 
fame of ingeborg, that 'slender 1tfy*, and requests her from the 
Brothers as his bride, helge, the cruel Priest -bigot, consults 
entrails and tokens instead of J^ature and his Land, and gives 
a decided no! This refusal h renBerod (itiU more galling by 
an impertinent jest of the giddy hal'fdan, — and the indignant 
old Monarch prepares for war. 

ingeborg, the unconsulted plaything of policy and super- 
stition, is sent for shelter and security, to b alder's Sanctuary, 
where she sits 'weeping her bosom full.' 'It is', adds the Bard, 
'dew sprinkling - o'er the lily!' 

In the Original, feminine rhymes close the secqnd and last 
lines of every verse. 



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CANTO V. 



mm ^ina. 



I. 

Jving KING he push'd back his gold chair from the board. 

And his Champions rise 
And Scalds , and would hear from the North's fam'd Lord 
His kingly word; — 

Gentle was he as baldbr, as himer wise! 

n. 

Like the Gods' own groves, heard his Land no alarm; 

Peace - shadow'd reposes , 
Profaned by no arms, its green -wood so calm, — 
And hedg'd from harm 

Fresh flourish'd the grass, their sweets shed the roses. 

in. 

All alone justice sat, at once mild and severe. 

On his Seat of Dooming; 
And Peace paid willing its debt ev'ry year; 
And far and near, 

Bright-wav'd in the Sunshine, gold com -crops were 

blooming. 



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52 

IV. 

The Snails, too, came swimming, with breasts of black 

And wings stretch'd whitely. 
From a hundred coasts, — and from each far track 
Wealth brought they back 

Various and wondrous, as wealth summons lightly. 

V. 

And Peace in his domains and Liberty dwell 

United and glad; 
And all lov'd their Country's Father well, — 
Though each would tell 

At the Diet, unfetter d, what thoughts he had. 

VI. 

Thus peaceful and blest he his Northern throne fills 

For winters thrice ten; 
And none ever angry went home to his hills, — * 
And nightly thrills 

ODEN*s Hall with his People's benison. 

Til. 

And King RING he push'd back his gold chair from the board. 

And glad uptread 
All his Chiefs, and would hear from the North's fam'd Lord 
His kingly word; — 

But deeply he sigh'd, and then spoke and said: 

VIII. 

*In folkvang's Bow'rs sits my Queen, I know. 

On purple cov'ring. 
But here o'er her dust verdant grasses grow. 
And, by the flow 

Of the stream round her Grave-mound, flow'r- sweets 

are hov'ring. 



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53 
rx. 

'No Qaeea shall I find so good and so fair. 

My Kingdom's glory; 
VALHALl's rewards *mong the Gods she will share; — 
But my Country's pray'r 

And my Babes', for a Mother implore me. 

'King BELE right oft came up to my Hall, 

With Summer's breezes; 
Gn the daughter he's left my choice doth fall, — 
That Lily tall 

And slender, whose cheek still with Mom's blush 

pleases ! 
XI, 

*'Tis true that she's young; and girlhood, I know. 

Sweet flow'rs most weareth; 
While I'm in toy sear leaf, and winters strow 
E'en now their snow 

On the thin-scatter'd locks the King beareth. 
xn.. 

'But, — can She an upright true man love. 

Nor his white hairs reckon , 
And to those dear infants a Mother prove 
Whose own's above, — 

To his throne Autumn then the Spring will beckon! 
xin. 

*Take gold from the vault-rooms, take gems for the Bride, 

From yon strong oak -presses; 
And follow, ye Minstrels , with harpings of pride : — 
For festive tide,. 

And wooing- hour, brage still blesses!' 



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54 

XIV. 

Then out went the youths with glad tumult away. 

With gold and with prayVs, 
And next came the Harpers in long array 
With chauntings gay. 

And stood before bele's Royal heirs. 

XT. 

Days two, ay! days three, were in wassail spent, — 

The fourth not endeth 
Ere to HELGE they all , on quick answer bent , 
Rose up and went, — 

For each^ longing glances now homeward sendeth. 
XVI. 

Both falchion and horse offers HELGE the King 

r th' Grove leaf-laden — 
VALA and pale priest questioning. 
What best might bring 

Happy fates to his Sister , that fair young maiden ! 
xvn. 

But the Lungs, and the Priest, and the VALA show 

That it may not be; — 
Then, scar'd by the sign, HELGE bad them go 
With changeless no! 

For Man must obey, when the Gods decree, 
xvm. 

But waggish King halfdan he said with a smile, 

'Farewell to the feast; 
King Grey -beard himself should have ridden a mile, — 
Myself, the while. 

Would the good old man gladly have holp on his 

beast!* 



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55 

XIX. 

Then wroth go the* Envoys with helge's reply. 

Nor forget the story 
Of halfdan's insult: — ring answers them, dry, 
*We soon shall try 

King Grey- beard's revenge for his glory!' — 

XX. 

His War -shield he struck, as it hung o'er his head 

On th' high-stemm'd Lind: — 
Then swift o'er the billows Dragons tread 
With combs blood -red. 

And helmets fierce nod in the rushing wind. 

XXI. 

And the message of war to King helge flew. 

Who mutter'd grimly, — 
*Hard fight shall we have, for ring's men are not few; 
But shelter due 

My Sister shall find where BALDER stands dimly.' 
xxn. 

All pale sits the Loving -one there, full of woe. 

On the blest dais stilly; 
She broiders in silk and in gold also. 
And tears o'erflow 

Her white -heav'd bosom, — dews so drench the lily! 



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CANTO TL 



/Htliitff at €h6S0, 



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ArgumenU 

In this fresh and spirited Chanson, hildii^g, who is de- 
scribed as coming on the errand of the Princes, finds frithiof 
and his Foster-Brother at Chess. To his propositions and obser- 
vations he gets only dubious and emblematic answers , such as 
can apply bo^ to th& game aUd to himseK 

At last, as he is about indignantly to depart, frithiof in- 
forms him, in plain terms, that the Kings who have insulted 
him may help themselves. Hereupon, his Fosterfather retires, 
— hoping that oden will ^guide every thing to the best!' 



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FRITHIQF AT CHFu'iS. 



Vbi4ce. 



Iti axtof o ric . 











-Areio^/r €^MrU' ^v^en^i^ iffiafyfKy^T ^c/*^fha4f,.J^/f' an ^'^K.e7 .r^r/«T7^*4»-i^i*<r/? 




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CANTO VI. 



Jfvitbiot at C^tfttm. 



I. 

lijdRN and frithiof, both contending. 
O'er their splendid board were bending; 
Now on silver squares thick gather. 

Now on gold, the struggling foes: 

Then came HILDING, gladly greeted, — 
•Welcome! the High -Chair waits; be seated! 
Drain thy Horn, kind Foster-Falher, 

Let our doubtful contest close ! * «— 
u. 

*bele's Sons,' quoth helding, *send me; 
Arm'd with pray'rs, to thee I wend me. 
Evil tidings round them hover, 

AU the land on Thee relies'. — 

Answers frithiof: • — *bjorn, in danger 
Stands thy King! beware the stranger; 
Yet a Pawn can all recover, — 

Pawns were made for sacrifice ! ' — 
m. 

•frithiof, anger not the Kings so; 
Strong, remember. Eaglets' wings grow. 
Forces ring full well despises 

Conquer yet, oppos'd to thine.' — 



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60 



'BJciRN, the foe my Castle craveth! 
But the' attack with ease it braveth; 

Grim and high the fierce wall rises. 

Bright the Shield- tow'r shines within!' - 
IV. 
*ing'borg wastes the day in weeping, — 
Sad, tho' in bALDEr's sacred keeping; 

Tempts not war for Her release , and 

Mourn unheeded Her blue een?' — 

*bj5RN; thou' in vain my Queen pursuest. 
She from childhood dearest, truest! 

She's my Game's most darling Piece , and 

Gome what will — I'll save my Queen !'- 
V. 
*What! not ev'n reply conceded? — 
frithiof, go T thus unheeded? 

Till that Child's-play yonder endeth 
Must my suit unheard remain?' — 

FRITHIOF rose, and as he' addresses 
The' old man — kind his hand he presses; — 
'Father! nought my firm soul bendeth. 

Thou hast heard, yet hear again: — 
VI. 
'Yes! my words take back unvamish'd, — 
Deeply they've my honour tarnish'd; 

No strong ties to them unite me. 
Never will I be their man ! ' -^ 

'Well, in thine own path thou goest; 
I blame not the rage thou showest: 

All for the best guide oden rightly!' — 
So old hilding's answer ran. 



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CANTO VII. 



friikiofs Miss, 



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Argument. 

With a glowing pencil, ^'dipped in the sun-beams'\ and 
whose rich wannth and tender elegance remind us of. Poets - — 
Household-Gods, in the South, — tegner, in his Vlltth Canto, 
rapidly describes the pains and pleasures of the two young Lov- 
ers' forbidden meeting within the walls of the White God's 
Temple. 

As the Night disappears, however, they must part, fri- 
THiOF and his Beloved first kneel before the Altar of the Divi- 
nity, and with a fervent eloquence he plights his troth to King 
bele's Daughter. Then, printing a burning kiss upon her brow 
and lips, he bids her 'sleep and dream of him', and goes. 

This Canto is pre-eminently distinguished in the Original 
for purity, softness, and melody of language. 



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rmiHlOFS BLISS. 



oTOr . 




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CANTO vn- 



I. 

JLet bele's Sons at pleasure wander 

From dale to dale for sword and shield; 
Mine get they not, with BALDER yonder 

Is all my world, my battle-field. 
Proud Kings' revenge, — the wide Earth's sadness, 

I there will not look back upon. 
But only drink the Gods' own gladness — 
With ing'borg in sweet union! 

n. 

'Long as day's purple beam abideth 

Which, warm, the Sun on flow'ret show'rs, — 
That rose-stain'd gauze -web like which hideth 

My ing'borg's bosom, world of flowrs; — 
Gonsum'd by longings fierce, undying. 

So long I stray upon the strand — 
And with my sharp sword write, deep -sighing, 

That Lov'd one's name upon its sand. 

m. 

'How ling'ring go the tedious moments! 

Thou delling's Son, why dronest thou? 
Thou sure hast seen the groves and mountains. 

The sounds and islands, long ere now! 



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64 

In Western halls dwells no fond maiden 

Who , long since , wal^s thy dawn above , — 

And then 9 to thy young breast flies 5 laden 
Still first still last with tales of love? 

IV. 

*At length, thy toilsome route is over. 

Thou sinke&t to thine ocean -bed; 
And Eve, the Gods' glad sports to cover. 

Draws round her curtains rosy -red. 
Earth's streams Love whisper to each other, 

Heav'ns breezes whisper Love*s caress; 
Hail! welcome! NIGHT, the Gods' own Mother, 

With pearls upon thy bridal dress. 

V. 

*Those high cold Stars, how stilly glide they. 

Fond lover like on silent toe ! 
ELLIDA! fly o'er frith and tide -way. 

Shoot on! blue billow, — faster go! 
The White God's grove-land yonder bloometh. 

To the good Gods our course is bound; 
And 'neath there, balder's Temple gloometh. 

Love's Goddess shelter'd in its round. 

VI. 

'How blest I now the shore am treading! -*■ 

I glad could kiss thee. Earth! — and you. 
Small Flow'rs, the crook'd path quaintly threading 

With white and red — Td glad kiss too ! 
Thou Moon, who thus thy light -floods streamest 

Round grove and temple , cairn and tomb , 
How fair thou sittest there and dreamest. 

Like SAGA in a marriage -room! 



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65 



vn. 

^y feelings* voice, sweet Brook, who taught thee, 

As with those flow*rs thou whisp'rest low? 
And, Northland's Nightingales, who brought ye, — 

Stol'n from my breast, — that plaintive woe? 
See! Fairies paint with Ev*ning's blushes 

My ing'borg's shape on sky- cloth blue; — 
But envious freja forward rushes. 

And far hence blows each beauteous hue. 
vni. 
*But fade, and welcome, airy semblance! 

Here comes Herself, than Hope more fair. 
And faithful as is Youth's remembrance; 

She comes — and Love rewards my pray'r! 
Gome, dearest! Let these arms enclose thee! — 

Come to this heart, with Love on fire; 
Come to my breast, and there repose thee. 

My Life's bright star — my Soul's desire! 

IX. 
*Like lily-stalk thy frame is slender. 

Yet like ripe rose-bud full and free; 
As th' Gods' high will Thou'rt' pure ; yet tender 

And warm as freja's thought to be! 
My Fair-One, kiss me! Let my passion 

Light kindred flamings in thy soul; — 
Ah! at that kiss, the round Earth's fashion 

Has gone, yon Heav'n's fires cease to roll! 

X. 
•Nay, Love! No perils here attend us! 

BJORN and his Champions, all in arms. 
Stand there below, and would defend us. 

If need were, 'gainst a world's alarms; 



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Myself, how gladly — thy defender — 
rd fight as now I clasp thee here; 

How bless'd, bright valhall would I enter, — 
If Thou wert my valkyria! 

Thou whisprest ^balder', — His wrath fearest; — 

That gentle God all anger flies. 
We worship here a Lover, dearest! 

Our hearts' love is his sacrifice; 
That God whose brow beams sunshine-splendour. 

Whose faith lasts through Eternity , — 
Was not his love to beauteous NANNA 

As pure, as warm, as mine to thee? 
XII. 

*His Image see ! --» Himself broods o*er it — 

How mild, how kind, his bright eyes move! 
An oflTring bear I here before it, 

A warm heart full of purest love. 
Come, kneel with me! no altar -incense 

To balder's soul more grateful is 
Than two hearts, vowing in his presence 

A*mutual faith as true as His! 
xm. 

*To that far Heav'n my Love belongeth 

More than this Earth; — receive it then; 
In Heav'n 'twas nurtur'd, and it longeth 

To reach its starry home again. 
How bless'd were he, already yonder! 

How bless'd who now with thee could die, — 
And, conqu'ring, 'mong the Gods could wander. 

Embracing his pale Maid on high! 



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XIV. 

*Then, when, from silver gates outriding. 

Its champions rush'd to War's fierce glee, — 
Still at thy friendly side abiding 

Should I be found, still gaze on Thee! 
Did valhall's blushing maids round -proffer 

The Mead -Horns, rich with foam of gold, — 
I Thee alone would pledge. Thee offer 

In gentle whispers love untold. 

XV. 
'A leaf-deck'd BowV I there would build us. 

Near some bold headland's dark -blue bay; 
The deep grove's verdant shades would shield us, 

That grove whose gold -fruit blooms for ayel 
When VALHALl's Sun flam'd up again (and — ' 

How dear, how lord -like is its glow!) 
Back to the Gods returned we then, and — 

Yet long*d we home again to go! 
XVI. 
*Yes! there Fd crov^rn with stars far -glancing 

Thy brow and locks of waving light ; 
In vingolf's Hall I'd lead thee dancing, 

Till rose - red blush'd my lily white ! 
Then, from the mazy course I led thee 

To Love's and Peace's blissful bow*r. 
Where silver -bearded BRAGE'd wed thee -^ 

With bride -songs new each Eve's soft hour. 
xvn. 
*How, through the grove, the Quail is screaming I 

That song is from valhalla's strand. 
How, o'er the sound, the Moon is gleaming! 

He shines from out the Spirits' land. 



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That song, that light, both herald truthful 

A world of love from sorrow free ; 
Ah ! fain I'd see that world so youthful — 

With Thee, my ingeborg, with thee I 
xvni. 

*Nay, weep not! Life as yet red streameth 

Through these full veins. O ! weep no more. 
The dreams that Love and proud Youth dreameth 

So soon from Earth up Heav'n-ward soar. 
Should once half op'd those pretty arms be. 

Once hither turn'd those loving eyes, — 
Entranc'd no more, my Maid quick charms me 

Back from the glories of the skies !'---- 

xrx.. 
*The Lark; hush!' — *No! those light -trill'd numbers 

Some cooing Dove's fond faith exprest; 
In grassy tuft the Lark still slumbers 

Close by its mate, in soft warm nest. 
They, happy they! can love united 

At dawning as at closing day; 
Through Heav'n's wide space they soar delighted, — 

Not freer, the wings that cleave their way.' - - - - 

*See! that's the dawn there!' — *No! dim- streaming 

Some beacon's flame illumes yon East. 
We yet can speak our hearts' fond dreaming. 

Not yet dear lovely Night hath ceast. 
O'ersleep thee, golden Star! I pray, nor 

Make haste from thy long sleep to wake; 
For FRITHIOF may'st thou sleep all day, or — 

If so thou wilt — till ragnarok! 



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XXX. 
*In vain! Fresh dawn- streaks Heav*n discloses^ — 

Mom's wind e'en now blows keen and bleak, — 
Already bud those Eastern roses 

Fresh like to those on ing'borg's cheek. 
Hark! sweet that feather'd song- troop twitters. 

Unthinking, in the bright'ning sky; 
Existence moves; the billow glitters. 

And far the shades and lover fly! 
xxn. 
*There comes She now in all Her glory! 

Pardon me, golden Sun, my pray'r; 
I feel, I know, a God's before me, — 

But yet how brilliant, oh! how fair! 
O happy he, who trod unclouded 

And valiant as thou treadest now, — 
And proud and glad his weak life shrouded 

In light and vict'ry, — like as Thou! 
xxni. 
*Behold! — Before thee, god of splendour. 

The fairest stands in all the North! 
Become, bright Sun, Her strong Defender, — 

Thine image She on this green Earth. 
Her soul is pure as thine own lustre ; 

Her eye, like thine own Heav*n, is blue; 
And round her forehead ringlets cluster 

Dyed in thine own dark-golden hue'. - - - - 
XXIV. ^ 
*Farewell, my Dearest! We each other 

Some longer night again shall see. 
Farewell ! — yet one kiss ! Ah ! Another 

On those red lips accord to me! 



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Sleep now; and all these scenes dream over: 
At midday wake, and faithful tell 

The hours like me. — Regret thy Lover, 
And bum as L — Farewell ! Farewell ! ' 



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/- 



/ 

/ 



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jf 



CANTO vm. 



€k6 |latrli]t0. 



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jirgument. 

Tegjver's Iambics are remarkably soft and pure. They 
flow in a ''silver tide", making "sweet music" as they pass 
away, and with their **gentle murmurs" filling the mind with 
sensations of a delightful melancholy. — But he has also known 
how to apply them; they suit the subject, and it suiteth them! 

The curtain of the VIII:th Canto rises, and discovers 
INGEBORG alone, sitting in the Temple of balder. In a mono- 
logue full of beauty She discovers to us the depth of her affec- 
tion for the Hero of her Choice , the Angel of her Dreams , the 
Ideal of her Imagination. Then, knowing that he went to de- 
mand her hand publicly in the Diet of her Land, she trem- 
blingly and forebodingly awaits his return and her sentence, de- 
termined to propitiate the offended balder by abiding her Fate, 
even to the sacrifice of her 'whole Life's happiness.' 

He comes, — declares, in a torrent of indignant rage, her 
Brother's second and malignant refusal on the ground of his hav- 
ing violated the White God's Sanctuary, and explains that ho 
has been in consequence condemned by the 'crowned hypocrite' to 
cross the Ocean and compel angantyr to make good his omit- 
ted tribute, — under pain of banishment and outlawry. Ho 
then, in a magnificent outburst of impassioned tenderness, be- 
seeches his dear maiden — to abandon a country so unjust, and 
seek a fairer Home in the verdant Paradise of Greece! This 
proposal, as we might expect from her feminine and delicate 
softness and passive enduringness of character, she at once 
refuses. — A lovers' quarrel ensues; but, comprehending the 
sublime severity of her motives and touched by the despair of 
her grief, frithiof acknowledges his hastiness, praysr her par- 
don, renews his assurances of hopeful and tender attachment, 
— and presents her with his shining Arm -Ring, on whose 
wonderful Almanac as it clasps her arm 'like glow-worm circling 
lily -stalk', she may reckon the tedious Months of 'slow-wing'd 
sorrow' till her Chief's return! 



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CANTO VIII. 



Etft ^avtim. 



INGEBORG. 
It dawns already'; — and still is FRITHIOF absent! 
Yet yester-sun beheld the Ting proclaim'd 
On bele's Cairn: that spot was chosen well. 
For there his Daughter's fate should be determin'd! 
How many fond entreaties hath it cost me. 
How many tears, (by FREJA all up-reckon'd!) 
Hate's icy wall to melt round frithiof's heart. 
And tempt the promise from that proud One's mouth. 
Again to stretch his hand in reconcilement! — 
Severe, alas, is Man! and for his glory 
(For so he calls his pride) but little recketh 
If, rudely stepping, he should trample down 
A faithful heart or two, all bruis'd and broken. 
Yes! clinging to his breast, weak fragile Woman 
Some moss-plant likens, whose pale tints creep o'er 
The hard bare rock, and there unseen unmark'd 
Her painful hold scarce keeps of granite cliff. 
Nurtured — sad food! by Night's slow -falling tears! 

*My fate, then, yesterday was fix'd for ever. 
And o'er it Ev'ning's sun hath set already. 



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But FRITHIOF comes not! All those pale stars yonder 
Are one by one expiring, and are gone; 
And, with each single star that morning quenches, 
A hope my breast had nurtur'd dies away. 
But, ah! why hope I longer? valhall*s Gods 
Love me not now, for I have anger*d them. 
The lofty balder, in whose shade I shelter. 
Is injur d, — for a passion earthly, human. 
Can ne'er be pure enough for Gods to look on! 
No ! never dare this world's vain joys intrude 
Beneath those arches, where the reverend 
And high Superior Pow'rs have fix'd their dwelling. 
And yet my fault is — what? — In Virgin Love 
What is't, that tender gentle God displeases? — 
As URDA's chrystal wave is't not all pure. 
And innocent as gefion's Morning -di*eamings? 
Through Heav'n advancing, yonder high -bom Sun 
Her pure eye turns not from two loving hearts; 
And Day's sad widow, starry Night, with joy 
Listens, 'mid all her mourning, to their oaths; 
Ah! how can Innocence beneath Heav'n's vault 
Be construed Crime beneath these Temple-arches? 
*Tis true, I frithiof love! Yes! long as Mem'ry 
Can stretch her records, have I lov'd but Him: 
The Twin of my existence is this feeling, 
I know not its commencement, nor can once 
Conceive the' idea that it hath not been so! — 
The rip'ning fruit about its kernel sitteth. 
And round its substance grows its bowl of gold 
Maturing slowly in the summer -sun; — 
I so have grown around that kernel - feeling 
While rip'ning up to Woman, and my Life 



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Is only the' outward shell of my affection. 

Forgive me, balder! with a faithful heart 

Thy Halls I enter'd, and when thence I go 

Still faithful is it: Yes! it follows me 

When bifrost's bridge I traverse, boldly treading 

With all my Love before the Gods of valhall. 

Bright shields his mirrors, shall He there stand forth 

An ASA -Son as they, and with dove -wings 

Unfetter d take his course to whence He came — 

The blue eternal space allfather's bosom 

For ever shelters. — Nay, why frownest thou? 

Why darkens bALDER's brow 'mid Mom's fresh dawning? 

In these my veins, as in thine own, red rushes 

Old oden's blood; what wilt thou then, my Kinsman? 

My Love I cannot, will not, sacrifice. 

For know, God! that thy lofty Heav'n 'tis worthy. — 

But all my Being's bliss I well can offer, 

I that can cast far from me, as a Queen 

Her royal robes throws -by and doffs her state — 

Nathless a Queen as ever! — Yes, 'tis done! 

Never, O lofty valhall, need'st thou blush 

To own thy Cousin. — I go to meet my fate. 

As to meet his the Hero. — There comes frithiof: 

How wild, how pale. His looks! — 'Tis past, 'tis o'er. 

My wrathful norna comes as his attendant! 

Be strong, my Soul! Tho* late, yet welcome, frithiof! 

Our fate is fix'd; upon thy brow 'tis written. 
And all may read it.' 

FRITHIOF, 
*Are not blood -red runes 
Carv'd deep too there, -*- loud- speaking insult, shame. 
Contempt and exile?' 



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INGEBORG. 

*FRiTHiOF, come, bethink thee! 
What happen'd tell me; for the worst, long since, 
I darkly boded. — I'm prepar'd for all.' 

FRITHIOF. 

*I sought the Diet, gather'd at the Barrow, 
Round whose smooth grassy sides , shield joining shield. 
And sword in hand, our North's brave warriors stood ^ 
In rings within each other, till they reach'd 
The Summit. But upon the Judgement -Stone — 
Like some dark thunder -cloud — thy Brother sat. 
That pale bloodman with looks of dusky gloom; 
And near him halfdan, that fair full-grown child. 
Was seen, all thoughtless, playing with*his sword. 
Then stepp'd I forth and spoke : — *War stands and strikes 
His glitt'ring shield within thy boundaries; 
Thy realm. King helge, is in jeopardy: 
But give thy Sister, and FU lend mine arm 
Thy guard in battle. It may stead thee well! 
Come! let this grudge between us be forgotten, — 
Unwilling bear I such 'gainst ing'borg's Brother. 
Be counseird. King! be just! and save at once 
Thy golden crown and thy fair Sister's heart! 
Here is my hand: by ASA-THOR I swear 
Never again 'tis stretched in reconcilement!' — 
Then rose the Ting tumultuous. Thousand swords 
On thousand shields loud hammer'd deafning plaudits; 
Up heav'n-ward flew the weapon - clang , and heav'n 
Drank 9 glad, free men's assent to right, to justice. — 
*Yes! give him ing'borg, that fair slender Lily, 
The loveliest ever grew in these our vales : 
What swordsman in our land is like to him? 



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Ay! give him ing*borg!' — Then my Fosterfather, 

Old HILDING, with his silv'ry beard, uprose 

And spoke right wisely many a weighty word 

And pithy proverb biting falchion -like. 

Nay, HALFDAN even, from his kingly seat 

Upstanding, ask'd with words and looks consent. 

In vain, in vain! But wasted was each prayer — 

Like sunshine lavished on the naked rock. 

No harvest tempting from its barren bosom: 

Thus cold, thus hard, was helge's gloomy brow — 

Still like itself — a chilling *No!* to Mercy! — 

*The Peasant*s Son', — so , scornful glancing, spoke he — 

'Might ing'borg claim, but thou, the Temple -forcer. 

Art scarce, methinks, a match for valhall's Child. 

Say, FRITHIOF, — BALDER^s peace hast thou not broken. 

Not seen my Sister in His House, while Day 

Conceal'd himself, abash'd, before your meeting? 

Speak! Yea or Nay!* — Then echoed from the ring 

Of crowded warriors, — *Say but Nay, say Nay! 

Thy simple word we'll trust; we'll court for thee. 

Thou, thorsten's Son, ax*t good as any King's; 

Say nay, say nay! and thine is ingeborg!' — 

*The happiness', I answer'd, *of my life 

On one word hangs; but fear not therefore, helge! " 

I would not lie to gain the joys of valhall. 

Much less this Earth's delights. I've seen thy Sister, 

Have spoken with Her in the Temple's Night, — 

But have not, therefore, broken balder's peace!' • — 

More none would hear. A murmur of deep horror 

The Diet travers'd; they who nearest stood 

Drew back, as I had with the plague been smitten; 

And, when I round me gaz'd, pale Superstition 



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Had lam'd each tongue, and white -lim'd ev'ry cheek 

But late with cheerful hope so brightly blooming. 

Then conquer d helge. — With a voice as hoarse 

And gloomy as dead VALA*s when to ODEN 

She sang, in VEGTAMSQvmA , how destruction 

Should whelm His ASAR and how hela triumph'd — 

So hoarse he spoke: -^ 'By our great Fathers' Laws 

To banishment or death I could condemn thee 

For this thy crime. But mild as is that BALDER 

Whose Shrine thou' insultedst, shall my judgement be. — 

Far westward lieth, garlanding broad Ocean, 

An isle -group govern'd by Jarl ANGANTYR. 

His gold the Jarl paid yearly in the days 

Of bele's reign, but now keeps back his tribute. 

Away, then, o*er the Sea! — Collect the money; 

This penance fix I for thy hardihood! 

*Tis said', he added, with mean scoundrel-scorn^ 

•That ANGANTYR's hard-handed, and sits brooding 

Like fapner, that fam*d Dragon, o'er his gold. 

But — who can face our SIGURD , bane of FAFNER? 

Now, an thou wilt, an exploit dare ' — more manly 

Than witching timid girls in B alder's grove. — 

Till Summer breathe again, we'll here await thee 

With all thy fame, and with -*■ the gold — in special: 

Else, frithiof, art thou doom'd a branded coward. 

And exil'd all thy days from this our Land I ' — 

His verdict thus he gave, — and clos'd the Diet. — 

INGEBORG. 
'And thy resolve?* 

FRITHIOF. 

*What! — have I then a choice? 
Is not my honour bound to this demand? 



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Yes ! it shall be redeemed though angantyr 

'Neath nastrand's floods his paltry gold had hidden. — 

To-day, e'en, voyage I.* 

INGEBORG. 
*And leave thy mG^BORG?' 

FRITHIOF. ** 

*LeaveThee — ah Nol Thou sharestall my wandVings?' 

INGEBORG. 
*Alas, I cannot!' 

FRITHIOF. 

*But hear me! then reply! — 
Thy Brother, in his wisdom, hath forgotten 
That ANGANTYR was once my Father's friend 
As well as bele's. With good will, perhaps, 
He'll yield what I would have; but should he not, 
A sharp persuader, pow'rful advocate. 
Hangs here, my left side's ornament and strength. 
The gold so dearly lov*d TU send to helge. 
And thus will free us both, at once, for ever. 
From that crown'd hypocrite's red offring- knife. 
Ourselves, fair ing'borg, will ellida's sails 
O'er unknown waves expand. She'U bound along 
And bear us to some far-off, friendly, strand 
A safe asylum for our outlaw'd Love. 
This North — what boots it me? What boots a People 
That pale at ev'ry word their DIAR speak? — 
They would, with daring hand, my heart -hopes dash. 
The blooming flow'r-cup of my very being: — 
I swear by freja that it shall not be!. 
A wretched thrall is fasten'd to the sod 
Where first he grew; but I will be a freeman. 
Free as the Mountain -breezes. — One hand full 



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Of dust from thorsten*s grave, and one from bele*s. 

Will yet find room on shipboard; that is all 

We want or ask from this our foster- earth. 

A Sun far brighter shall we find, my Dearest, 

Than this which shines so pale on cliifs of snow; 

A sky more beautiful than this will hail us, 

Whose mild soft stars with heav'nly glance look down. 

In warm-breath'd summer nighty on many' a pair 

Of faithful lovers sate in laurel -groves. 

My father, THORSTEN vikingsson, far - wander d 

On Sea -King exploits, — and full oft beguil'd 

Long winter - ev'nings by the blazing hearth 

With tales of Greekland's Ocean, where fair islands 

Like green groves rise from out the laughing wave. 

Of old, a mighty race liv'd there, and Gods 

Still mightier dwelt in marble sanctuaries. — 

Now stand They desolate : wild luxuriant herbage 

O'erspreads their lonely avenues, flow'rs shoot 

From runes which speak of wise antiquity , 

And rich-curl'd tendrils of the vineyard South 

Slim columns circle with their green embrace. 

But round these ruins, in unsown harvest -crops. 

Gives the' untouch'd Earth all man can want or wish; 

While fresh leaves glow with clust'ring golden apples. 

And bending boughs full purple grapes weigh down 

All tempting, rich, and juicy as — thy lips! 

There ing'borg, 'mid that sea's bright waves, we'll stablish 

A little North more beautiful than this; 

Those slender Temple - arches will we fill 

With faithful love, and entertain again 

Forgotten Gods with human happiness. — 

Should loose -saird Barque float slowly past our isle. 



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(For storms have ttere no home -land) in the blush 

Of eve's soft light, while some glad mariner 

Looks out from rose -dyed billows to the shore, — 

He then shall view, within the Temple's threshold. 

That other FRfiJA, (in their speech methinks 

She's APHRODITE hight) and, wondVing, see 

Her golden locks light-flutt'ring in the Zephyr, 

And eyes more bright than brightest Southern skies! — 

As years roll by, shall slow shoot up around Her 

A little temple -race of fairy Creatures 

With cheeks where, 'mong the North*s snow-drifts, the South 

Would seem to' have planted ev'ry freshest rose! — 

Ah! ing'borg, ah! How fair, how near, how tempting 

Stands all Earth's joy to two fond faithful hearts! 

Yes! have they courage close to grasp her to them — 

She willing follows and a vingolf builds us 

Already here, beneath the fleeting clouds. — 

Come, Dearest, haste thee! Ev'ry word we utter 

Is one more moment stolen from our bliss. 

Come! All's prepar'd. ellida spreads, impatient, 

Dark Eagle -wings for flight; and fresh'ning breezes 

Point out the path, for ever, from a strand 

Where gloomy Fears hold awful sway around. - - - - 

But why delay?' — 

INGEBORG. 
'I can not follow Thee/ 

FRITHIOF. 
•Not follow? — Not - - - -' 



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INGEBORG. 

*Ah ! FRiTraOF, Thou an happy! 
Thou folio w'st none, but art Thyself the foremost. 
Like thy good Dragon-Ship's high-lifted stem; — 
While at the rudder stands thy Will, and steers 
Thy course, with steady hand, o'er angry waves. 
How otherwise, alas! it is with ing*borg! 
In others' hands my fate reposes, and 
Their prey they slip not, bleed it as it will! — 
Self-sacrifice, and tears, and languishing. 
And wasting grief, — such the King's Daughter's Freedom!' — 

FRITHIGF, 

*What hinders, then, thy freedom? bele sits 
Within his cairn.' — 

INGEBGRG. 

'My Father's — HELGE, now! 
He holds my Father's place, and his consent 
Decides my hand. — No ! bele's Daughter steals not j 
Her happiness, however near it be. 
Ah! what were Wx)man, should she burst those bonds 
With which ALLFATHER fastens to the strong 
Her weak existence? — Some pale Water-lily 
She likens, as on ev'ry light-mov'd wave 
It rises, trembles, falls; and o'er its head 
The Seaman's keel its reckless way pursue th 
Nor marks that it cuts-through her stalk so slender. 
Such is that Lily's destiny; — but still 
Long as the sands beneath, her deep root grasps — 
The plant her value hath, and borrows dyes 



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From pale Relation- Stars above, itself 

A Star soft -floating on the bflloivy blue. 

Ah! should She straggle loose, away she drives 

A wither d leaf around the desert waters. — 

The Night just gone, — ' that Night how fearful was it! — 

I waited thee expectant, and thou cam'st not; 

And Night's dark children, gloomy black-hair d Thoughts^ 

In long procession passed before mine eye. 

All watchful, burning, and without a tear; 

Nay, balder's Self, the bloodless God, beheld me 

With looks of threatening and an angry mien: — 

The Night just gone , my Fate Fve well consider'd — 

And firm resolv'd to' abide it. I remain 

A duteou/ ofTring at my Brother's Altar. 

And yet 'twas well I heard not, then, thy story 

Of islands fabled in the gorgeous clouds. 

Where Ev'ning's blush is spread unceasing over 

A qniet flow'r-world, full of peace and love. — 

Who knows his own heart's weakness? Childhood's dreamings 

So long all silent, now once more rise up 

Low-whisp'ring in mine ear, with voice familiar 

As 'twere a Sister's, and as soft and tender 

As some fond lover's when he courts his maid. 

I hear you not; I cannot, will not, hear you 

Ye tempting voices, once so dearly lov'd. — 

What would the South with me, the North-Land's daughter? 

Too pale am I for all its rose-retreats; 

Its burning Sun would parch a soul as mine, r— 

Too cold and hueless for its glowing rays. 

Yes! full of longing, would mine eye turn often 

To yonder Pole-star, ever steadfast standing 

A heav'nly sentinel o'er our Fathers' graves. 



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My noble frithiof, bom his Land's Defender, 

Shall never flee inglorious from its shores. 

His dear-bought Fame shall never cast behind him 

For aught so worthless as a young girl's love! 

A life whose golden-threaded days the Sun 

Spins year from year the same^ is beautiful; 

But this eternal oneness. Woman's Soul 

Alone can please; to Man, and most to Thee, 

Life's changeless calm is changeless weariness. — 

Then joys thy proud soul, when the tumbling Tempest 

On foaming Courser sweeps o'er Ocean's deeps 

That so, for life or death, on thin plank riding, 

Thou may'st contend with Danger for thine honor. . 

The beauteous wilderness thou paintest, would 

Too many* an unborn exploit slow entomb; 

And, with thy shield, — thy glad, free, dauntless spirit 

Dark rust would gnaw. — But it shall not be so! 

Not I, at least, my frithiof's name will steal 

From Bard-harp'd songs; not I, at least, will quench 

My Hero's glory in its first red dawn! 

Be wise, dear frithiof! Heav'n's dread lofty nornor 

Command; let us give way! At least oiir Honour 

May still be sav'd from out our Fortunes' shipwreck, — 

For ah! our life's chief Bliss is gone for ever I 

We must, Tnust part!' 

FRITHIOF. 

*Nay! wherefore must we? — Is't 
For that a sleepless night untunes thy spirit?' 

INGEBORG. 
*'Tis, that my worth and thine must both be rescued!' 



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FRITHIOF. 
*0n Man's firm Love rests Woman's dearest value ! ' 

INGEBORG. 



no more. 



/ 'Not long he loves whom he esteems 

FRITHIOF. 
*Can his esteem, then, light caprices purchase?' — 

INGEBORG. 
'Caprice! a noble one — the sense of Duty!' 

FRITHIOF. 
*But yesterday, our Love was still most righteous.' 

INGEBORG. 
*Nor less to-day: — The more would flight be crime. 

FRITHIOF. 
•Necessity invites us; Come: no more!' 

INGEBORG. 



f'l 



Necessity is what is Right and Noble!' 

FRITHIOF. 
The Sun high riseth. Come! our time goes quickly.' 



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INOBBOKQ. 
^ Alas I 'tis gone already — gone for ever!' 

FRITHIOF. 
*Once more; consider! was that word thy last!' 

INGSBORG. 

*A11 well have I consider'd: — 'tis my last!' 

FRITHIOF, 
'Then, hblge's Sister, fare Thee well! —• Adieu!* 

INGEBORG. 

'O! FRITHIOF, FRITHIOF, IS it thus we part? 
What] Hast thou not one friendly look to give 
Thy childhood's friend? — Hast thou no hand to stretch 
Towards Her, unfortunate, who once was lov'd? — 
Think'st Thou I rest on roses here, and motion 
My whole Life's bliss away — and coldly smile? 
From this torn bosom can I rend a Hope 
Grown with my very being — and feel no pang? - - 
Ah! wast not thou my heart's first Morning- dream? - - 
Whatever joy I knew, I call'd it FRITHIOF; 
And all that Life holds great or good or noble 
Put on Thy features to my youthful eye. 
Dim not this glowing image, nor repay 
Thus sternly Woman's weakness when she offers 
Whatever on this earth was dearest to Her, 
Whate'er in valhall s Halls will dearest prove. 
Enough , O FRITHIOF , has that ofTring cost me , 



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87 

And well desertes one word of tender cbmfort. 

I know Thou lov'st me: I have known it long^ 

E'en since first 'gan to dawn my young existence ; 

And, year on year, where'er afar Thou rovest. 

Thy ing'borg's mem'ry must, will, follow Thee! — 

But loud-clash'd arms still ease the pangs of Sorrow, 

Yes! far, far — Ocean's wild fierce tumult drives Her; 

Nor dares She, timid, sit on champion's bench 

'Mong wine , and healths , and songs of victory. — 

But yet at times, whene'er in deadest night 

Thou must'rest in their order days long fled, — 

One pallid Form will slow glide in among them. 

Thou know'st it well, saluting thee from regions 

Far off but dear ; — 'tis that pale Virgin's image 

Whom holy balder in his Temple guards. 

Thou may'st not. Dearest! must not, turn away 

From that sad Phantom's features; no! low whisper 

Some friendly word in greeting! Night's faint winds 

On faithful wings that word will carry me , — 

One comfort left, n\y last, mine only one! 

My loss , alas ! nought here can dissipate ; 

All, all, around me is its guardian! 

These high-arch'd Temple - vaults speak thee alone. 

And, bright with moon -light rays, the God's own image 

Thy features takes, instead of threat'ning gloom. 

Should yonder Sea attract, — there swam Thy keel. 

Its path swift cutting to the longing ing'borg; 

Should yonder Grove, — there many' a tree uprises 

Whose tender bark with ing'borg's name was carv'd, — 

That name, alas! the growing bark slow covers. 

And this, tradition saith, betok'neth Death! — 

Where last he saw Thee, bright-ey'd Day I ask, 



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8» 

Where last, the Night, but both are silent ^ nay 
I The very Sea which carries Thee replies 
/ With nought but sighs half - utter'd to the shore, -^ 
L With Ev'ning's blush 1*11 greet Thee, when 'tis quenched 
In those Thy billows; and Heav'n's swiftest vessel. 
The long-stretch'd cloud, shall never flit above me '— 
But freighted mth the poor Forsaken's grief! 
/Thus, seated in my Maiden -Bow'r, FU hold me 
(The black- clad widow of my life's delights; 
^here in my web I'll broken lilies broider — 
Till Spring his cloth shall weave, embroidering 
Its woof with fairer lilies on — my grave. 
But touch I my sweet Harp, in songs lamenting 
My grief in all its deep-ton'd bitterness. 
Fast-flowing tears will then, as now - - - •' 

FRITHIOF. 

^Thou conqu'rest, bele's Daughter; weep no morel 
Forgive mine anger; 'twas my sorrow only 
Disguis'd one moment in the dress of Wrath , 
A dress it cannot wear beyond a moment. 
My own good NORNA, art thou, ing'borg; Yes! 
What noble is , a noble mind best teaches ; 
The wisdom of Necessity can have 
No Advocate more eloquent than Thou, 
My beateous VALA with Thy rosy lips. 
Yes! I will yield to dire Necessity, 
Will part from Thee, but never from my Hope — 
I take that with me o'er the Western waters! — 
I take that with me to the gates of Death! 
Next Springs I trust, again shall see me here; 



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89 

King HKLGE yet again shall meet his foe. 
My promise then perform'd, his claim fulfiird. 
And that great crime aton'd I'm charg'd withal — 
ril ask Thy hand, nay boldly will demand it 
In open Council, 'mid the glitt'ring steel. 
And not from HELGE , but the North's free People , 
For they. King's Daughter, can dispose of Thee : — 
Let him deny who dares, and hears my reason! — » 
Till then, farewell! Forget me never! And, 
In sweet rememb'rance of our youthful love. 
This Arm-Ring take, a fair VAULUNDER-work 
With all Heav'n's wonders carv'd i' th' shining gold; ■— 
Ah! the best wonder is a faithful heart! - - - - 
How prettily becomes it Thy white arm, — 
A glow-worm twining round a lily -stem! - - - - 
Farewell, my Bride! My best Belov'd, Farewell! 
A few short months - * -» - and! O how diff'rent then!'- 

(goes.) 

INGEBORG. 

'How glad, how daring- all, how full of hope! — 
His good Sword pointing to the norna's bosom 
*Thou shalt', saith He, *Thou shalt give way*. — Alas! 
The NORNA, my poor frithiof, yields to no one; 
Right on She goes, and laughs at ANGURVADEl! — 
My gloomy Brother, Ah! how little know'st Thou! 
Never can Thy frank Hero -spirit fathom 
His dark Soul's depths, and all that envious hatred 
Which bums and smoulders in his remorseless breast. 
His Sisters hand he'll never give thee. — Sooner 
He'd give his Crown, his Life, to wild destruction. 



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And offer me to* old oden, or to' old ring 
That hoary Chief whom now he hattles sore. — 

'Where'er I look^ no hope remains for Me, 

Yet glad I see Thy heart still keep the Stranger: 
Myself alone shall know my grief, my danger ; 

But oh! may all good Gods attend on Thee! 

On this. Thine Arm-Ring, may I yet count over 
Each sep'rate Month of tedious fretting pain ; 

One, two, four, six — then perhaps returns the Rover, 
But — ne'er to find his ingeborg again ! ' — 



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OAHTO IX. 



Jng^effovQ's £ammU 



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Argument. 

The sail of her Lover's long-ship* has just faded beneath 
the horizon's boundary; — and the Desolate One weeps! 
Far-seeing and observant » She feareth all things. 'Death aIone\ 
concludes the Mourner, ^ill bring me the wings of the Gods.' 

The wave -like dash of the metre harmonizes wonderfully 
with the melancholy despair of hopeless Love, — seeking in 
vain the light -floating ellida that carrieth her chosen Hero from 
her embrace, far o'er the wilds of the pathless Ocean! 



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VOT.. 



Pianoforte.-^ 



M± 



m 



Ajacl-a,xtt« cLol/O r»>so . 



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J5: atCrSLZ. JHfrAA^^^n . 



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CAJVTO ES. 



Jngeborfi'fl^ Hotnetit 



'S> 



I. 

ummer is past. 
Ocean's broad bosom's upheav'd by the blast : 
Yet O how gladly out yonder 
Far would I wander! 

n. 

'Long did I view 

Westward His sail, on the wave as it flew; 
Sail ah! how bless'd! — that abideth 
Still where He rideih. 

m. 

'Swell not so high. 

Billow of blue ; fast enough he sweeps by. 
Guide Him, ye Stars! — In his danger 
Shine on the Stranger! 

IV. 
'When, in the Spring, 

Homeward he hastens — no ing'borg will bring 
Welcomes i' th' valley to meet Him, 
Hall-words to greet Him. 

V. 
Deep under ground 

Pallid and cold for her Love she is found! 
Or, a sad victim, her Brothers 
Give her to others. — 



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94 

VI. 

*Mine shall thou be , 

Hawk He forgot; yes! Til love as did He: — 
iNG*BOHG will feed thee, through endless 
Skies hunting friendless. 

Til. 

*H€re, on His hand. 

Work I thy form on the clothes broad band; 

Pinions of silver, and glowing 

Gold- talons, sewing. 

vm. 
*FREJA one day 

Falcon -wings took> and through space hied away: 
Northwards and southwards, She sought Her 
Dearly- lov'd 6D£R: 

*Ah! could I wear 

Thine, they alas! would not carry me there; 
Wings like the Gods', to the lonely — 
Death giveth only! 

X. 

*Pretty one! keep 

Fix'd on my shoulder, and gaze on the deep; — 

Gaze we and long as we will, no 

Keel cleaves the billow. 

XI. 

*When I am dead, 

Doubtless returns He; then mind what I said; — 

FRITHIOF , whose tears will bewail me , 

Hail me, ah! hail me!* — 



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GAHTO 



4rrUJii0f at %ea. 



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jirgumenU 

Gloomily wild , terribly grand , is the subject of this Song. 
The young Hero, intent upon bringing to a successful close the 
Enterprise so maliciously imposed on bim by the swarthy blood- 
king, is ploughing the foaming billows on board his good Drag- 
on , and bound to the far-off Orkneys. But his false foe has 
invoked the aid of witchcraft. The rising storm assumes an un- 
natural fierceness. Wave follows wave, crash — crash. All Heaven 
seems armed for his destruction. Personal strength, and the 
excellence of his God -built vessel, save him for awhile, — but, 
at last, ^Death' he sees 'is on board' with him, and he distri- 
butes fragments of his golden Bracelet among his stout cham- 
pions, that they may not go down empty-handed to the 'Sea- 
blue RAN.' 

Suddenly, however, he discovers the horrible Troll -shapes 
which have caused the Tempest. To see is to dare, — to dare 
to overcome! His lances soon death -pierce the terrible fiend- 
monsters, and ELLiDA dashes triumphantly over the 'island -like 
Ocean -whale.' 

Immediately the enchantment vanishes. All Nature recovers 
its serenity, and he reaches in safety his desired haven. 

The peculiar variation of metre, rhyme, and recitative which 
this Canto exhibits , — the admirable art with which the Author 
has embellished the letter of the Original Saga, while faithfully 
adhering to its spirit, — and the vivid colours in which the 
Panorama -like series of its sea -pictures is painted, — undoubt- 
edly make it one of the most effective and best«>dispo6ed Legend- 
Songs in the whole of this noble Epic Drama. — Would that the 
Translator could have embodied all the beauties he has felt! 

The Recitative is a looser kind of that Icelandic alliterative 
metre, of which we meet with so severe and beautiful an exam- 
ple in the XXI:st Canto. 



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CANTO X. 



J^vitffiot at Stsu 



I. 

Ijut, wood and afeard, 

HELGE stood on the shore — 

To the Goblins so weird 

Dark spells mutt'rin^; o'er. 

See! Heav'n's vault now clouds are treading; 

Crashing thunders ban's wastes sweep. 
Fast Her boiling waves are spreading 

Sparkling froth o*er all the deep. 
See! r th* sky red lightnings fasten 

Here and there a bloody band; 
Ocean's sea-birds — frighten'd — hasten , 

Harshly screaming, to the strand. — 

*Desp'rate weather. Comrades! 
Hark! the Storm I hear a- 
Far His pinions flapping, — - 
But we grow not pale : 
Sit in peace with BALDER, 
Think of me and long ! — O , 
Beauteous in Thy sorrow. 
Beauteous ingeborgI' — 



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98 



n. 

'Gainst ellida came 

Of Trolls a grim pair ; 
*Twas the wind -cold HAM, 

'Twas HEJD with snow -hair. 

Then the Storm unfetterd wingeth 

Wild His course; in Ocean's foam 
Now he dips Him, now up-swingeth, 

Whirling toward the Gods' own home: 
Rides each Horror -Spirit, warning. 

High upon the topmost wave — 
Up from out the white, vast, yawning, 

Bottomless, unfathom'd grave. 

Tairer was our voyage. 
Moonlight glitt'ring round us. 
O'er the mirrowing billows 
Hence to balder's Grove: 
Warmer than 'tis here, my 
ing'borg's heart was beating, — 
Whiter than the sea -foam 
Swell'd Her bosom tlien!' — 
ni. 

Now, SOLUNDAR see 

'Mong white breakers stand; — 
There all calm the waves be. 

There's your port, steer to land! 

But the dauntless Viking fears not 
On His true -fast Oak so soon; 

Hard the helm He grasps, and hears not — 
But with joy — winds sport aboon. 



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Tighter still the sail He stretches, 
Faster still He cuts His way, — 

Westward, west, due West — He fetches. 
Rush the billow as it may! — 

*Fain one moment longer 

Fierce I'd fight the Tempest; 

Storms and Northmen flourish 

Well together here. 

For a gust to land -ward. 

Should Her Ocean -Eagle 

Fearful feebly flutter — 

How would ing'borg blush ! ' — 

IV. 

But each wave's now a hill, 
Down yet deeper they reel. 

Blasts in cordage sing shrill, — 
Strains the grating keel: — 

Yet, howe'er the surges wrestle. 

Whether for or 'gainst they rise, — 

Still ELLIDA, God-built vessel. 
All their angry threats defies- 

Like some star- shoot in the gloaming. 
Glad she bounds along, and leaps 

Goat -like o'er rough mountains, roaming 

Now o'er heights and now o'er deeps! • 

« 

*Better felt soft kisses 
From my Bride with balder. 
Than, as here I stand, to 
Tas.tc this up -thrown brine. 



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Better 'twas to' encircle 
ing'borg's Waist so slender, — 
Than, as here, tight- clasping 
This hard Rudder -bar!' 

V. 

But the snow -big cloud 
Icy knife -gusts pours; 

And on deck, shield, shroud 
Clatter hailstone show'rs. — 

And from stem to stern on board Her, 

Nought thou canst for night descry; 
Dark 'tis there, as in that chamber. 

Where the dead imprison'd lie, 
Down 'mid whirlpool -horrors dashes 

The' implacable bedevil'd wave; 
While grey -white, as strown with ashes ^ 

Gapes one endless, soundless, grave! ' 

*RAN our beds of blue is 
Spreading 'mong the billows. 
But for me is waiting 
Thy bed, ingeborg. 
Yes! stout-hearted fellows 
Lift Thy oars, ELLIDA; 
Gods thy good keel builded, — 
Yet awhile we'll swim!' — 
VI, 

O'er Her starboard broke 
Now, a mountain -sea. 

And with whelming stroke 

Swept Her deck all free. — 



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FRITHIOF then His Armlet taking, 

(Three marks weigh'd it, and was old 
B£LE*s gift, nor Morn's awaking 

Sun outshone its fine -wrought gold) 
Quick, the dwarf- carv'd Ring in pieces 

Hews, relentless, with His sword — 
And^ the fragments sharing, misses 

None of all His men on board. 

*Gold, on sweet-heart ramblings, 
Pow'rful is and pleasant; 
Who goes empty-handed 
Down to sea -blue RAN? 
Cold her kisses strike, and 
Fleeting her embrace is — 
But we Ocean's Bride be- 
Trothe with purest gold!' — 

vn. 

Threatening still His worst. 
Roars the Storm again; 

Quick the Sheet is burst — 
Snaps the yard in twain. 

'Gainst th' half- buried Ship, commotion- 

Toss'd, high waves to boarding go; 
And howe'er they bale, is Ocean 

Not so soon bal'd out, we know! 
Not ev*n frithiof now doubts longer 

That He carries Death on board; 
Yet than storm or billow stronger. 

Higher, sounds His lordly word: — 



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102 



'Hither bj6Rn! The rudder 
Grasp with bear -paw strongly; 
valhall's Pow'rs sure send not 
Weather such as this: 
Witchraft's working! helgb^ 
C oward - scoundrel , doubtless 
Conjurd has these billows — 
I will up and seel' 

VIII. 

Like Marten, he flew 

Up the bending mast; 
And there, fast -clinging, threw 

Many' a glance o'er the waste. 

Look! — as isle that loose -torn drifteth — 

Stops that Whale ellida's way; 
Sea -fiends two the Monster lifteth 

High on's back, through boiling spray: 
HEJD is wrapp'd in snowy cov'ring, 

Fashion'd like the white -furrd bear, — 
HAM, 'mid whistling winds grim -hov ring. 

Storm -bird like assaults the air: 

*Now, ellida! show us 

Whether, as 'tis boasted, 

Hero -mood thy iron -fast 

Round oak- bosom holds! — 

Listen! Art Thou truly 

agir's God -sprung daughter — 

Up! with copper- keel, and 

Gore that spell-charm'd Whale!' — 



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103 



; IX. 

And ELLIDA hears 

Her young Lord's behest. 
With one bound — gulfs clears 

To the Troll- Whale's breast. 

From the wound a stream out -gushes 

Up toward Heav'n, of smoking blood; 
And, gash*d through, the beast do^vn-rushes. 

Roaring, to the deepest mud: 
Then, at once, the Hero slingeth 

Two sharp spears; one the' Ice -Bears hide 
Pierceth, the' other deadly springeth 

Through yon pitch-black Eagle's side. — 

*Bravely struck, ellida! — 

Not so soon will helge's 

Dragon -ship leap upwards 

Out from bloody mud: 

HEJD nor HAM much longer 

The' up - toss'd sea will keep , for 

Bitter 'tis to bite the 

Hard blue -shining steel!' — 

X. 
And the Storm — it had fled 

At once from the Sea; 
Only ground -swells led 

To the' Isle on their lea. 

And at once the Sun fresh treadeth. 

Monarch like in Hall of blue ; 
Joy o'er ship and wave She spreadeth , 

Hill and dale creates anew. 
Sunset's beamingg crown with gold the 

Craggy rock and grove - dark plain ; — 



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104 



All, with glad surprise 9 behold the 
Shores of efjesund again. 

*ing'borg's Prayrs, — pale Maidens, 

Up to VALHALL rising — 

Lily-white, on Heav'n's own 
Gold -floors bent the knee: 
Tears in light -blue eyes, and 
Sighs from swan -down bosoms 
The* ASAR*s stern hearts melted — 
Thank, then, thank the Gods!' — 

XI. 
But ELLiDA rose 

Sore jarr'd by the whale, 
And water -logg*d goes. 

All awear'd by Her Sail. 

Yet more wearied than their Dragon 

Totter frithiof's gallant men; 
Though each leans upon his weapon. 

Scarcely upright stand they then. 
BJORN, on powrful shoulder, dareth 

Four to carry to the land; 
FRJTHIOF , all alone , eight beareth , — 

Sets them so round the* upblaz'd brand. 

*Nay! ye white fac*d, shame not I 
Waves are mighty Vikings; 
Hard's the* uneqiial struggle — 
Ocean's maids our foes. 
See! there comes the Mead -Horn, 
Wand'ring on bright gold -foot; 
Shipmates! cold limbs warm, — and 
Here's to ingeborg!' — 



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CANTO Xb 



ftithiift at thi Caurt 

of 



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Argument. 

TTith a fresh 9 vigourous, popular > ease this Canto con- 
ducts us to the Court of Jarl angantyr, the generous and 
civilized Chief of the Orkneys. 

FRiTHiOF and his men have scarcely landed, when • — the 
VFcary Envoy is welcomed by the grim atle's brutal challenge. 
He accepts the offer, and van qu is h es and spares his foe. 

Old halvar then comes up — though rather late, 'tis true 
-r- to separate the combataints and announce tfie banquet 

AKCiAKfYR'a reception of bla daring nod renowned TisHor, 
inspires us with a high admiration of his noble qualities. After 
listening to his adventures, be presents him with the tribute 
he came to demand, and with a friendly force detains him over 
the Winter in hisi UbHa. 

We need not adjj> that the pure Balbd style (of which 
this Canto may be considered a specimen) is very difBcult in 
English. Neither too high nor too low, it must unite simplicity 
with strength, and natural and national expressions with that 
dignified language equally opposite to vulgarity and to fustian. 
It was better, however, to risk the danger, than altogether to 
lose the effect. 



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TJRITHTOF WITH A:N^C^AXTYR . 

•?Z 'It. y% r 



y ozatjuof, i<ww u « < i« i * * . 



€Sh-w€fift4t,rl3a\rl . 



Vovcle 



*!f' •> }\y} rh^ "J. -J) 








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CANTO XI. 



jftiVbiot at tfit eoutt of mtqmtut^ 

I. 

IMow say we. Ocean quitting. 

How ANGANTYR was then 
Within His Fir- Hall sitting. 

At wassail with his men. 
Right glad He was, and bended 

His eye blue waves upon. 
Where Ev'ning's Sun descended 

All like a golden Swan. 

n. 

Outside the window chances 

Old HALVAR watch to be. 
Right earnest were His glances, — 

The mead too guarded He: 
One custom miss'd He never. 

To scan the bottom o'er, — 
And then, in silence, ever 

The Horn thrust in for more. 
ra. 

Now far i* th' HaB, loud -rattling. 

His empty Horn he threw. 
And cried: — ''Gainst slorm- waves battUug 

A ship at hand I view; 



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108 



On board half- dead they tarry, 
Now come ihey lo the land. 

And two tall giants carry 

The pale ones to the strand.' — 
IV. 

The Jarl's keen gazings wander 

Where bright waves mirrowing flow; 
'ellida's sail is yonder. 

And frithiof's there I trow: 
His gait and brow discover 

Again old thorsten's Son; 
Search all the Northland over, 

Ye'll ne'er find such a one!' — 
V. 

Then Berserk ATLE springeth. 

Fierce -grinning, from his place, — 
(Blood -stain'd, his black beard flingeth 

Brute grimness o'er his face — ) 
And screams — *ril prove the saying 

That FRITHIOF, all his days. 
Unnerves the sword from slaying 

Nor e'er for quarter prays.' 
n. 

And up with him all eager 

His twelve dread champions spring; 
Impatient, the' air they dagger 

And sword and bill -axe swing: 
Then coastward storm'd they, heated. 

To where the Dragon lay, — 
And FRITHIOF, careless seated. 

Full stoutly talk'd away. 



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109 



vn. 

•Right well I now could kill thee'; 

With shouts 'gan AXLE cry; 
*Thou, yet, may'st either will thee 

To battle heire or fly: 
But if for peace thou prayest , 

Though Champion hard and bold. 
Through me the Jarl thou mayest 

In friendly guise behold!' — 
vm. 

Said FRITHIOF; 'With my voyage 

Fm spent, 'tis true; — yet may 
Our Falchions prove our courage 

Ere peace from thee I prayf — 
Then steel full soon did lighten 

In sun -brown champion -hand. 
And quick its flame -runes brighten 

On frithiof's sharp - tongu'd brand. 
EC. 

Fast, now, are sword -thrusts given. 

And death-blows hail around; 
At once fly both shields, riven 

In halves, upon the ground. 
Their fight's uncensurable , 

They finn their circle ti'ead. 
But keen bit angurvadel. 

And straight broke atle's blade. 
X. 

'My sword', said frithiof, *nevep 
'Gainst swordless man I wave; 

But an thou wilt, however, 

A diffrent sport we'll have; — : 



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110 



Then storm they, nothing yielded. 
Two autumn -billows like! 

And oft, with steel round shielded. 
Their jarring breasts fierce strike. 
XI, 

All like two bears they wrestle. 

On hills of snow; and draw 
And strain, each like an eagle 

On the' angry Sea at war. 
The root -fast rock resisted 

Full hardly them between 
And green iron -oaks down -twisted 

With lesser pulls have been, 
xn. 

From each broad brow sweat rushes; 

Their bosoms coldly heave ; 
And stones and mounds and bushes 

Dints hundred-fold receive. 
With awe its close abide, the 

Men steel-clad on the strand; 
That wrestling -match was widely 

Renown'd in Northern Land, 
xni. 

At last, to the' earth down -reeling. 

Has FRITHIOF fell'd His foe , 
And 'gainst His bosom kneeling. 

Fierce words succeed the blow; 
'If but my Sword I brandish'd — 

O swarthy Berserk -beard, — 
Its point, ere now, base - vanquished I 

Had through thy back appear'd.' 



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Ill 



XIV. 

*Let not that hindrance 'larm thee;' 

Grim ATLE proudly cried; 
*Go! with thy rune -blade arm thee, 

I'll lie as I have lied : — 
We both at last must wander 

Bright VALHALl's halls to view; 
To-day can I go yonder. 

Tomorrow, haply you!' — 
XV, 

And long pause FRITHIOF made not. 

That play he finish will; 
He ANGURVADEL stay'd not, — 

But ATLE yet lay still; — 
Whereat, His heart relenting. 

He quick held -in His brand 
And check'd His wrath, presenting 

The fallen foe His hand. 
XVI. 

Now HALVAR wam'd right loudly. 

And rais'd his wand of white, — 
*This fray ye sport so proudly 

Here causeth no delight: 
High -smoking long have gold, and 

Fair silver, dishes stood; 
The savoury meats grow cold, and 

My thirst doth me no good!' — 
xvn. 

Appeas'd, each now advances 
Within the Jarl's Hall -door; 

And much meets frithiof's glances 
He ne'er had seen before: 



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The bare walls from the weather 
No rough -plan'd planks protect, 

But precious rich -gilt leather 

With fruits and flow rs bedeck'd. 
xvm. 

There, midst the floor, ascended 

No blazing hearth -fire's light. 
But 'gainst the wall was bended 

The marble chimney bright? 
No smoke the dark roof tarnish'd 

No soot the beams o'ercast; 
Glass panes the windows garnish'd. 

And locks the door held fast. 
xrx.. 

There many' a candle brighten'd 

From silver arms; no torch 
With crackling blaze enlighten'd 

The champions' rude debauch. 
Whole -roast, rich odours flinging, 

A Stag the board adorns. 
Its gold - hoof rais'd for springing. 

And leafd its grove -like horns. 
XX. 

Behind each Chief, a Virgin 

Stands up with lily dye. 
Just like some Star emerging 

From out a stormy sky; 
Each step brovsm locks discloses , 

Clear sparkle eyes of blue , — 
And, like to rune-sprung roses. 

Small lips bud forlh to view. 



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XXI. 

But liigh^ right kinglj seeming » 

Sat th* Jarl in silver chair. 
His Helm with sun -rays streamjng. 

His Mail With gold wrought fair; 
And glist'ning stars o'er-powder'd 

His Mantle rich and fine. 
Its purple edging border'd 

With spotless Ermeline. 
xxn. 
Steps three he took, to meet him. 

To' his Guest his hand stretch'd free. 
Then friendly thus did greet him, — 

'Gomel Seat thee next to me! 
Full many' a horn I've emptied 

With THORSTEN, my good fieri 
His Son, the wide -commended. 

Shall sit his Host as near!' — 
xxin. 
The Goblet then he crowneth 

With Sik'lo's richest wine. 
Its flame -sparks nothing drowneth. 

It foams like Ocean's brine! — 
'My old Friend's Son, I send Thee 

A welcome here again; 
I drink — *to thorsten's Mem'ry', — 

Myself and all my men!' 
xxrv. 
A Bard from morven's mountains 

Now sweeps the harp along. 
From Gaelic music -fountains 

Springs sad his hero -song; 



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114 



But in Norranic chaunteth 

Another, ancient -wise. 
He thorsten's exploits vaunteth 

And takes the scaldic prize. 
XXV. 

Now th' Jarl to ask delighted 

Of Northern kinsmen dear. 
And fRiTHiOF all recited 

In words well-weigh'd and clear; 
Nor Truth's just measure broke he. 

Impartial was his doom; 
Like Queenly saga spoke he 

In Memory's holy room. 

XXVI. 

When next, He all repeated 

On the' Ocean's deeps he'd seen. 
And how 'mid waves defeated 

The King's gidm Imps had been; ~ 
Then joy the champions proudly. 

Then angantyr smiles too, — 
And shouts, re-echo'd loudly, 

His brave adventures drew. 
xxvn. 

But — when His tale He changes 

To ing'borg. His Belov'd, 
How tender -sad she ranges. 

Her grief how noble prov'd ; — 
Then many' a damsel sighing 

With cheeks on fire doth stand; 
How fain she'd press, replying. 

That true-love Knight's bold hand! 



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ii5 



xxvm. 

At last, the young Chief *ginneth 

His errand tO speak about. 
And th' Jarl's kind ear he winneth 

Who, patient, hears him out; — * 
*I tribute -bound was never, 

My People too is free; 
Well — 'bele* — drink, but ever 

His friends not subjects bel 
XXIXv 
*His Sons t know not; Would they 

Draw taxes from Iny land, — 
As all brave Princes should, they 

Can ask them sword in hand; 
When here — my Falchion reckons! -^ 

Thy Father yet was dear!' — 
Then with his hand he beckons 

To' his Daughter sitting near. 
XXX. 
Then up that flow'r- shoot tender 

Sprang quick from gold-back'd chair. 
Her waist was all so slender 

Her breasts so round and fair ! 
That little rogue young astrild 

Her dimpled cheeks disclose, 
Like Butterfly wind -carried 

To some just-op'ning Rose. — 

XXXI* 

To* her virgin -bow'r she speedeth. 
And green -worVd Purse she brings^ 

Where many a wild thing treadeth 
In woodland - wanderings ; 



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116 

And o*er the Sea, sail-whil*ning. 
Do silver Moonbeams shine, —• 

Its lock are rubies bright'ning. 
Its tassels golden twine, 
xxxn. 

Her gentle Sire has taken 

The Purse she thus doth hold. 
And fills to th' brim, down -shaken. 

With far - off minted gold ; — 
*My welcome's -gift I bear thee. 

Be' it us'd as best it may; 
But now shall frithiof swear me 

All winter here to stay!' 
xxxin. 

*Mood vanquishes all over, — 

But now the Storm-winds reign , 
And HEJD and HAM recover 

I fear, their strength again; 
ELLIDA springs not always 

So luck-ful as before. 
Though one we've miss'd, the billows 

Right many whales ride o'er!' — 

Thus quaffd they there and jested 

Till morn re -lit her torch. 
But that gold wine -cup zested 

A feast — no wild debauch; 
At last a brimming Bumper 

They drain — Ho angaiItyr', — 
And FRITHIOF thus the winter 

Pass'd out with right good cheer! 



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CAHTO XIL 



frithiots iXituvn* 



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Argument. 

Frithiof returns. •— Apd behold he is the same, equally 
faithful « equally hopeful, equally worshiping his Love. But 
alas! Hoiv all is changed around him! His Home ^ Halls a smok- 
ing ruin, — his mcEBORG afar -off and given to another, — 
the ^sorrowful and houseless" young warrior standeth still and 
^'wotteth not what it may mean." 

But HiLDiNG, that ^'ancient" so friendly to his Foster-Child, 
has watched the Framniis-steered ellida touch the strand, and 
hastens to meet, instruct, and console him. In few but chosen 
words, he tells him of the unsuccessful battle fought by the 
Brothers, King binges unrelenting conditions for a Peace, the 
consequent forced marriage of their Sister with the armed and 
venerable suitor^ and helge's dastardly revenge in setting fire 
to the Homestead of the absent Tribute seeker. -^ frithiof's 
answer is worthy of any Poet of any age, and only its Author 
could have dictated hilding's reply — by which the inflamed 
and insulted youth is silenced — but not convinced: 

'ALLFATHER dooms', muttcr'd FRITHIOF, glooming; 

*But I, too, may for awhile be dooming. 

Tis balder's Midsummer Holy Feast, — 

I th' Temple, crown'd, will stand his Priest; — 

Th^t Arson -King, who his Sister blooming 

Has sold, ru too for awhile be dooming! 



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CANTO XII. 



Out Spring breathes soft in yon Heav'n of blue , 
And Earth's green verdure again is new : 
His Host then frithiof thanketh, in motion 
Once more out over the plains of Ocean. 
On sun -bright pathway His coal-black Swau 
Her silv'ry furrow with joy ploughs on. 
For western breezes. Spring's music bringing, 
Like JNigthingales in the sails are singing; 
And agir's Daughters, in blue veils dight. 
The helm leap round, and urge on its flight. — 
Ah! pleasant 'tis — when, from far-off sailing, 
Thy prow thou turn'st to thy Homeland! — hailing 
The coast where smoke from thy own Hearth's curl'd. 
And Mem'ry guards her fair Childhood -world! 
The fresh -stream'd fountain thy Play -place washes. 
While Barrows green hold thy Fathers' ashes; 
And, full of longing, thy faithful Maid 
With sea -ward gaze on the cliff is staid! — 
Days six he sails, on the seventh's dawning 
A dark -blue stripe he discerns, which Morning 
At Heaven's far border shows slowly rise 
Till rocks, isles, 'land' quick salute his eyes! 
His Land it is from the deep that springeth. 
Its shades they are which the Green -Wood flingeth. 



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120 

lis foaming torrents he hears war there. 

As breast of marble the rock lays bare. — 

He hails the headland, the strait he haileth. 

And close to balder's retreat he saileth. 

Wherein, last summer, so many' a night 

With ing'borg seated he dream'd delight. — 

•Why comes She not? — Has She no fond presage 

How near I swing on the dark -blue sea- surge? 

But haply', abandoning BAI^DEr's walls. 

She sorrowful sits in Her regal halls 

Her Harp soft striking, or bright gold wea\eth!' — 

The Temple's pinnacles sudden leaveth 

His Falcon then, and from heav'n hath sped 

To frithiof's shoulder, as oft he'd fled. 

His white wing ceaseless he flaps above him. 

And, faithful, thence no allurements move him; 

With fire "bright talon he ceaseless scrapes, 

Jfor x^est he gives nor repose he tak^s. 

To frithiof's ear, then, his crook'd bill wended 

As though some message to give 'twas bended. 

Perhaps from ING'^org, his dear-lov'd Bride, — 

But broken sounds — what can they betide? 

ELLIDA, rustling, the Cape now passes. 
Glad -bounding, hind -like o'er verdant grasses; 
For well-known waves 'gainst the keel have gonej 
But frithiof, joyful. Her prow upon. 
His eyes oft rubs, and his hand upholdeth 
Above His brow , and the shore beholdeth ; — 
But rub He' or look as He may, no more 
His FRAMNAs' home shall He e'er explore! 
The naked chimney is grimly tow'ring. 



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121 



Like champion -skerton in grave -mound low'ring; 

\Vhere Court-halls stood, is a fire -clear d land; 

And ashes whirl round the ravag'd strand. 

Then frithiof quick from the ship advances^ 

O'er burnt demesnes casting angry glances^ 

His Father's grounds and His childhood's walks; — 

But rough -hair'd BRAN up to meet him stalks. 

His faithful Dog that for Him bold wrestled 

Full oft with bears in the forest nestled; 

How glad his gambols, how glad his leaps^ 

How high to' his Master he springing keeps! — 

His milk-white Courser, (with mane gold -blended. 

And hind-like legs and a neck swan- bended,) 

Which FRITHIOF once had so often rode. 

With lofty bounds from the dale, too, trode. 

And turns his neck, neighing glad, and lingers 

And bread will have from his Masters fingers: — 

Poor FRITHIOF, poorer by far than they. 

Has nought for his fav'rites howe'er they pray! 

As sad and houseless He stands, round -vie wing 
For land he'd heir'd — the burnt woodland -ruin. 
See ! aged hilding advances there 
His Fosterfather with silver hair: — 
*At this black show can I scarcely wonder. 
When the' Eagle's flown they his dwelling plunder. 
A kingly exploit for peace I see; 
Oath HELGE took, right well keepeth he, — 
The Gods to worship, — mankind abhorring! — 
His 'Progress' call we an Arson -warring. 
Not grief, but anger it works, I swear; 
But ing'borg's — tell me I pray thee — where?' — 
'Dark words I bring,' said this Yeoman hoary; 



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122 

Not glad, I ween, wilt Thou find my story. — 

Thou scarce hadst saird, when King ring drew nigh. 

Shields five gainst one could I well descry. 

At DISAR-DALE, by the Stream, they battled. 

And blood -red foaming its waters rattled. 

King HALFDAN jested and laugh*d away, 

Nathless he struck like a man that day; 

The kingly stripling my target shielded , 

His skilPs first trial such pleasure yielded. 

But short enough did their war -sport last. 

For — HELGE fled, and then all was past! 

But the' ASA -Kinsman in all haste lighted 

Thy Halls so fair, as he 'scap'd affrighted. — 

Now two hard terms for the Brothers stand; — ^ 

To RING they yield shall their Sisters hand, 

(For atonement could but by Her be tender d) 

Or — land and crown must be both surrendered: 

And Peaceful Heralds right frequent ride, — 

But now King ring hath ta'en home his Bride!* — 

*0! Woman, Woman!' — cried frithiof madly, 
*When Thought with LORE first shelter d gladly, 
A Lie it was ! and He sent it then 
In Woman's shape to the world of Men! 
Yes! a blue -eyed Lie, who with false tears ruleth, 
Encbanteth always, and alway fooleth; 
A rose-cheek'd Lie, with rich - swelling breast. 
And in Spring -ice virtue and Wind -faith drest; 
With guileful heart She, deceitful, glances, 
And Perjury still on her fresh lips dances! — 
And yet how dear to my soul was She — 
How dear was then , ah ! yet is to me I 



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123 



In all my sports, far as Mem'rj reaches. 

My Mate was ing*borg! Remembrance teaches 

That of each high exploit my proud Youth dream'd. 

Herself as Prize still most precious seem'd. — 

Like two fair Trees , by one root united , — 

Has THOR one stem with His lightnings blighted. 

Straight withers the' other, — is one all green, — 

With verdure crown'd is its spouse -trunk seen; -^ 

So' our grief and gladness were thus one only! 

Not us'd is FRITHIOF to think him lonely; 

Now IS he lonely, — Thou lofty var! 

Where pencil -bearing Thou joumiest far. 

And oaths on tablets of gold inscribest — 

Let be those fooFriesJ Thon dreams describest. 

Thy tablets marking all ftill of lies ; 

On faithful gold — what a pity 'tis! 

Of balder's nanna some tale fame telleth ; 

On human brow now no Truth more dwelleth. 

In human bosom all Faith is spent, — 

Since ing'borg's voice has to guile been lent. 

That voice like Zephyr o'er flow'r-meads creeping. 

Like brage's music — His harp -strings sweeping] 

Ah I ne'er mine ear shall those harp -tones drink; 

Of that false Bride ne'er again I'll think; -^ 

The dancing storm -wave shall be my pillow. 

Thou blood shall drink, thou wide ocean -billow! 

Where sword -blades scatter the Barrows' seed. 

O'er hill o'er dale shall my foot- steps speed! 

All crown'd, perchance, I may meet a stranger, ^ 

I'd know if then I shall spare from danger! 

Some youth, perchance, I may meet, all calm 

And full of love 'mid the shields' alarm , 



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124 

Some fool on honour and truth depending, <^ 
From pity* — I'll hew! — his poor life quick •ending: 
ril save from shame; he shall glorious die — 
Not guil'd, betray'd, nor despis'd — as I!* 

*How still boils over,' now hilding pleaded, 
'Youth's hot fierce blood; and yet. Son! how needed 
To cool its fervors are years of snow: — 
That noble Maiden nor wrong thou so! 
My Foster -Daughter impeach not! •— Better 
Impeach the NORNOR; for who can fetter 
Their angry Fates, which — on this our world — 
Heav'n's Thunder -land hither down hath hurl'd? 
Her sorrows nobly to none proclaiming. 
E'en legend -YIDAR in silence shaming^ 
Her grief was still , — as , in south-wood side 
Some turtle-dove's, when her mate hath died. 
Her heart, nathless. She to me disclosed; 
And — endless pangs in its depths reposed ! 
The Water-bird when death • pierc'd her breast. 
To th* bottom dives, with one comfort blest — 
That burning day will not see her bruises. 
Lies so below and her life-blood loses; — 
Thus shrank Her pain to the realms of Night , 
None knew but I all Her griefs aright! — 
*For bele's realm they've an ofF'ring bound me 
And Winter's verdure is hung around me; 
While fragrant snow-flow'rs bloom round my hair, 
I'm a Peace -maid now: sure the victim's fair! 
Ah! Death were easy! — But Death pain stilleth; 
Atonement only scom'd balder willeth, 
A ling'ring death, — no repose it meets. 



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125 

Its heart still flatters, its pulse still beats! — 

But the weak one*s struggles reveal thou never. 

None pity shall, though I grieve for ever; 

King bele's Daughter Her woes will bide. — 

Yet FRITHIOF hail from his once hop*<l Bride!' — 

The Wedding day came at last, (^its token 

rd willing see from my rune-sta£P broken^) 

To th* Temple glided a long-drawn train 

Of white -rob'd Virgins and sword -clad men: 

A gloomy Minstrel before them wended, — 

O'er black -hued palfrey the pale Bride bended, 

Like that pale Spirit which sits up o'er 

The dusky cloud when the thunders roar! 

My Lily tall, from Her saddle bearing, 

I led then forth through the Temple, faring 

To the' Altar- Circle where. Priests among, 

lofn's vows she took with unfalt'ring tongue. 

To th' White God, too. She long pray'rs presented; 

And all, save only the Bride, lamented. 

Then first the ring on Her tap'ring arm 

Grim helge mark'd , and straight snatch'd the charm ; 

Now BALDER wearelh the glitt'ring trifle. — 

My rage I then could no longer stifle. 

My good sword quick from its scabbard forth 

I drew, — then little was helge worth; — 

But ing'borg whisper'd, — *Let be! a brother 

Gould this have spar'd , — I had borne all other; 

Yet much we suffer before we die, — 

ALLFATHER 'tween us will doom on high!* 

*ALLFATHER dooms !' — mutter'd frithiof glooming; 
'But I, too, may for awhile be dooming. 



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126 

*Tis BALDER*s Midsummer holy Feast, 
And crown'd i th* Temple will stand his Priest; 
That Arson -King, who his Sister blooming 
Has sold, — Pll, too, for awhile be dooming!' — 



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CAMTO XIIL 



tta(l»)rrs |l$r«* 



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Argument. 

Terrible is the misery , grand the desolation, presented to 
us in this exceedingly massive Canto. Every Line is a sentence, 
every Stanza a picture. 

The bold and successful Ocean -adventurer, penetrates into 
the interior of balder's Tenlple , at whose, altar the malignant 
and bigot ruffian -king is sacrificing. Flinging the purse in- 
stead of giving it, he fells to the Earth his enemy; then 
seizing his ^Arm-Ring the Good' which he finds adorning the 
Image instead of mcEBORG, he wrenches and pulls till the 
wooden Idol itself gives way, falls headlong among the altar- 
flames, — and in a moment the Temple, that sanctuary so 
holy and so venerable, is in a blaze! Vain are all efforts to 
stop the flames; timbers snap, metals melt, walls yawn, the 
Grove blazes, — and balder's hage is no more! 

Horror-struck and shuddering, the innocent but sacrilegious 
Temple -Firer turneth him from the smoking ruin, and ^weeps 
as the Mom slow breaketh." 



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CANTO xin. 



Ualtitv'a t^^re. 



r. 

IMidnight's Sun, all blood- red bright. 

Far- oflF hills o'erbended; 
It was not day, it was not night. 

Between them it was suspended. 



n* 



balder's Pyre, of the Sun a Mark, 

Holy Hearth red-staineth; 
Yet, soon dies its last faint spark. 

Darkly then HODER reigneth. 

m. 

Ancient Priests round the Temple -wall 
Stood, and the pile -brands shifted; 

Silver -bearded and pale, they all 
Flint -knives in hard hands lifted. 

IV. 

HELGE, crown'd, standeth them beside. 
Help 'mid the circle profF'ring. 

Hark! then clatter, at midnight's tide. 
Arms in the grove of OfF'ring. — 



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130 

V. 



*bj6ks, the door hold close, Man! — So! 

Pris'ners they '11 all ohey me; 
Out or in whoe'er would go — 

Cleave his skull, I pray thee.' 



VI. 



Pale waxeth helge, — that voice too well 
Knows he^ and what presaging. 

Forth trod FRITHIOF, and dark words fell 
Storm like in Autumn raging. 



VII. 



*Here's the tribute. Prince! thy breath 
Ordered from western waters; 

Take it! Then — for life or death — 
Fight we at balder's auters: 



vm. 



*Back shield -cov^r'd, my bosom bare. 
Nought shall unfair be reckoned. 

First, as King, strike thou! Beware 
Mind — for I strike the second. 



IX. 



*Yonder door? — Nay, gaze. Fool, here! 

Caught in his hole the fox is; 
Think of Framnas, and ing'borg dear 

Fam*d that for golden locks is!' 



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131 



So His Hero -accents rang; 

Th' Purse from his belt then freely 
Drew He, and careless enough it flang 

Right at the Son of bele. 



XL 



Blood from his Mouth gush*d out straightway, 

Streaming blackly splendent; 
There , by his altar, swooning lay 

The' ASAR's high descendant. 



xnt 



*What! Thine own gold bearst not? — Shame! 

Shame! coward -king vile -shrinking; 
ANGURVABEL none e'er shall blame 

Blood so base for drinking! 



xm. 



*Silence! Priests with oflTring- knife. 
Chiefs yon Moon lights dimly! 

Noise might cost each wretched life. 
Back! — for my blade thirsts grimly. 



XIV. 



*Rageful Thine eye, white balder, shines; 

Yet, why so anger -swollen? 
Yon fair Ring Thine arm round -twines. 

Pardon me, but 'tis stolen! 



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132 



XV. 



'Not, sure, for Thee vaulunder kept 
Graving that jewel's wonders; 

Violence stole, and the Virgin wept, — 
Down with all scoundrel -plunders!' - 



XVI. 



Brave he puU'd; but fast -grown seem'd 
The' arm and the Bing so curious; 

When loos'd at last, where the' Altar gleamed 
Brightest — the God leapt furious 1 



xvn. 



Hark, that crash! Gnawing gold-tooth'd flame 

Bafter and roof o'er- (jui vers; 
BJdRN turns pale as he stands, and shame 

FRITHIOF feels — that he shivers. 



xvm. 



'BJdRN, release them! Unbar the door; 

Guarding is now all 0v€r: 
Th' Temple blazes; pour water, pour 

All the Sea thereover!' — 



XIX. 



Now from Temple and grove and strand. 
Chain-like, they clasp each other; 

Billows, wand'ring from hand to hand. 
Hissing the fires would smother. 



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133 



XX. 



Rain- God like» sits frithiof there » 
High o'er beams and waters, 

AU- directing with lordly air. 

Calm *mong the hot fire - slaughters. 

XXI. 

Vain! fire conquers; rolling past. 
Smoke-clouds whirl, and smelted 

Gold on red-hot sands falU fast. 
Silver plates are melted. 

XXBT. 

All, airs lost! From half-bum'd Hall 
Th* fire -red Cock up- swinge th! — 

Sits on the roof, and, with shrilly call 
Flutt'ring , his free course^ wingeth. 

xxm. 

MomingV winds from the NortK rush by. 
Heavenward the fire -wave surges, 

BALDer's grove is summer -dry. 

Greedy the fierce blaze gorges; •^« 

XXIV. 

Raging, from branch to branch it flew. 
Still round the goal ne'er closing; 

Ah! how fearful that wild light grew, 
balder's pyre — how imposing! 



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134 

XXV. 



Hark! — how it snaps i' th* gaping root; 

See! from the top sparks shoWer; — 
^Gainst muspel*s Sons^ the red, what boot 

Man's art, man's arm, man's power? 



XXYI. 



Fire -seas tumble in balder's grove; 

Shoreless the JjiUows wander: 
Sun -beams rise, but frith and cove 

Mirrow Hell's flame -lights yonder! 

XXYEU 

To' ashes soon is the Temple bum'd. 
To' ashes the Grove so blooming: - 

FRITHIOF, grief- ful, away has tum'd^ 
Day — o'er HiS hot tears glooming! 



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CANTO ZIT. 



fvithiot 00jetlt into 



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Arguments 

This Canto opens with an unrivaled Monologue, frithiof 
hastening his unavoidable exile from his beloved Fatherland , is 
steering towards Ocean , Vhile the smoke of the Temple still 
rises from the strand.' His passionate words somewhat ease 
his full hearty and he ends with the exclamation — 

'My Life -Home given 

Thou shalty far -driven. 

My Barrow be. 

Thou free broad Sea!' 
But he is pursued! helge, with his fleet of Dragons , has- 
tens to grasp the fugitive ere he escapes his vengeance. — 
This danger , however , has been foreseen*; bjOrn has scuttled 
the vessels 9 and they are tilling rapidly, helge and his crews 
escape with difficulty to shore, and the Tyrant owes his life 
only to the ineffable contempt of his noble foe, who then chaunt- 
eth a Farewell Song to his Country's Genius, and is carried 
by heaven's fresh breezes to those 'plains blue-spreading' on 
whose broad bosom all 'unknown 

Are despof s glances 

And tyrant's fancies!' 



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FRITHIOF GOES II^^TO B A2^ISH:\IEXT . 



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CANTO XIV. 



j^viitfiof goetfi into l$ani0|iment 



-His ship's -deck slight ' 

r th* summer -night, I 

Bore th' Hero grieving. 

Like waves high -heaving, ' 

Now rage now woe 
Thro' His bo6om flow. — 

Smoke still ascended, ' 

The fire not ended. I 



*Thou Temple -smoke 
Fly up! — Invoke 

From high VALHALLA 

The rage of balder; 
Send th' white God's wrath 
To blight my path! 
Fly up! and chatter 
Till the' arches clatter 
Say — Temple -round 
Burnt thus to th' ground; 
Thus down fell sudden 
Thine Image wooden. 
Like all wood lay 
And burn'd away! -^ 
The Grove, too, mention 



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138 

Secure since falchion 
Had thigh -girt been. 
Now waste; not e'en 
Was the' honor gotten 
To sink, time -rotten. — ■ 
This, — more thereto 
Which all may view, — 
To BALDER carry; 
Nor fail, nor tarry. 
Mist- Courier! high 
To th' Mist-God fly! — 

•Each Scald, sure, raises 
Mild H£LGE*s praises 
Who thus has bann d 
From yond my Land; — 
From Him bans never! — 
Well! nought can sever 
From that blue realm 
Where billows whelm. — 
Thou may'st not rest Thee, 
Thou still must haste Thee, 
ellida! — out 
Th' wide world about. 
Yes! rock on! roaming 
Mid froth salt -foaming 
My Dragon good! 
Nor drop of blood 
Will hurt, thou knowest. 
Where'er Thou goest. 
When storms hoarse cry. 
My House Thou 'rt by; 



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139 



For BALDER*s — Brother — 
He burn'd mine other. 
Yes! Thou'rt my North, 
My Foster -earth; 
From that down yonder 
I now must wander. 
Yes! Thou'rt my Bride, 
Black weeds Thy pride; 
For ah! how dare one 
Trust Her, that Fair One? — 

*Thou free broad Sea! 
Unknown to Thee 
Are despot's glances 
And tyrant's fancies. 
Where freemen swing — 
Is he thy King, 
Who never shivers 
However high quivers. 
With rage oppress'd. 
Thy froth -white breast! 
Thy plains, blue - spreading , 
Glad chiefs are treading;^ 
Like ploughs thereon 
Their keels drive on; 
And blood -rain patters 
In shade the' oak scatters. 
But steel -bright there 
The corn -seeds glare! 
Those plains so hoary 
Bear crops of glory. 
Rich crops of gold : 



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140 



Thou billow bold 
Befriend me ! — Never 
m from thee sever! — 
My father's Mound 
Dull stands, fast -bound. 
And self- same surges 
Ghaunt changeless dirges; 
But blue shall mine 
Through foam-flowVs shine, 
•Mid tempests swimming. 
And storms thick dimming. 
And draw yet mo 
Down, down, below. — 
My Life -Home given. 
Thou shalt, far -driven I 
My Barrow be — 
Thou free broad Se^!' — 

Thus fierce he grieveth. 
And sorrowing leaveth 
His prow so true 
The reeds it knew, — 
All gently gliding 
'Mong rocks still biding 
To watch i' th' North 
The shallow firth. — 
But vengeance wakens: 
With twice five Dragons 
Swam HELGE round 
And closed the Sound. 
Then each loud crieth; — 
•Now HELGE dieth 



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141 



This one fight o'er — 
Then thrives no more. 
The bright Moon under. 
That valhall's wonder; 
Above He'll rise 
To' His home, the skies; 
That blood immortal. 
Seeks oden's portal.' 

The word scarce said. 
With unseen tread 
Some Pow'r fast clingeth 
To' each keel that swingeth! 
And see ! they slow 
Are drawn below 
To dead- rich RANA; 
Nay! e'en King helge 
From half-drown'd prore 
Scarce svnms ashore. 

But glad BJCJRN proudly 
Shouts, laughing loudly, — 
•Thou ASA -blood. 
That trick was good! 
Unseen, unfearful, 
I scuttled cheerful 
The ships last night; 
The thought was bright! 
What RAN enfoldeth 
I hope she holdeth. 
As heretofore: 
Yet,' pity sore. 



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142 



They went to th* bottom 
Their Chief forgotten!' 

In angry mood 
King HELGE stood. 
Scarce death -delivered; 
His drawn Bow quiver d. 
Steel- cast and round, 
*Gainst rocky ground; 
Himself not knew it. 
How hard he drew it. 
Till th* steel -how sprang 
With snapping clang. 

But FRITHIOF weigheth 
His Lance, and sayeth: — 
^Held hack, this free 
Death -Eagle see! 
If out He dashes 
He mortal gashes 
That tyrant -thing 
A coward -King 
Who — needless shrinketh: 
My Lance ne'er drinketh 
A craven's blood. 
Ay! 'tis too good 
For such achievements! 
'Mong rune-stone grievements 
It carv'd may stand. 
But ne'er shall brand 
That scoundrel -framing 
Which thy name's shaming! 



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143 



Thy manhood's bloom 
Finds shipwreck's doom , 
And scaping hither 
On shore, will wither, -^ 
Rust steel may break. 
Not thou. — m take 
A mark far higher 
Than base peace-buyer: 
Take care how near 
Thine own appear!' — 

To' an oar cut down. He 
Then grasps a pine-tree, 
(That mast -pine fell 
In Gudbrand's dell,) 
Its mate then heaveth. 
And the' ocean cleaveth. 
Strong pulls He takes. -^ 
As reed -shaft breaks. 
As cold -blade snappeth. — 
Each oar quick crackethi — 

Day's Orb now shin'd 
Hill -tops behind; 
Fresh breezes bounded 
From shore, and sounded 
Each wave to dance 
In Morning's glance. 
Where th' high surge leapeth 
ELLIDA sweepeth. 
Glad stretch'd her wings. — 
But FRITHIOF sings : 



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144 



I. 

'Heimskringla*s forehead , 

Thou lofty North! 
Away I'm hurried 

From this thine Earth. 
My race from Thee goes, 

I boasting tell; 
Now , nurse of heroes — 

Farewell! Farewell! 
n. 
•Farewell , high - gleaming 

VALHALLA'S Throne, 
Night's Eye, bright- beaming 

Midsummers Sun! 
Sky ! where , as in Hero's 

Soul, pure depths dwell, — 
And thronging Star -rows, — 

Farewell! Farewell! 
ni. 
•Farewell, ye Mountains, 

Seats Glory for; 
Ye tablet- fountains 

For mighty thor! 
Ye lakes and Highlands 

I left so sel'. 
Ye rocks and islands. 
Farewell! Farewell! 
IV, 
•Farewell, Cairns dreaming 

By wave of blue , — 
Where, snow-white gleaming, 

X Limes flow'r-dust strew! 



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145 



But SAGA spieth 
And doometh well 

I the' Earth what lieth ; — 
Farewell I Farewell I 



•Farewell, ye bowers. 

Fresh Houses green. 
Where youth pluck'd flowers 

By murm'ring stream: 
Ye friends of childhood 

Who meant me well. 
Ye' re yet remember'd; — 

Farewell! Farewell! 

VI. 

'My Love insulted. 

My Palace brent. 
My Honour tarnish'd. 

In Exile sent, — 
From Land in sadness 

To th' Sea we' appeal, — 
But Life's young gladness — 

Farewell! Farewell!' 



10 



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OAMTO XT. 



€hc ^iUiufj^^^ohi. 



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The ^VIKING -code' follows, an admirable digest of the 
battle-breathing maxims acted upon by the freebooters of the 
North. But still tegner's genius has thrown the Rain-bow of 
Pity over the Deluge of Blood! 

*'Tis enough shouldst thou conquer! — Who prays thee 
for peace 9 hath no sword , — and cannot be thy foe. 

Pray'r is Valhalla's Child , hear the pale Virgin's voice; 
yes! a scoundrel is he that says no!* 

In many a sweetly - flowing Stanza is then related the deep 
melancholy of the love-stricken youth, his struggles to ennoble 
the pirate-life he professed, his isavage reckless death-seeking 
bravery in battle, his sorrowful home-longing in peace — till 
at last he concludes; 

'There's the flag on the mast, to the Northland it points, 
and the North holds the Country I love; 

Back to Northward I'll steer, gladly following the course of 
the breezes fresh-blowing above!' 



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Voice. 



Pjaiiof orte . < 



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THE VIKING- CODE. 



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CANTO XV. 



I. 

Jbar and wide, like the Falcon that hunts through the 
sky, flew He now o'er the desolate Sea; 

And his Vikinga-Code, for His champions onboard, wrote 

he well; — vnli thou hear what it be? 

U. 

*0n thy ship pitch no tent ; in no house shalt thou sleep ; 

in the hall who our friends ever knew? 
On his shield sleeps the Viking, his sword in his hand, 

and for tent has yon Heaven the blue, 
m. 

*With a short-shafted hammer fights conquering THOR, 
FREY*s own sword but an ell long is made ; 

That's enough. Hast thou courage! Strike close to thy 
foe : not too short for thee then is thy blade ! 
IV. 

*When the storm roars on high , up aloft with the sail ; 

ah! how pleasant's the Sea in its wrath: 
Let it blow, let it blow! He's a coward that furls; rather 

founder than furl in thy path. 
V. 

*0n the shore, not on board, mayst thou toy with a maid; 

FREJA's self would prove false to thy love : 
For the dimple deceives on her cheek, and her trusses 

would net -like entrap thee above! 



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150 

VI. 

♦Wine is VALFATHEr's drink; a carouse thou majst have; 

but yet steady and upright appear: 
He who staggers on shore may stand up, but will soon 

down to sleep -giving RAN stagger here. 

vn. 

*Sails the merchant-ship forth ^ thou his bark mayst protect, 

if — due tribute his weak hand has told: 
On thy wave art thou King; he's a slave to his pelf, 

and thy steel is as good as his gold! 
vin. 
*With the dice and the lot shall the booty be shard; and 

complain not, however it goes: 
But the Sea-King himself throws no dice on the deck, 

only glory He seeks from his foes. 
DC. 
•Heaves a Viking in sight — then come boarding and strife , 

and hot work is it under the shield; 
But from us art thou banish'd — forget not the doom — 

if a step or a foot thou shalt yield! 
X. 
*'Tis enough, shouldst thou conquer! Who prays thee for 

peace, has no sword — and cannot be thy foe: 
Pray'r is VALhali^a's child, hear the pale Virgin's voice; 

yes! a scoundrel is he who says no J 
XL 
^Viking-gains are deep wounds, and right well they adorn 

if they stand on the brow or the breast. 
I^et them bleed! Twice twelve hours first must circle ere 

biuds them — who Vikinga«comrade would rest!*-^ 

xn. 

Thus His Laws carv'd He out , and fresh Exploits each day 
and fresh fame to strange coast-lauds he brought ; 



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151 

And his Like found He none on the blue-rolling sea, and 
his champions right willing they fought. 

But Himself sat all darkly, with rudder in hand, and 

looked down on the slow- rocking spray; — 
'Deep thou art ! Peace perchance in those depths still may 

bloom ^ but above here all peace dies away. 
XIV. 
*Is the White God enrag'd? — Let him take His good 

sword, I will fall should it so be decreed; 
But He sits in yon sky, gloomy thoughts sending down; 

ne'er my soul from their sadness is freed!' — 
XV. 
Yet when battle is near, like the fresh eagle flying, his 

spirit fierce soars with delight; 
Loudly thunders His voice, and with clear brow He stands, 

like the Light'ner still foremost in fight. 
XVI. 
Thus from vict'ry to vict'ry He ceaselessly swam, on 

that wide -foaming grave all secure; 
And fresh islands He saw, and fresh bays in the South, 

till fair winds on to Greek-Land allure, 
xvn. 
When its groves He beheld, in the green tide reflected, 

its temples in ruin bent low; — 
FREJA knows what He thought, and the Scald, and if e'er 

thou hast known how to love — thou wilt know! — 
xvm. 
*Here our dwelling had been! Here's the isle, here's the 

land; of this Temple my Sire oft would tell; 
Hither 'twas, hither 'twas, I invited my Maid ; — ah! She, 

cruel, the North lov'd too well! 



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152 

XIX. 

''Mong these happy green vales dwells not Peace? and Re- 
membrance, ah! haunts she not columns so fair? 

Like the whisp'rings of lovers soft murmur those springs , 
and with bridal -songs birds fill the air. 
XX. 

*Where is ingeborg now? — Is so soon all forgot — for 
a Chief wither d, grey-hair'd, and old? — 

I, I cannot forget! Gladly gave I my life, yet once more 
that dear form to behold! 
XXI. 

*And three years have gone by since my own land I saw, 

kingly Hall of fair Saga the Queen! 
Rise there yet so majestic those mountains to Heav'n, 

keeps my Forefathers' dale its bright green? 
xxn, 
*0n the Cairn where my Father lies buried, a Lime-tree 

I planted — ah! blooms it there now? 
Who its tender shoot guards? — Give thy moisture, O 

Earth! and thy dews, O thou Heaven, give Thou! 
xxni. 

TTet why linger I here, on the wave of the stranger? — is 
tribute, is blood, then my goal? 

I have glory sufGcient, and beggarly gold and its bright- 
ness — deep scorneth my soul. 
XXTV. 

^There's the flag on the mast, to the Northland it points, 
and the North holds the Country I love; 

Back to northward III steer, and will follow the course 
of the breezes fresh-blowing above !' — 



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CANTO XVI. 



ffijarn anh fritkiot 



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Argument. 

This Canto is very characteristic. Nothing could more 
effectually have painted bjOrn the Viking-champion , and fri- 
THIOF the Champion -hero 9 of Scandinavia. 

In a charming dialogue on board ellida, as she lies fro- 
zen-in on the Norwegian coast , frithiof declares his resolution 
to set out on a visit to — the Court of King rictg, his success- 
ful and dangerous rival! 

'Go not alone!" 

interrupts his faithful Foster -Brother; — 'Nor do I,' says fri- 
thiof, — 'my Sword's at my side!' 



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CANTO XVI. 



Ufom atiH jfrittiiot 



FRITHIOF. 

JDj5rn! Fm awearied of surge and of sea! 

Billows, at best, are tumultuous urchins; 

Northland's firm, fast- rooted, dear^belov'd Mountains 
Wondrously tempt me, afar though they be. — 

Happy whom never his land has out -driven. 
None ever chas*d from his Father's green grave ! 

Ah! too long, yes too long have I striven, 
Peaceless and sad, on this Ocean's wild wave!' — 

bjOrn. 

*Ocean is good, blame it not; for out yonder 

Freedom and gladness abide on its breast; 

Nothing know I of weak womanish rest. 
Onward I love with the billows to wander. — 

When I am old, on the blossoming Earth 
I, too, will grow soil-fast as the grass is; — 

Goblet and battle shall now be my mirth , 
Now I'll enjoy each young hour as it passes!' — 



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156 

FRITHIOF. 

*Yet, by hard ice we are hunted on land; 

See ! round our keel the big waves He all lifeless. 

Winter I waste not, the long and the strifeless. 
Here *mong the rocks of a desolate strand. 

Yule shall again in the Northland delight me. 
Guesting with RING and the Bride that he stole. 

Yes! ril again view those locks streaming brightly. 
Tones still so lov'd shall yet speak to my soul!' — 

BJOrn. 

*Good! Hint no longer. Revenge is our duty; 

RING skall acknowledge a Viking*s is dire. 

Sudden, at midnight, his Palace we*ll fire. 
First bum the' old Warrior, then ravish the Beauty. 

Haply it chances, in Vikinga-wise, 
Isle -duel worthy the Chieftain thou deemest; 

Or, Thou mayst challenge to Host -fight on ice; 
Say! — Fm prepar'd for whatever Thou schemest!' — 

FRITHIOF. 

^Arson , oh name not ! and think not of war : 

Peaceful I go. The good King has not wrong*d me ^ 
She too, is guiltless. — Yes! Gods avenge strongly — 

I their insulter — the crimes they abhor. 

Little on Earth may I hope. There remaineth 

Now but to part from the Bride I hold dear: — 

Part, ah! for aye. — When soft Spring again reigneth. 

Then, if not sooner, I haste to thee here.' 

BjOrn. 

*FRiTHiOF, I cannot excuse, Man! Thy madness. — 
What! for a Woman lament so sore! 



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157 

Women, good lack! the whole Earth swarm o'er; 
Thousands, one gone, will soon banish ihy sadness. 

Quick, if Thou will, where the South Sun glows 
Cargoes I'll bring of such wares, more than others 

Gentle as lambs and as red as the rose, — 
Then draw we lots, or divide them like Brothers!' — 

FRITHIOF. 

*JWdRN! Thou art open and glad, like as frey; 

Boldness in fight, skill in counsel, thou showest; 

ODEN and THOR both together Thou knowest; 
FREJA, the Heav'nly, Thou dost not obey. 

Speak we not now of the pow'r each God keepeth ; 
Rouse not, enrage not, the' Eternal again; — 

Sooner or later, the sparkle that sleepeth 
Wakes — in the bosom of Gods and of Men!' — 

bjOrn. 
*Go not alone. — Seldom way -laid returneth,' 

FRITHIOF, 
*Well am I foUow'd: — My sword's at my side.' 

BjflRN. 
*HAGBART, forget not, of hanging died!' — 
FRITHIOF. 
'He who is taken, his hanging well earnethi' — 



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158 

bjOrn. 

TalFst Thou, War-Brother! Til Venge Thee well; 
Blood-eagle lines on Thy foe shall be flowing.* 

FRITHIOF. 

*bj6rn! *tis not needed. The cock*s loud crowing 
Hears he no longer than I. — Farewell!* — 



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OAHTO zvn. 



;ftUhicif comtih to 



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Argument. 

Again a Ballad, — aud a delightful one it is! What a 
succession of touching incidents in the Hall of the Patriarch- 
Monarch! 

In an old man's disguise, 'frithiof the dauntless' has 
penetrated to the Court of his foe. A slight quarrel draws ring's 
attention to the unknown Stranger, and perceiving by his air 
and answers that he was no common guest, he bids him 

^But yon disguise let fall now, and like thyself appear, 
Disguls'd thrives Gladness never, and III have Gladness here.' 

The Stranger obeys, and answers ring's wassail -oath by 
exclaiming — 

4 swear to shelter frithiof, though all the world withstood^ 
So help my fav nng NOtiN'A, and this my Falchion good!' 

This dauntless chivalry of spirit pleases the old King, and 
he orders his fair young Spouse (who has already recognized 
her Lover) to fill -up the Drinking -Horn for the noble Cham- 
pion. Thereafter, the aged Prince kindly presses his visitor to 
remain his Guest till Spring, — and the Songs of the Scalds 
long and late animate die Banquet of the Brave! 



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CANTO XVII. 



d^rttl^tof tomttff to ming Uinq. 



I. 

JtiLmg RING, on High-Seat resting, at Yule drank mead so 

bright. 
His Queen was sat beside him, all rosy-red and white; 
Like Spring and Autumn seem'd they, each other near, 

to be. 
The fresh Spring ing'borg liken'd, — the chilly Autumn he. 

Unknown , an ancient Wand'rer now treadeth in the Hall, 
From head to foot all darkly his thick fur-garments fall; 
A staff he feebly holdeth , and bent they see him go , — 
That old man yet was taller than all the rest, I trow. 

ni. 

He sat him on the bench there, right down behind the 

door; 
For that the poor man*s station is now, and was before ; — 
The courtiers eye each other, and basely him deride. 
And many' a finger pointeth to that grim bear's rough hide. 

IV. 

Then like two vivid lightnings the Stranger's eyes fierce 

flash. 

While one hand graspeth quickly a lordling-youth too 

rash; — 

11 



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162 

Right warily the courtier he twirleth round about. 
Then silent grew the others-^ as we had done, no doubt! 

V. 

'What noise is that down yonder? — Who breaks our 

kingly peace! — 
Come up to me, old fellow! Your words to me address! 
Your name, your will, whence come ye?* — Thus the* 

angry King demands 
Of the* aged man, half- hidden by th* corner where he 

stands. — 
VI. 

'Right much, O King, Thou askest! Yet answer*d shalt 

Thou be; 
My name I give not, that sure can matter none but me. 
In Penitence Vm foster'd, and Want was all I heir'd. 
The Wolf from came I hither, for last his bed I shard. 

vn. 

'In former days I, joyous, the Dragon's back bestrode; 
With wings so strong, he gladly and safe o'er Ocean rode: 
Now lies he lam'd and frozen, full close along the land. 
Myself, too, am grown old and burn salt upon tha strand. 

VIU. 

^came to see thy wisdom, through all the Country.known, 
And was not made for the* insults thy people here have 

shown; 
By th* breast a fool I lifted, and round about did swing. 
Yet stood he up uninjur'd — forgive me that, O King!' — 

IX. 

'Not ill*, the Monarch crieth, 'Thou joinest words and wit. 
And the' ag'd one ought to honour; come — at my board 
here sit. 



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163 

But yon disguise let fall now, and like thy self appear; 
Disguised tlirives Gladness never, and I'll have Gladness 
here ! ' 

X. 

From off the Guest's high head, then, the hairy bear-hide 

feU, 
And, 'stead of him so ancient, a stripling all see well; 
His lofty temples shading, bright ringlets flow'd unbound. 
Like some gold wave encircling his full broad shoulders 

round. 

XI. 

And proud he stood before them, in velvet mantle blue. 
With hand -broad silver girdle where beasts green woods 

range through; 
With cunning skill had the' Artist emboss'dthem out to day. 
And round the Hero's middle each other hunted they. 

xn. 

His Armlet, red gold trinket, to' his arm right splendid 
clung; 

Like standing heav'n-snatch'd Lightning, his shining War- 
Sword hung; 

His Hero-glance slow wander'd all calm o*er guest and ha'. 

He stood there fair as balder, and tall as ASA-THOR. 

xin. 

The' astonish'd Queen's pale cheeks, how fast -changing 

rose-tints dye! — 
So purple Northlights , quiv'ring, on snow-hid meadows lie : 
Like two white water-lilies on storm-wave wild that rest. 
Each moment rising, falling, — so heaves her trembling 

breast! 



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164 

XIV. 

Then loud blew signal -trumpets: — death -still became 

all there; 
For now was the' hour of Promise, and frey's Boar in 

they bear: 
His grim mouth holds an apple, his shoulders garlands 

graced. 
And down on silver Charger four bended knees he plac'd. 

XV. 

And quick King RING he riseth, with grey locks thinly 

crown'd , 
Then, first the Boar's brow touching, his vow thus speaks 

around ; 
*I swear to conquer frithiof , stout champion though he be. 
So help me frey and oden, and THOR more strong than 

He!' 

XVI. 

With mocking laugh, undaunted, the Stranger-chief uprose. 
While, flash-like, hero -rage o'er his scornful face quick 

goes; 
His sword upon the table he dash'd with fearful clang. 
And up from the' oaken benches each warrior sudden 

sprang. 

xvn. 

*And hear thou, good Sir Monarch! for I'll too make my 
vow; 

Young FRITHIOF is my kinsman, I've known him up till 
now; — 

I swear to shelter frithiof, though all the world with- 
stood, — 

So help my fav'ring NORNA and this my Falchion good !' — 



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165 
xvin. 

With smiles the King him answer d; *Full bold thy accents 

fall. 
Yet words were never fetter'd in Northern Kingly Hall. — 
Queen J fill for him that Horn thei;^, with wine thou pri- 

zest best^ 
Till Spring returns , the Stranger I hope will be our guest.' 

XIX. 

The Horn which stood before her, the Queen then rais'd 

with care. 
From the' Urns' forehead broke, — 'twas a jewel rich and 

rare; 
Its feet were shining silver, with many' a ring of gold. 
While wondrous runes adorn'd it, and curious shapes of 

old. 

XX. 

The Goblet to the Hero She reach'd , with downcast eyne, — 
But much Her hand it trembled and spill'd the sparkling 

wine; 
As Ev'ning's purple blushes on snowy Lilies stand , 
So bum'd those drops all darkly on ing'borg's fair white 

hand. 

XXI. 

Straight from the noble Ladye glad took the Guest that 

Horn, 
Not two men could have drain'd it, as men are now y-bom; 
But easily and willing, the gentle Queen to please. 
The mighty Stranger drain it — in but one draught — 

She sees. 



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166 

The Scald, too*, his Harp awak'ning, as hy ring's board 

he sate, 
A heart-sprung legend chaun'ted of Northern Lovers* fate ; — 
Of HAGBART and fair ^igne he sang with voice so defep^ 
That steel-clad bosoms melted — each stern eye longed 

to weep, 
xxm. 

Then harp*d he VALHALL*s glories, rewards the' Einheriar 

gaind. 
And eke their Fathers' exploits, by land and sea obtain'd; — 
His sword then grasp'd each warrior, enkindled ev'ry look. 
And — ceaseless round the' assembly its course the full 

Horn took! 
XXIV. 

So, — deeply in that King's-House they drank all through 

the night, — 
A Yule -carouse each champion enjoy'd with such delight; 
And then to sleep loud haste they, so glad and free from 

care. 
But aged ring he slumber'd — by INg'borg's side the fair! 



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GANTO ZVin. 






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Argument. 

"The next Canto," says Professor Longfellow,* "de- 
scribes a sleigh-ride on the ice. It has a cold breath about it. 
The short, sharp stanzas are like the angry gusts of a north- 
wester." 

The venerable Ring and his lovely Spouse will sledge 
across the 'clear mirror* of the frozen lake. The Stranger 
warns in vain, — the ice gives way, — and only Frithiof's 
vigourous activity can save them. — He hastens to the side of 
his Beloved, 

'And then, without effort, pulls up with one spring. 
On the' ice, as before, — Sledge, Charger, and Ring!' 



♦ North American Review, N:o XCVI, July i837, p. 177. 



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THE ^SlvEDGE EXCURSI0:V. 



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CANTO xvin. 



Etft SleUifle^aPTmrsion. 



JiLing RING to a banquet sets out with his Queen, 
So clear sweeps the mirror-Hke lake's frozen sheen. 

n. 

*Keep back!' said the Stranger, *that icy path shun; 
'Twill give way; cold and deep for a bath its waves run!' 

in. 

fNot so soon,* answers ring, 'can a King be drown'd; 
Let the coward who fears it the lake go round!' • — 

IV. 

Fierce frowns the tall Champion, dark threats in his eyes. 
And quick on his feet steel scate-shoes He ties. 

V. 

Then away darts the Courser, away in*his might; 
He fl^me-snorting gallops, — so wild his delight. 

VI. 

*0n! speed thee!' cries ring; 'On! my Swift-of-foot good ! 
Let us see if thou springest from sleipner's high blood!' 

vn. 

Like the Storm in its wrath, they dash o'er the lake; 
RING heeds not the cry of His Queen — *It will break!* — 



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170 

vni. 

Nor idleth the steel-footed Warrior; — His speed 
Outstrips » when He wills it, yon fast-flying Steed. 

IX. 

And many a rune, too, on the* ice He engraves; 
Fair ing*borg drives o'er Her own Name on the waves. 

X. 

Thus forward they rush on the glassy-smooth path. 
But beneath them false RANA her ambush hath: 

XI. 

In Her silvery roof a deep fissure she reft, — 
And the Royal Sledge lies in the opening cleft. 

xn. 

Then pale, pale as death, waxes ring's lovely bride. 
But — a whirlwind no swifter — the Guest's at Her side ! 

xm. 

With iron-heel boring, He the' ice firmly treads; — 
So, the Charger's mane grasping, his hands deep embeds; 

XIV. 

And then, without efibrt, — He pulls, at one spring. 
On the' ice, as before, — Sledge, Charger, and ring. — 

XV. 

*Full sootji,' cries ring quickly, *my praise hast thou won; 
Not better could strong-handed frithiof have done!' — 

XVL 
So back they return to the Palace once more; — 
The Stranger will there the long winter pass o'er* 



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CANTO SIX. 



frithwts €empt«ti0tt. 



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Argument. 

Xhifl Canto is of a ^'ryghte excelloDt cuDnyng/* A chao- 
giog flow of soft melancholy or rich wild vigour pervades its 
stanzas 9 and a wonderful knowledge of the human heart ele- 
vates its moral lessons. 

The aged ring and all his Court will to the "merry green 
wood/* He is followed by the blooming ingeborg and the Stran- 
ger-favourite. As the chase waxes hot^ however, the old King 
and FRiTHiOF find themselves in a verdant dale, separated from 
their attendant Train, ring pretends great sleepiness , and 
shortly after falls into an apparently profound slumber on the 
young Warrior's knee, as ^calrn as the infant on its mother's arm.' 

Then rises 'The Temptation' before the troubled Imagination 
of the impetuous Sea-King; 
'Here no human eye can see fhee, silent is the dark deep grave.' 

But — though ''a single individual seems alone to stand 
between him and supreme felicity: and the age is an age of fe- 
rocity; might and right are well nigh synonymous; the Viking 
sports with human life as with the billow; the very minister of 
religion imbrues his hand in the blood of his fellow-ereatures ; a 
death of violence is accounted a blessing, since it opens the 
gates of Valhalla," * — the generous and noble Youth resists 
the black-plumed Fiend, throws 'Lightning's Brother' far into 
the wood, and — the Sleeper waketh! 

An explanation succeeds, ring reproaches the Viking with 
the secrecy of his visit, but does homage to his virtue and va- 
lour, and proposes to him a residence of regard and sonship 
till — the course of Nature shall give him the Throne and 
INGEBORG. This, the wounded spirit of the *varg i veum' re- 
fuses, — and the Canto closes with frithiof's passionate and 
despairing 'Hail' to his 'good Dragon', the 'clang of shields' and 
Death! 

♦ Strong J p. 234. 



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CANTO XIX. 



j^vit^ioV& Cettiptation. 



I. 

Opring IS come; birds sweedy warble, smiles tlie sun, 

the woods are green. 
And, unchain'd, the murm'ring streamlets dancing seaward 

down are seen. 
Glowing red as freja's cheeks, young opning rose-buds 

freshly part. 
And to Life's glad joys to hope and courage wakes Man's 

heav'n-touch'd heart. — 
II. 

The' aged King to hunt will go ; the Queen , too , shall 

attend the sport; 
And in motley groups assembles gay deck'd, thronging, 

all the Court. 
Bows are clatt'ring, quivers rattle, fiery coursers paw the 

ground , 
And the' impatient hooded falcon screams upon his prey 

to bound, 
ni. 

See! there comes the Hunt's proud Mistress. — frithiof! 
ah! nor look nor heed! 

Star-like on a spring-cloud resting, so She sits her milk- 
white steed. 



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174 

Half a FREJA, half a ROTA, both eclips'd if She were 

by. - 
From Her rich, light, purple bonnet plumes blue-tinted 

wave on high. 

Look not on those eyes' bright azure! look not on those 

locks of gold ! 
Ah! beware that waist — *tis tap'ring; nor such round 

» full breasts behold: 

Gaze not at the rose and lily on Her changing cheek that 

meet; 
List not to that voice so dear, like Springes soft music 
sighing sweet. 
V. 

Now the long-stretch'd line is ready. Hark away! o*er hill 

and dale. — 
Horns sound shrilly, and straight up to OD£N*s Hall the 

glad hawks sail. 
Quick to lair and covert fly the screaming game from such 

affray , 
But, with outstretched spear, the fair Valkyria gallops on 

Her prey. 
YT. 

Old and feeble, RING can now the lengthened chase no 

longer keep; 
FRITHIOF only, dark-brow'd, silent, near him rides as forth 

they sweep; 
Sad, sore, gloomy thoughts are rising thickly in his troubled 

breast, — 
And, go where he will still croak they, mutt'ring ceaseless, 

words unhlest. — 



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175 
VII. 

*Why, alas! free Ocean left I? — to my danger rashly 

blind; — 
Grief fares hardly on the billows, scatter d by the fresh- 

ning wind. 
Droops the troubled Viking! — Danger soon to tread the 

war- dance charms. 
And away his black dreams Tanish , dazzled by the glance 

of arms. 

VIII. 

*Here how changed all is ! Unutterable longings whirl their 

wings 
Flutt'ring round my burning forehead. Trance-like are my 

wanderings ; 
baldbr's Sanctuary never can /orgotten be ; — nor yet 
The' oath She sware, not She, no! no! the cruel Gods 

have broken it. 
IX. 

*Yes! the race of Man they hate; its joys they view with 

wrathful look. 
Fiends! — to plant in Winter's bosom — rose-bud mine 

they grimly took: 
Winter! — He the Rose's guardian; — What! His heart 

to feel its price? 
No! — bud, leaf, and stalk his cold breath slow enfrosts 

with glitt'ring ice!' 
X. 

Thus lamented He. And now they came where, threatening 

rocks amon^. 
Birch and elm high o'er a valley darkly-cluster'd shadows 

flung. — 



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176 

*See this pleasant dell, how cool!* The King, his charger 

leaving, said; 
'Gome! Fm wearied; here FU slumber; yon green bank 

shall be my bed.* — 

XI. 

*Rest not here, o King! the ground too hard and cold a 

couch would be; 
Heavy sleep would follow. Rise! regain thy Halls, led 

back by me.' — 
*Sleep*, said ring, *like the' other Gods, when least 

expected comes; my guest 
Surely will not grudge his Host one balmy hour's unbroken 

rest!' — 
xn. 

FRITHIOF now his rich-wrought mantle , loosing , on the 
green turf laid. 

And upon his knees secure, hi» head the white-hair d 
Monarch staid. 

Heroes so, on war-shield pillow'd — hush'd the battle's 
wild alarm, — 

Peaceful slumber; so rests the' infant, cradled on its mo- 
ther's arm. 
xra. 

Calm He sleeps. — But hark! a bird all coal-black sings 

from yonder bough; — 
'Haste thee, frithiof; slay the dotard! End at once your 

quarrel now. 
Take his Queen; She's thine; Her sacred kiss of plighted 

troth she gave. 
Here no human eye can see Thee! — Silent is the dark 

deep grave!' — 



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177^-. 

xiv. 
FRITHIOF listens. — Hark! a snow-white bird then sings 

from yonder bough , 
*Though no human eye should see thee , oden*s eye would 

see it. — How! — 
Wouldst thou. Scoundrel, murder sleep? Shall helpless 

age thy bright sword stain? 
Know, whate'er thou winnest. Hero- fame at least thou 

wilt not gain ! ' 
XV. 
Thus contending sang the Birds. — But FRriHiOF seiz'd 

his Falchion good. 
And with hoiTor threw it from him, far into the gloom- 

ful wood: 
Down to NASTRAND flies the coal-black tempter; but, light 

wings his stay. 
Like a harp-tone warbling, hieth the' other sunward quick 

away. 

XVI. 
Straight awakes, then, the' aged Sleeper. — *Sweet in- 
deed my rest hath been; 
Well they slumber in the shade whom Warrior guards with 

war -blade keen! 
But — where is thy war-blade , Stranger ! Lightning's bro- 
ther's left thy side; 
Who has parted friends that never from each other should 
divide?' — 
xvn. 
/Little boots it'! answer'd frithiof; *ne'er the North I 

brand -less knew; 
Sharp, O King, the Sword's tongue is. Yes! words of 
peace it speaks but few. 

12 



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178 

Imps of darkness haunt the steel, — Hell -Spirits sprung 

from Mlffelhem, 
Sleep itself they spare not, — and e*en silver locks but 

anger them!* — 
xvni. 

•Youth! I slept noil Only would I thus thy hero -soul first 

try; — 
Fools may the' untried man or sword all fondly trust; 

so will not I! 
Th<:>u art frithiof! I have ktiown Thee «iate Tbou fiifet 

my Halls didst find; 
RING, though did, has long pei^eiv'd his ckvcflr 4[uest*6 

most secret mind. 

•Wherefore to my Palace creptst Thou! nameless and in 
close disguise? 

Wherefore ; — but to make an aged <]hieftain*s Bride thy 
stolen prize! 

Never, frithiof, *mid glad guests her station Honour 
nameless took; 

Sun-bright is Her shield; Her open face would spurn dis- 
sembled look: 
XX. 

•Fame a frithiof*s exploits rumour'd, terror both to Gods 

and Men; 
DespVate, careless which , that Viking shields would cleave 

or Temples bren! 
Soon, methought, this Chief wiU march with upborne 

shield against my Land; 
Soon He came, — but hid in tatters, and a Beggars staff 

in hand! — 



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179 

XXI* 
*Whj those down-cast glances? I, too, have been young; 

Fve Ml that truth — 
Life is but a life -long contest, and its Berserk's- Course 

is Youth: 
Youth, 'mid shields pound? pressing ficFce, shall strive till 

passion's rage expire; 
I have prov'd and pardonM, — I have pitied and forgot 
mine ire. 
xxn. 
^Listen! ^rr- Old I wax, and, feeble, soon shall in my 

Cairn recline; 
Then my Kingdom take, young Warrior; take my Queen 

too. She is thine! 
Be, till then, my Son; and share my Hall's free welcome 

as before I 
Swordless Champion shall protect me ; so our ancient feud 
is o'er'.— 

9LXIH. 

*Thief like', answer d FHivaiOF grimly, \came I not with- 
in thy Hall; 

Had I wish'd to seize chy Queen, say — who could stand 
me, who appal? 

Ah! I fain would see my Bride! — once more, but once! 
Her charms would view; 

And, weak madman like, my love's half- slumb ring flame 
I wak'd anew! 
XXIV. 

*RING, I go! — Its guest thy Court too long already shel- 
ter'd hath; 

Gods implacable upon my head devote pour all their wrath* 

BALDER with the bright-bued tresses. He whose love each 
mortal shares, 

Me alone fierce hates, of all mankind rejects alone my pray'rs I 



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180 

XXV. 

'Yes! His Fane I laid in ashes ! — VARG i VEUM am I hight ! 
Sounds my name — loud shrieks the child, and festive 

boards Joy flies affright. 
Yes ! Her long-lost Son my Country has rejected and opprest ; 
Outlaw'd in my Home-Land am I; outlawed, peaceless^ in 

my breast! 
XXVI. 
*On the fresh green Earth no longer, peace vain-seeking, 

will I live; 
'Neath my foot the ground bums hotly, and the tree no 

shade will give. 
INGEBORG , my own — I've lost ! His spoil the white-hair'd 

King retains; 

Set, extinguish'd , is my Life's bright Sun — and round 

me darkness reigns. 
xxvn. 

*Hencc, then, to my Ocean will I: — Out my Dragon- 
ship ! — Hurrah ! 

Glad one! Bathe again thy pitch-black bosom in salt waves afar; 

Flap thy wings in storm-clouds bravely! Hissing cut the 
high-dash'd foam; 

Fly where'er a Guide-Star kindles, far as conquer'd billows 
roam ! 

xxvra. 

'Rattling tempests horrid rolling — deep -voic'd thunders — 
will I hear; 

FRiTHiOP's soul is then most calm when most the crashing 
din is near. 

Hark! old Chief, — shields clang — darts hiss, — out 
on mid Ocean roars the Fray: — 

Joyful shall I fall — to hear the Gods , appeas'd , my par- 
don say ! ' — 



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CANTO 



Iti]f0 l^inffs ^eath. 



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Argument. 

Tender, solemn, decisive. Is this beautiful Canto. The 
music of CRU6ELL is its best and shortest incarnation. It is, 
however, as to the metre very difficult to translate; and our 
Version is, in this instance, more than usually (we hope) 
inferior to the Original. 

Covered with years and glory, and feeling that the hand 
of Death is on him, ring reproveth frithiof for his ^girl-like 
plainings' and intended departure, aud — , shrinking from the 
^straw-death' so unwelcome to the old Scandinavian Hero, — he 

^runes catr^d to ontnC 
on breast and on arm. 

Then, pledging in one long last draught his Home-Land 
the North, — he pressed the hand of frithiof and of inge- 
BORG, and his soul 

*Flew back, with a sigh, up to' allfather ag^ni' 



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Voic-©. 



KIKCi RINQ^j) DEATH. 



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CANTO XX. 



mnq mna'tt nt&i% 



I. 

Skinfaxe, ^tre^imiug 

Af^e- gold -fire, raises 
Spring's Sun from Oce^n^ more fair than before: 
Morn's Ray^ bright beaming. 
Twice lovely blades. 
And plays in the Hall. — Hark! who taps on the door? 

Buried in sorrow, 

FRITHIOF advanceth; 
Pale sits the King: fair ingeborg's breast 
Heaves like the billow. — 
Faint •trembling, chanteth 
The Stranger 'Farewell' to the Halls of his rest: — 

in. 

*My* wing'd Steed out yowler 
Waves bathe so gay, now; 
My' Sea- Horse is longing to dash from the Strand: 
Far must he wander. — 

Th' Guest must away, now. 
Away from the friend that he loves and his Land. 



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184 

IV. 

*ing'borg! the' unbrokeu 
Ring I restore Thee ; 
Mem'ries all sacred within it remain : — 
Give not the token! 

Pardons I o'er Thee 
Speak » — for on Earth Thou ne'er seest me again! 

V. 

'Never again the 

Fire's light curl'd daughters 
See I from th' North rise. — Man is a slave; — 
Nornor they reign! — the 
Wild waste of waters. 
There is my Fatherland, there is my Grave! 

VI. 

Wor on the strand go, 

RING, with Thy consort; — 
Least, when pale stars gleam bright o'er the bay: — 
For 'mid the sand, o 

Chief! may be up-toss'd 
The' Outlaw'd young Viking's bones^ bleach'd in the spray!'— 

vn. 

. Saith RING; — *How it wearies, 
List'ning to live-long 
Plainings from Men, as from Girls when they cry! 
Loud in mine ear is 

Long since my death - song 
Echoing: — what then? — Who are born — they must die! 



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185 
vm. 

^Strengths none deliver. 
Tears ne*er atone ^ no 
Strugglings avail, from the nornor's decree. 
RING is the giver! 

ing'borg's thy own ; — so 
My Son's firnx defence in my realm shalt Thou be ! 

IX. 

*Friends oft have spoken. 
Seated in HaUs here; 
Well have I lov'd golden Peace all around. 
Yet have I broken 

Shields in the valley. 
Shields on the sea — nor grew pale at the Sound. 



*Bleeding now, Geirsodd 
Quick will I carve me, 
North-Kings it fits not to die in their bed: 
Little this final 

Exploit will cost me ; 
Living — we're scarce more at ease than the deadi* 

XI. 

To' ODEN then truefast 

Carves He fair Runics, 
Death-runes cut deep on his arm and His breast; 
Sparkling the contrast! 

See! how those streams mix, 
Silver hairs purpling on bosom at rest! 



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186 

xn. 

Wine bring so mellow! — 
Hail to thy Memory , 
Hail to thy glory Thou North blooming bright! 
Harvests* deep yellow. 

Minds thinking clearly. 
The* achievements of Peace , -^ were on earth my delight. 

xm. 

'Oft sought I, fruitless. 

Peace where, 'mid slaughter. 
Wild Chieftains dwelt; — but she'd flown far away: 
Now stands the bloodless 
Tomb's gentle daughter, 
Fay'rite of Heay'n and awaits me to day! 

XIV. 

*Gods all, I hail ye! 

Sons of VALHALLA! 

Earth disappears; to the* ASAR's high feast 
GJALLAR-HORN bids me; 
Blessedness, like a 
Gold-helmet, circles their up-coming guest!* — 

XV. 

With one hand then clasp'd He 

iNG*BORG, His Dear One; 
The' other to* His Son and the Viking He bends: — 

So, closing gently 

His Eyes to the clear Sun, - — 
Sighing, the King's Soul to' ALLFATHER ascends ! 



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CANTO XXI. 



Hint's Bir^je* 



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Argument. 

How maBsive^ how sublime ^ is this Song! Glorious the 
Genius that could imagine its inspiring loftiness! 

Rmo is immured in his Cairn. — But see! Valhall opens; 
crowding Gods welcome the wise Chief , the peaceful warrior, 
to their Paradise, — and brage chaunts to his sounding harp 
the praises of virtue uplifted to Heaven! 

The peculiar alliterative construction of this Canto, whose 
distinguishing features we have endeavoured to preserve, may 
be regarded as a fair specimen of the old Northern poetry in 
general, and of that of the Icelandic Sagas etc. in particular. 



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CAJVTO XXI. 



iltns'0 Utrge. 



I. 

1 h' Hero-sprung SovVeign 
Sits in His Barrow, 
Battle-blade by Him, 
Buckler on arm: — 
Chafing, his Courser 
Close to His side neighs. 
Pawing with gold-hoof 
The' Earth-girded grave. 

n. 

Royally ring now 
Rides over bifrost. 
Rocks with the burden 
The' arch-bended bridge. 
Wide-ope spring VAlhall's 
Vast- vaulted portals. 
The' ASAR His hands glad 
Hurry to grasp. 



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190 



m. 

Far on a foray 

Fights puissant THOR, but 

Welcomes with wine-cup 

ALLFATHEE*5 Wink. 

FREY round the Chieftain's 
Crown plaiteth corn-ears, 
FRIGGA binds bright-hued 
Blue-flow'rs among. 

IV. 

White-bearded Bard , ag'd 
BRAGE, his gold-harp 
Sweeps — and yet softer 
Stealeth the lay: 
Luird by the lyre-tones 
VANADis listens. 
Bent o*er the board her 
Bosom of snow : — 
V. 

^Swords *mid cleft helmets 
Savagely sing^ and. 
Fierce-boiling billows 
Blood-red still run. 
Arm-strength^ which good Gods 
Give to the warrior. 
Brutal as Berserk 
Bites on the shield. 

VI. 
Hail! then to VAI.HAI-L 
Heav'n-honour'd Prince, whose 
Shield His sav'd Country 
Shelter d with — peace ! 



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191 



Type of tried strength soft 
Temper'd by iove^ like 
Incense rich-risittg^ 
ReacFdst thon die sky! 

*Words wise and chosen 

VALFATHER whlSperS , 
Seated by SA<iA, 
Soquaback's Maid; — 
So clang the Chieftain's 
Silver-clear tones, like 
mdier's fount, flowing 
Freshly and deep, 
vnr. 

'Furious feudmen 
forset' appeases, 
Doomer where urda's 
Welling waves flow; — 
So on the doom-stone. 
Dreadful but dear, wise 
RING hastened Heroes' 
Hands to disarm. 
IX. 

'Generous gifts, too. 
Gave He, — rich-scatt'ring 
Round Him Dwarf-Day-shine , 
Dragon-bed bright; 
Glad fSpom His princely 
Palm went the present; 
Light from His lips flew 
Love, Pity, Hope! 



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192 

X. 

*Welcome, then^ Wise One! 
VALHALL's-Heir, Welcome! 
Long shall the North-Land 
Laud thy lov'd name. 
BRAGE , the mead-horn 
Holding, hails courteous, — 
RING, nornor's Peace-Pledge, 
Prince from the North !* — 



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CANTO ZXIL 



tthi auction to titje 



13 



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Argument* 

Rmc's vacant throne roust be filled. The free yeomen of 
the land assemble to elect a successor. 

Willingly will they persuade the daring and renowned 
FRiTHiOF to marry the widowed Queen, and assume the dia- 
dem. But that Chief, impelled by a spirit of chivalrous deli- 
cacy, and borne down by oppressive and consuming remorse 
— ^ill choose his bride himself/ and, unreconciled to the of- 
fended BALDER, dare not claim mGEBORo's hand. 

Having, therefore, procured the electi<m of bung's yvong 
Son * to the tiirone, which be promises to protect, flie peace- 
seeking Viking kisses the Child's fair brow, and disappears 
slowly over the heath. 



* "Of such recorded deviations from the rule of regular inheri- 
tance, our Poet has taken advantage to exhibit his Hero superior 
to the temptations of ambition, as already he had proved himself 
elevated above the meaner seductions of vengeance and desire.'* 

. Strong* s Frithiof^ p. 373. 



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CANTO XXII. 



Ztfe QSUttion to tj^e mtngHom. 



I. 

To ting! Away! O'er dale and hill 

The Fire-Cross speeds; 
King RING is dead ; — His throne to fill — 

A Diet needs. 

n. 

To' his wall-hung Sword each yeoman flies. 

Its steel is blue ; — 
And quick its edge his finger tries. 

It bites right true. 

in. 

On shine so steel-blue joyful gaze 

His laughing boys; 
The blade's too big for one to raise. 

It two employs. 

IV. 

From spot and stain his daughter frees 

The Helm with care; 
But how she blushes, when she sees 

Her image there! 



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196 

His Shield's round fence, a Sun in blood. 

Last guards his mail. — 
Hail iron-limb'd Freeman ! Warrior good ! 
Hail yeoman, hail! 
VI. 

Thy Country's honour, — glory, — all — 

Thee gone, would cease; 
In battle still thy brave Land's wall. 

Its voice in peace! — 
vn. 

Thus gather they, with clang of shields 

And arms' hoarse sound. 
In open ting, for Heav'n's blue fields 

Sole roof them round. 
vin. 

But, standing on the TING-Stone there. 

See FRiTHiOF hold 
(A child as yet) the King's young heir 

With locks of gold. — 
IX. 

*Too young's that Prince,' — loud murmur then 

The' assembled throng; 
*Nor Judge he'll be among his men ^ 

Nor War-Chief strong.' — 
X. 

But FRITHIOF on His shield lifts high 

The Son of ring ; — 
^Northmen! not yet your Land's hopes die; — 

See here your King! 



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197 



XI. 

'See here old oden's awful Race 

In image bright; 
The shield he treads with youthful grace ; — 

So fish swims light, 
xn. 

*I swear his Kingdom to protect 

With sword and spear; 
Till, with his father's Gold-wreath deck'd, 

I crown liim here ! 
xni. 

*FORSETE, BALD£R*S high-bom Son, 

Hath heard mine oath; 
Strike dead, forset*, if ere I'm won 

To break my troth!' — 
XIV. 

But thron*d King like, the lad sat proud 

On shield-floor high; 
So the' Eaglet glad, from rock-hung cloud. 

The Sun will eye! 
XV. 

At length this place his young blood found 

Too dull to keep; 
And, with one spring, he gains the ground — 

A royal leap! 

XVI. 

Then rose loud shouts from all the ting, — 

*We, Northmen free. 
Elect thee! — Shield-borne Youth! like ring,. 

Thy father, be! 



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198 

XYU. 

^ 'Neath frithiof^s guardian counsels live. 

Thy realm his care: — 
Jarl FRITHIOF, as thy bride we give 

His Mother fair!* — 
xvin. 

*To-day ,' — the frowning Chief replied , — 

*A King we choose. 
Not marry ; — when I take my Bride , 

None for me wooes. 

XIX. 

*To balder's sacred Grove I go ; 

My NORNOR dread 
I swore should there be met; — and know 

They wait my treads 
XX. 

*Yes, all my fortunes, all my love, 

I them will tell; 
Time's spreading Tree beneath, above. 

Those Shield-maids dwell. 
XXI. 

•balder's, the light-hair'd pale God's, wrath 

Still 'gainst me burns; 
None else my heart's young Spouse ta'en hath. 

None else returns!' — 
xxu. 

His brow slight kissing, ring's fair Child 

Salutes He low; 
Then, silent, o'er the heath-plain wild 

He vanish'd slow. 



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CANTO XZIII. 



on ti« 



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Argument. 

Events hasten to their completion. This Canto, which 
abounds in the tenderest and most affecting interest , leads to 
the ''final end/' 

The wearied, heart-broken, humbled young Sea-King revisits 
his Home -fields and the Cairn of his Father. His thoughts 
there how agonizing, his repentance how moving, his prayer how 
deep i 

And BALD£R hears! 

The Celestial Temple that rises before him in gorgeous 
beauty,, intimates at once the answer and its condition. 

To see is to feel, to feel — to resolve. 

'Here on my shield Fll sleep — and dreaming wonder 
How Man's appeas'd, and Gods forget their thunder!' 



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Voice. 



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CANTO XXIII. 



iftitfiiof on U» ifat|ier'« isartoto. 



I. 

'xxow lovely smiles the Sun , how friendly dances 
From branch to branch Her mildly-soften'd beam; 

In Ev'ning's dews Allfather's look bright glances. 
As in His Ocean-deeps, with pure clear gleam! 

How red the dye that o'er yon hill advances. 
On balder's Altar-stone all blood its stream! 

Soon sleeps the buried land on Night's black pillow, 

Soon She, yon golden shield — sinks 'neath the billow. 

n. 

^ut first, on those dear spots I'll gaze and ponder. 
My childhood's friends, where charm'd so oft I've stood. — 

The self-same flow'rs still scent the Eve, and yonder 
The self-same birds' soft music fills the wood; 

And round that rock the tumbling waves still wander, — 
O happy he, who ne'er has plough'd their flood! 

To Fame and Name and Exploits false waves wake thee. 

But far, ah! far from Homeland's vales they take thee! 

III. 

^Stream! well I know thee; oft, my heart by sadness 
Unblighted yet , I brav'd thy waters clear. 

Dale! well I know thee; there we swore, weak madness! 
An endless faith — such faith we find not here. 



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202 

Ye Birches, too! %vhose bark in Lovers young gladness 

I carv'd with many* a rune, unchang*d appear 
With silv*ry stems, and leaf- crowns graceful bended: — 
All, all's the same, *tis my fond Dream that's ended! 

IV. 

*Is all the same? — Ah! here no Framnas towers. 
No BALDER*s Temple gems the sacred strand. 

Yes! fair they were, my childhood's vales and bowers. 
Now waste and spoil'd by sword and flaming brand; 

Man's vengeance, and the wrath of valhall's Powers 
Dark warnings speak &om this black fire-brent land, — 

Hence, Pilgrim! here no pious step abideth. 

For balder's Grove wild forest-creatures hideth! 

V. 

Through all our life a Tempter prowls malignant. 
The cruel nidhogg from the world below. 

He hates that ASA-Light, whose rays benignant 

On th' Hero's brow and glitt'ring sword bright glow. 

Each scoundrel-deed which Passion's rage indignant 
Prompts , He commits , curs'd tax to realms of woe ; 

And when successful, when the Temple blazes, — 

His coal-black hands the Fiend loud-clapping raises! 

VI. 

'Far-shining VALHALl! — Is wo' Atonement granted? 

Mild blue-ey'd balder! wilt Thou take no fine? 
Blood -fines take we^ when kinsmen fall; the' undaunted 

High Gods themselves are sooth'd when altars shine. 
O Thou, of all the Gods for Love most vaunted. 

Some off 'ring ask, — whate'er Thou wilt is thine. 
Could FRITHIOF dream the flames would upward muster? — 
Give back, then, Hero-God! my Shield's stain'd lustre. 



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203 
vn. 
'Remove Tliy burden; 'lis too heavy for me! 

Extingui^ in my soul these spectres drear. 
Repentance sues* The crime one moment saw m« 

Dare^ let a glorious life atone. Though here 
The LigMner stood ^ I swear he would not awe me! 

The pale-blue hel herself I would not fear; — 
At Thee, whose looks the Moon's white beams resemble. 
And Thy revenge, o gentle God, I tremble! — 

vm. 
*Here stands my Father's Cairn. — Sleeps He hereunder? — 

Ah! Thither rode He whence returneth none! 
Yon starry tent His home , the shields' loud thunder 

Now hears He glad, or mead-draughts has begun. — 
From Heav'n's fields look, thou ASA-Guest! nor wonder — 

Thy SON invokes Thee, thorsten vikingsson! 
Nor runes I have, nor spells, nor wizard-token, — 
But say, how ASA-balder's rage is broken! - - - - 

IX. 

*Has, then, the Grave no tongue? — From out his barrow 

Spake strong-arm'd ANGANTYR for sword of steel ; 
But what was tirfing's price , though like swift arrow 

It struck, to what I ask? — No sword reveal. 
An Isle-fight such will give, — but wounds that harrow 

The soul, O teach me, asgard- Chief, to heal! 
My' uncertain gaze direct; O lead my guesses; — 
Sore, balder's wrath a noble mind distresses! 

X. 
*Thou speak'st not. Father! — Hark! in tones soft-blended 

The Billow murmurs; let its words be thine! 
The Storm -wind rises; on His wings suspended, 

O whisper ere He go, some hint divine! 



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204 

Like golden rings the sun -set Clouds are bended; — 

Let one of them Thy thought's bright Herald shine ! — 
No word! — no Sign! — ^Thy Son's distresses heed'st Thou 
Dear Father? — Ah! poor Death! what pity need'st Thou?' . . . 

XI. , 

The Sun is quench'd; and Ev'ning's breeze is trolling 

To the* Earth's tir'd race its cloud-sprung lullaby; 
And Ev'ning's blush drives up. Her chariot rolling 

With rose-red wheels along the dark'ning sky; 
Like some fair YALHALL- vision, men consoling, 3 

She flies blue-tinted hills and vallies by, — 
Then sudden, o'er the Western waters pendent. 
An Image comes, with gold and flames resplendent* 

xn. 
An air-bom Phantom call we such heav'n- wonder, 

(In YALHALL sounds its name more fair I ween;) 
O'er balder's groves it hovers, night's clouds under. 

Like gold - crown resting on a bed of green. 
Above, below, — its rich hues YALHALl's plunder — 

It glows with pomp ne'er 'fore by mortal seen. 
At last, to' a Temple settling, firm 'tis grounded, — 
Where balder's stood, another Temple's founded! 

xni. 

Of BREIDABLICK an Image , o*er the rifted 
And cavem'd cliff, high walls like silver shone: 

The steel-cut pillars deep -blue tints quick shifted. 
One splendid jewel was its Altar- stone: 

Light hung the Dome, as though by sprites uplifted. 
And clear and pure as Winter's starry zone; 

And high therein, rich sky-blue dresses wearing. 

Sat YALHALl's Deities, bright gold -crowns bearing. 



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205 

XIV. 

And see! the NORNOR in the Porch assembled. 
On rune-caiVd shields supported gallantly; 

Three rose-buds in one Urn the group resembled » — 
All solemn sweetness , charming dignity. 

And URDA, silent^ points where th* ruins trembled. 
But SKULDA shews the new Fane's Majesty. — 

And scarce had FRITHIOF, glad and wond'ring, banish*d 

His troublous dread — when straight the Pageant vanished ! 

XV. 

'Enough, ye Maidens, Time's pure spring attending! 

Thy Sign it was, o Hero-Father good! 
The ruin'd Temple shall again, o'erbending 

The steep as erst, stand beauteous where it stood. 
How sweet — with peaceful exploits thus contending — 

To' atone the' impetuous rage of youth's hot blood! — 
Once more the fierce-rejected hopeful liyeth; 
Appeas'd and mild — the white god now forgiveth! 

XVI. 

*Hail! Welcome! Stars, up yonder wand'ring nightly; 

Your silent courses glad I see once more. 
Hail! Northern-Lights, up yonder flaming brightly; 

Red Temple-fires ye were for me before. 
Green flourish, Cairn!— And, from the wave trill'd lighdy 

Again, thou wondrous Song, soft music pour! — 
• Here on my shield I'll sleep, and dreaming wonder 
How Man's appeas'd, and Gods forget their thunder!' — 



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CANTO XZIT. 



^h0 necondlmtwn. 



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Argument. 

l^ith a deeply-affected heart, we trace our last outline of the 
concluding scene of this noble Poem. May the peace and blessing 
of 'the second balder* ever abide with its illustrious Author! 

As if by magic, the New Temple rises, still more magni- 
ficent, where the former stood. frithiof*s work it is. Yes! It 
is Passion's Atonement, the Sacrifice of Self, the Token of a 
holier and a purer life. And 'the White God* — sheweth mercy. 

'Great bald£R*s Priest Supreme' 
approaches the steel-clad worshiper, tenderly instructs his ignor- 
ance, telleth of helge's fate, persuades to Reconcilement with 
the cowering halfdan, and thereafter unlooses and reverses 
the awful sentence of the 'varo i vedm' who again stands boldly 
forth, excommunicate no more, — reconciled to God and to his foe! 

And INGEBORG — ah! 
'Then to her heart's first best Belov'd, Her childhood's friend^ 
She gives her lily hand 
In nuptial band. 
As before pard'ning balder's altar both low bend!' 

We have not preserved the original metre * of this last 
Canto. It was too near prose, to be safe in [otir hands, tegnj^r 
writes it, and it has a majestic march suitable to the didactic 
nature of the subject. But in our version, we fear, would only 
have been found the even monotony of a peculiar blank -verse 
style, without the sweetness and brilliancy with which tegni&r 
has adorned it. We have therefore broken up the Canto into 
a scries of stanzas of various and irregular metres, according 
to the spirit of every paragraph. Happy shall we be, if we have 
thereby laid an embargo upon those "arms of morpheus", with 
which he is so inclined to embrace the unfortunate readers of 
unfortunate verse! 



*) The Iambic Trimeter (unused in English), except in the Ilird, 
Xth, and parts of the Vllth, XXIInd and XXlVth Stanzas, as 
specimens. 



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CANTO XXIV* 



Etft Uetontiliation. 



u 

Jbinish'd great balder*s Temple stood! 
Round it no palisade of wood 
Ran now as erstt 
A railing^ stronger > fairer j than the first 
And all of hammer'd iron ^ each bar 
Gold-tipp'd and regular — 
Walls BALD£R*s sacred House. Like some long line 
Of steel-clad champions , whose bright war - spears shine 
And golden helms afar — so stood 
This glitt'ring guard within the holy wood! 
II. 

Of granite blocks enormous, join*d with curious care 
And daring art, the ma'ssy pile was built; and there 
(A giant- work intended 
To last till Time was ended,)' 
It rose like upsal's Temple, where the North 
Saw VALHALl's Halls fair imag'd here on Earth. 

DI* 

Proud stood it there on mountain-*steep , its lofty brow 
Reflected calmly on the sea's bright-flowing wave. 
But round about , some girdle like of beauteous flowVs , 
Went BALDER'sDale, with all its Groves* soft-murmur'd sighs^ 
And all its birds' sweet-twitter'd songs, — the Home of Peace. 

14 



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210 

IV. 

High was the bronze-cast Portal, and two rows 

Of circling columns on their shoulders strong 

The Dome's arch'd I'ound bore up; and fair as shows 

A gold-shield bright 

All vaulted light, — 

So fair, so light, above the Fane that Dome it hong. 

V. 

Farthest within, the God's High-Altar rested. 
Hewn all of one sole block 
From Northern marble rock; 
And round thereon its scroll the Serpent twisted. 
With solemn rune 
Each fold thick strewn. 
Whose words from HAVAMAL and VALA taken 
Deep thoughts in ev'ry human bosom waken, — 
While in the wall above 
A niche was seen with stars of gold 
On dark -blue ground; and there, behold! 
All mild and gentle as the silver Moon 
Sitting HeavVs blue aboon. 
The silver Image stands of balder , God of Love ! — 

VI. 

So seem*d the Sanctuary. — Forth in pairs now tread 
Twelve Temple-virgins ; vests of silver thread 
Adorn each slender form, and roses red 
O'er ev'ry cheek soft graces shed. 
And spread 
O'er ev'ry innocent heart a fragrant fair rose-bed. — 

Before the White God's Image » and around 
The late-bless'd Altar, dancing, — light they bound 



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211 

As Spring -winds leap where rippling fount- waves sound. 
As Woodland-Elves that skip along the ground. 
Skimming the high-grown grass 
Which Morning's dew 
Still hangs with sparkling gems of evVy hue ; — ■ 
Ah! how those jewels tremble as the Fairies pass! 

VII. 

And, while the Dance went round , a holy Song they sung 
Of BALDER — that mild God — and how he was belov'd 
By ev'ry creature, till he fell by hoder's dart. 
And Earth and Ocean wide andHeav'n itself — sore wept! 
How pure, how tender that Song it pealeth! 
Sure never sprang 
Such tuneful clang 
From mortal breast! No — Heav'n revealeth 
Some tone from breidablick, from out the God's own Hall, 
All soft as lonely Maiden's thoughts on him she loves. 
What time the Quail calls deeply 'mid the peace of night; 
The North's tall birches bath'd i th' Moon's pale-quiv'ring 

sheen. 

vm. 

And FRITHIOF, leaning on His Sword, whose glance 

Shines far around, stood lost as in a trance. 
And charm'd and silent gaz'd upon the dance! — 
Thereat His Childhood's mem'ries how they throng 
Before his raptur'd eye! — A jocund train, and long^ 
And innocent and glad and true. 
With eyes like Heav'n's own blue. 
And heads rich-ciixiled by bright-golden tresses , *— 
His former youth-friend, each with some sweet sign addresses: 
Then all his Viking-life, 



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212 

With scenes of murdVous strife 
And bold adventures rife*. 
Like some dark bloody shadow sinketh 
Fast down to Night; — Ah! glad he drinketh 

Forgetfulness^ sweet cup, and thinketh, 
'Repose, at last, those Sea-King exploits have, — 
I stand a flow'r-crown'd Bauta-Stone upon their Grave !* 

IX. 

High and still higher mounts the sweet-ton'd lay. 
And upward as its warbled harm'nies roll — 
The Heroes soul 
Wings glad its flight 
To VALASKJALF the bright. 
From Earth's low vallies far, far, far away! — 
As, from the Mountain's breast. 
In ice-mail drest. 
Its winter-cuirass melts and falls 
When back again 
^ To Gods and Men 
Spring's Sun life's joys recalls; — 
So human vengeance vanishes. 
So human hate He banishes; 
And, as he stands in silent extasy. 
His Hfero -bosom swells with Peace's sun^lit seal — 

X. 

Yes ! 'twas as if he felt the heart of Nature beat 
Responsive to his own; as if, deep-mov*d, bed press 
In brotherly embrace Heimskringla's Orb , and Peace 
Straight make with all Creation — while the God looks on ! — 
Then up the Temple trode great balder's Priest supreme. 
Not young and fair, the White God like, but tall of mien 
With heav'nly mildness on his noble features stamp'd. 



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213 

And grac'd with silver beard that down to' his girdle flow'd. — 
Unwonted rev'rence frithiof*s haughty soul now felt. 
And the' eaglje-pinions on bis Helm he bended deep 
As the' age-crown'd Seer advanc'd; — who words of peace 

thus spoke , — 

XI, 

*Son FRITHIOF, welcome! Yes, I've long expected 
That Thou shouldst come, — for Force, tis true, still 

wanders 
Round land and sea afar, wild Berserk like 
That pale with rage the shield's hard border biteth; 
But yet, at last, it home returns again 
Outwearied and all calm. — The strong-arm'd THOR 
Full oft 'gainst giant Jotunheim did wend — 
But spite his Belt celestial, spite his Gauntlets, 
Utgarda-LOKE still his throne retains; — 
Evil, itself a force, to force yields never! 

xn, 

^Goodness, not join'd with Strength, must childVplay be; — 
On agir's bosom so, the Sun shines prettily: 
But fickle as the flood the graspless splendour see! 
As sink or rise the billows — thus, all changeably. 
The fairy brightness flitteth, moving endlessly. — 
And Force, from Goodness sever'd, surely dies; 
Self- eating, self - consum'd , as sword that lies 
In some damp Cairn — black rust corrodes the prize: 
Yes! Life's debauch fierce Strength's mad riot is! 

But ah! Oblivion's Heron flutters still 
O'er goblet-brim that traitorous sweet draughts fill , 
And deep's the waken'd Drunkard's shame for deeds of ill ! 



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xm. 

•From the* Earth all Strength proceeds, from ymer's 

body; 
The wild tumultuous waters are its veins. 
Its ev'ry sinew is of smithied brass ; 
But still 'tis empty all, and bare, and barren — 
Till HeavVs bright Goodness rise. 
Till fruitful sun-beams stream from laughing skies. 
Then blooms the grass , then purple flow rs their broid'ry 

weave , 
Then rounds the golden fruit, fresh crowns the forest leave. 
And Men and animals from Mother-Earth new life receive. 

XIV. 

*Thus 'tis with ASKER's children. — In the scale 
Of ev'ry human life Allfather placeth 
Two weights, each other balancing — when right 
The beam is pois'd; and Earthly Strength we call 
The one, while the* other hight is Heav'nly Goodness. — 
Strong is great THOR, no doubt, when Megingjard 
He braces tightly o'er his rock-firm loins. 
And strikes his best; — and ODEN too, I trow. 
Is wise enough, by urda's silver wave 
Sitting and gazing downwards, while his Eagles, 
Swift messengers! come flying from afar 
And tell to the' ASAr's Sire this round world's tidings ; — 
But, Son! They both grew pale, the vivid brightness 
Of both Their crowns half-faded , — when White BALDER, 
The gentle Deity, the banding Gem 
Iw VALhall's wreath divine, — all sudden fell! — 
Then on Time's wide-stretch'd Tree its leaf-crown's glory 
Fast wither'd, while grim N1DH6GG bit, triumphant. 
Its deep-torn roots! — Then old Night's prison'd forces 



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Broke loose at once, while Midgdrd^s Serpent dash*d 

With venom'd tail the far-empoison*d skies, 

Aud FENRis howl'd and i2oar*d , and surtur's fire-blade 

From Muspelheim blaz'd bright. — Wherever, since. 

Thy vision gazes — still through all Creation 

The rocking battle goes! — The gold-comb'd Cock 

The Gods in VALHALL loudly crow'd to arms; 

The blood-red Cock as shrilly summons all 

On Earth and down beneath it. — 

XV. 

*Ah! Peace till then 
Sat ihron'd in VALHALL, — sat enthroned 'mong Men — ; 
In human bosom, and in each God*s breast 
Breath'd heavVly rest! 

XVI. 

*But here what happens, hath already happened 
On a still grander scale above us. — Man's 
But VALHALL imag'd faintly, — HeavVs soft light 
Reflected dim in SAGA*s rune-grav'd shield. 

xvn. 

*Each heart its balder hath. — Hast Thou forgot, my Spn! 

Those days, ere Life's dark struggles had begun. 

When all existence was so glad, so fresh, so one 

As is the woodland Songster's dream 
When Summer-Eve's warm breezes gently stream 

Lulling each drowsy flow'ret's head. 
Rocking that Songster's own soft leaf-green bicd? — 
Ah! then, thou ASA-born, thou moving Image fair 
Of glorious VALHALL ! — still in thy spirit pure 
Did bALDER's life endure! 



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To til* Chili tbe God lives ever, and wbene*ep 

A new-born Infant sees the day — 
HELA, that Goddess grim, restores her prey, 
xvni. 

*But in each humAn soul we find 
That Night's dark HdDER, balder's brother blind. 

Is born and waxeth strong as he; 
For — blind is ev'ry Evil born, as bear-cubs be. '— 
Night is the cloak of Evil ; but all Good 
' Hath ever clad in shining garments stood. 
The busy loke. Tempter from of old. 
Still forward treads incessant, and doth hold 
The blind one's murder-hand, whose quick-launch'd spear, 
Pierceth young balder's breast, that Sun of VALHALL*s 

sphere ! 

XIX. 

•Then waketh HATE; for prey springs Violence quick ; 
And hungry roameth , hill and valley round , 
I'he Sword's grim Wolf, while Dragons wildly swim 
O'er redly-flowing billows; — ' for pale Virtue 
Sits hopeless, strength-less, shadow -like, with hel 
All dead amongst the dead, and balder's House 
Once tow'r'd so high , now lies a black'ning ruin ! 

XX. 

'The lofty ASAr's life thus images 
The lower course of Man's Existence ; — both 
Are great allfather's thoughts, and alter never! 
What hath been, as what shall be, knoweth well 
The mystic VALa's chaunt; that chaunt, the sweet-ton'd 
Soft cradle-lullaby of infant Time , 



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Its death-dirge also pealetb. Yes! tte records 
Of wide Helmskringla echo VALA's Song, 
And Man therein his own sad story readeth. 

XXI. 

*The VALA asks Thee, — mark, my Son! her words, — 
*Grasp Ye the Sense, or no?' 
xxn. 

*Thou wilt be reconcil'd. But Reconcilement's — what? 
Nay! Youth, undaunted meet my gaze and turn not pale: 
The' Atoner wanders round our Earth, — and Death he's 

hight. 
All Time is, in itself, a troubled streamlet 
From yast Eternity; all earthly life 
From great ALLFATHEr's throne hath fall'n. Atonement 
Restores us thither back, all cleans'd and pure. 
Yes! the' ASAR, ev'n, have fall'n; and Ragnaroh 
Is their great day of reconcilement. Ah! 
A bloody day 'twill be, on VI grid's boundless 
Wild death-strewn Plain — for there shall the' ASAR perish ! 
But unaveng'd they fall not; No! all Evil 
Pies there an endless Death, while Goodness riseth , 
From that great World-fire, purified at last. 
To* a liife far higher, better, nobler than the past! 

xxm. * 

*Yes! tho' from Heav'n's proud brow the garland drops 
Of faded stars, and Earth sinks in the deep — 
Fairer and newly-born her flow'r-crown'd head 
Again shall rise above the crystal flood; 
And younger stars shall hold, with purer lustre. 
Their silent course above the new creation. 



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xxrv. 

*Bul BALDER then, where verdant hills fresh rise, shall rule 
The new-born ASAR, and the pure-made race of Men: 
And those fair golden Runic-Tablets lost, alas! 
In Time's young Dawning — valhall*s Children, reconcil'd, 
'Mong IDA- valley's fragrant grass shall find once more ! 
Thus is the death of fallen Goodness only 
Its reconcilement, its fierce furnace-proof. 
Another birth to a far-other life. 
Which backward flies whence first it emanated 
And innocently playeth, infant- like 
On parent-knee upborne. Ah! after all — 
The best, the happiest, noblest, of existence 
Beyond the Tomb we find, that green-deck'd portal 
Of gimle's Paradise. Yes! low, and with but ill 
Deep stain'd is what we meet beneath Heav'n's star-lit hill! 

XXV, 

*Yet ev'n this life Atonement hath, — its lowly path 
Dim Antitype of that still higher. The last Day's fire! 
Imperfect and yet sweet it is. 
Like Minstrel - harmonies 
When deep-skill'd Scald with ready finger sweeps 
The waking Harp, 
And broken chords doth strike, and keeps 
Now low, now sharp. 
Tuning the quiv'ring strings 
With dream-like fragment echoings; 
Till, high up-borne at last on Music's wings. 
With fidl tones richly peal'd, entranc'd he sings 
Of exploits and of heroes brave ; 

Awaking from their grave 
The mighty Forms of old, — 



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While, char^'d, his beaming eyes behold 
All VALlhall's glories, all great ODEn's pillar d gold! 
, . XXVI. *♦ 

*Earlh is Heav'n's shadow — human life the porch 
And outer court of balder's heav'nly Temple. 
The Vulgar offer blood — they bring proud steeds. 
With gold and purple deck'd, before the altar — 
It is a symbol, rightly read, that blood 
Is the red dawn of every day of grace. 

xxvn. 

'But still the token 
Can ne'er the substance be; 
What thou thyself hast broken 
None but thy self atones for thee ! 
The dead are reconcil'd in great ALLFATHEr's 
Bosom celestial; but the sole Atonement 
Of him who lives , is in his own deep breast. 
There is one ofTring, which the Gods prefer 
To thousand hecatombs, — the sacrifice 
Of that wild hate and burning fierce revenge 
Harbour'd in thine own bosom. Canst Thou not 
Their thirsty sabres charm to peace again — 
Ah! canst Thou not forgive —what will Thou, Youth! 
In balder's mansion here ? — What meant Thou, say — 
With this arch'd Temple, built to Peaceful Powers? 
*No pil'd-up stones atone! 
Such off'rings balder will have none. 
No! — with mild, merciful, pure Peace alone 
Atonement lives; 
In Heav'n, on Earth, 'ds only Peace that Pardon gives! 
First with thyself and with thy foe united be, — 
Thou then art reconcil'd with yon pale Deity! 



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xxvm. 

In lands far south , *tis said , 
Is some new baldbr worshiped; 
He, the pure Virgin's Sou, from Heavn who sped. 
Sent by the' ALLFATHER's self to explain the dim 
And yet unfathom'd runes which crowd the rim 
Bord'ring the shield of Darkness , that dread shield 
Worn by the NORNOR. — Never would this balder wield 
Our Earth's dark blood-stain'd arms. No! still in his glad field 
Was Peace His battle cry. His bright sword Love, 
And o'er His silver helmet sat the Dove 
Of brooding Innocence. — His pious days 
In sweet instruction pass'd, or pray'r or praise; 
And when He died. His dying voice forgave, — 
And now, 'neath far-off palms, still stands His shining grave. 
This doctrine, say they, spreads o'er ev'ry land. 
Melting hard hearts and joining hand in hand. 
And on this Earth, now reconcil'd again. 
Upraising gentle Peace's wide domain. 
Not yet, alas! 
Hath human lip to mine ag'd ear explain'd aright 
This Creed; but still, when better moments o'er me pass. 

My dim gaze darkly sees afar its streaming light. — 
Ah! where is human heart that hath not, like as mine, 
Presag'd its truths divine? — 
But this I know: — One day, with dove-white wings 
She comes, and gently floats along, and sings 
O'er all the hilly North. — But then no North 
Will send, as now, its savage Warriors forth; — 
No ! while new Chieftains reign, shall flourish other men; 
And deep in Hero-cairns, forgotten then. 
Our bones will lie; 
While Northland's oaks above us deeply sigh. — 



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221 

Ye happier Race, ye Sons who then shall drink 
That new Light's lustre foaming o'er the brink 
Of Tnith's bright beaming goblet , — hail I all hail ! 
Yes! words would fail 
To speak how bless'd ye'U be. 
If far from off your Heav'n those shadows flee 
Which have so gloomily. 
As yet, hung thickly stretch'd on high. 
Hiding like some damp veil Life's sunny sky! 
But still, ye Sons, despise not us, your Fathers* Line; — 
Ah! with what eager gaze, our eyne 
Have ceaseless sought to drink those rays divine 
Shining from Life's and Light's bright Sun: — 
Know ! He hath many Envoys, — but the' ALLFATHER's One ! 

XXIX. 

*Thou ha test BELE*s Sons; — but wherefore hate them? — 
For sooth, because that — to a Yeomati's child 
They would not give their Sister — She — descended 
From sewing's blood, the' illustrious oden's offspring! — 
Yes ! sprung from VALHALL's thrones is bele's race , 
Bright genealogy, just source of pride! 
But birth is chance, is fortune, — thou observest — 
And cannot be a merit. — Know, my Son, 
That Man still boasts of fortune , not of Merit. -— 
Say! is't not gen'rous Gods who were the givers 
Should any noble quality adorn us? — 
With haughty pride Thou art thyself inflam'd 
At all thy Hero-exploits, all thy fierce - nerv'd 
Resistless strength; but didst Thou give thyself 
This force? — Was't not great ASA-thor who strung 
Firm as gnarl'd oak Thy tough and sinewy arm? — 
Say! is't not Goc?-sprung courage that so gladly. 



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222 

So loudly, throbs within that shield-hung fortress 
Thy fast-arch'd breast? — And that clear-flaming glance 
Leaping from out thine eye, — say! is*t not lightning 
From Heav'n that playeth there? — The lofty nornor 
E'en at thy cradle sang the princely Legend 
Of all Thy life's adventures! — Ah, from these 
Thou hast no greater merit, than have King bele's 
Two boasting Sons that — 'twas a King begat them I 
Condemn not, judge not, others' pride! then none 
Will judge thine own. — 

^King HELGE is no more!' — 
*King HELGE, He' — said FRITHIOF, — 'when, where, how?* 

*Thyself knowst well, that whilst thou here hast builded 
This Temple to the God, — King IIELGE march'd 
On painful foray, 'mong the heathen Fins 
Scaling each mountain-wall. In Finland's borders, 
Rais'd on a barren time-worn peak, there stood 
An ancient Temple consecrate to jumala: 
Abandon'd and fast-shut, for many ages. 
This desolate Fane had been, its ev'ry rite 
Long since forgotten; but, above the portal. 
An old and monstrous Idol of the God 
Stood, frail-supported, trembling to its fall. 
This Temple none dar'd enter, scarce approach; 
For down from Sire to Son an eld tradition 
Went dimly warning, that whoever first 
The Temple visited should jumala view! 
This HELGE heard, and in his blind fierce rage 
The pathless wilds trod 'gainst this Deity 
So hated from of old, all bent on razing 
The Temple's heathen walls. But when he'd march'd 



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223 

Up where the ruin ihrealen'd, lo! all fast 
The massy moss-grown door wa« clos'd; and, cover d 
With thiqk brown rust, the key still sat within it. 
Grim HELGE then, the door-posts griping hard. 
With rude uncivil strain the mould'ring pillars 
Fierce shook, and straightway — with tremendous crash 
The sculptur'd Image fell — burying beneath it 
Valhalla's impious Son; and so dread jumala 
His eyes behold. — A ^messenger in haste. 
These tidiugs brought ere yet last night was ended. — 

XXXI. 

*Now, only HAlfdan sits on bele's chair. 
Thy hand, brave frithiof, offer him! Revenge 
And Passion sacrifice to HeavVs high Gods; 
This balder's shrine demandeth^ — I demand, too. 
As balder's Highest Priest — in token meet 
That Peace's gende Chief thou hast not mock'd 
With vain professions and an empty homage. •— 
Decide, my Son! — shall balder's Peace be broken? — 

If so, in vain Thou'st built this Fane, the token 
Of mild forgiveness , and in vain Ag'd Priest hath spoken!' — 

xxxn. 
Over the copper threshold HALFDAN now, 

With pallid brow 
And fearful fitful glance, advanceth slow 
Tow'rds yonder tow'ring ever-dreaded foe, — 
And, silent, at a^ distance stands. — 
Then FRITHIOF, with quick hands. 
The Cbrslet-hafer, angurvadel, from his thigh 
Unbuckleth, and his bright Shield's golden round 
Leaning 'gainst the' Altar, thus draws nigh; — 
While his cow'd enemy 



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224 

He thus accosts, with pleasant dignity. — 
'Most noble in this strife will He be found 
Who first his right hand good 
Offers in pledge of peaceful brotherhood!' — 
Then halfdan, deeply blushing, doffs with haste 
His iron-gauntlet and , — with hearty grasp embraced , — 
Each long, long, severed hand 
Its friend-foe hails, steadfast as mountain-bases stand! 

xxxni. 

That ag'd and awful Priest then glad removeth 
The curse that rested on the VARG i VEUM, 
FRITHIOF THE OUTLAW, and as th* last deep accents 
Of Reconcilement and of Blessing sounded; -— 
Lo! ing'borg sudden enters, rich adorn'd 
With bridal ornaments, and all enrob'd 
in gorgeous ermine , and by bright-ey'd Maidens 
Slow-foUow'd, as on Heav'n's broad Canopy 
Attending star-trains guard the Regent-Moon! — 
But the young Bride's fair eyes. 
Those two blue skies, 
Fill quick with tears » 
And to her Brother's heart she trembling sinketh ; — • 
He, with his Sister's fears 
Deep-mov'd, Her hand all tenderly in frithiof's linketh. 
His burden soft transferring to that Hero's breast. 
Its long-tried faith fit place for ing'borg's rest* 
Then, to Her heart's first, best, Belov'd Her Childhood's 

friend. 
In nuptial band 
She gives Her lily hand. 
As before pard'ning balder's Altar both low bend ! — 



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INDEX. 



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NOTES. 

Canto I. 

{Stanza 15, "(Iiest the reader should qaail at this, or haply some 
other exploit of the hero, it may he prodent to repeat, that the age was one 
of iron heart and iron limb, and that Frithiof was even then regarded as a 
prodigy — a giant in the eyes of giants. Snch a trial of strength, though not 
oonrted by the modem hnnter, is not without parallel in the annals of the chase. 

"Upon another occasion, Mr. Falk states, a badly-wounded bear rushed 
upright on his hind legs on a peasant, who had missed fire, and seized him by 
the shoulders with his fore paws. The peasant, on his side, laid hold of the 
bear's ears and shaggy hair thereabouts. The bear and the hunter, a man of 
uncommon strength, were twice down and got up again without loosening their 
holds; during which time the bear had bitten through all the sinews of both 
arms from the wrists upward, and was at last approaching the exhausted 
peasant's throat when the author in lucky time arrived and by one shot ended 
the conflict." (Fidd Sports of the North, by L, Uoyd, Esq.)" Stroog, p. 11, 
who also, p. 32, gives "the following extract from a Saga of the tenth Century. 
"Finnbogi perceiving that a bear which had done considerable injury to the 
flock of his host, was still reposing beside the mutilated carcase of a sheep, 
thus addressed the animal. 'Stand up, bear, and try thy strength for once with 
me; better so than to lie by the fragments of thy wretched preyl' The crea- 
ture raised himself, surveyed his appellant, and resumed his position. Finnbogi 
recommenced: 'Deem'st thou that I am too fully arm'd? If so, will I lay aside 
defence.' Then, taking o£f his helm and setting down his shield, he exclaimed, 
'Stand up, if thou have courage 1' the bear erected himself, shook his head, and 
couched once more. 'I understand thee,' replied Finnbogi, 'thou wouldst meet 
on equal terms, whereupon he cast away his sword. *Be it as thou please: but 
stand up now if thou have a heart like thy race, and not like a pusillanimous 
brute.' Then rose the bear, bristling and furious; and a combat ensued, in 
which Finnbogi was victorious having broken the back of his grisly foe." 

Stanza 16, Dry den, in Alexander's feast, has the same thought: 
"Happy, happy, happy pair! 
None but the brave. 
None hut the brave, 
None but the brave deserves the fair!" 



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226 

stanza t7. STen so early as the time of Frithiof, many a mytholo- 
gical Chaant and Legendary Saga was doubtless committed to the "nmeoovered 
tablets" of the period. ''Reading the old Sagas (saugu-lesiur) is to this day* 
one of the highest pleasures of the Icelander. It is with this he passes the 
long winter-erenings; this is the amosement of the company, when many have 
assembled together. The Master of the Hoose first begins the reading, and the 
others eontinoe it when he is tired. Some of them Iraow Sagas by heart, othera 
use printed copies, or, for want of these, fair mannscripts «— not seldom written 
by the peasant himself." ^ Henderson observes {•: ''A winter-evttmig, in soa 
Icelandic fiunily, presents a scene in the highest degree interesting and pleasing. 
Between three and fonr o'clock the lamp is hong np in tiie had^ttofa, bath- 
room, or principal apartment; and ail the memben of the family take their 

station with their work in their hands. The work is no sooner began, than 

one of the family selected en porpose, advances to a seat near the lamp, and 
commences the evening lecture, which generally consists of some old Saga, er 
such other histories as are to be obtained on the island." 

Stanza 18. "Light hair was common in the North, black more rare, 
bright-yellow a beauty in either sex. Gold or silk coloured hair, light-yellow 
tresses, bright-gold locks &c. almost always belong in the Saga to the descrip- 
tion of a Beauty. As late as the time of Eric XIV we find yellow more admi* 
red than darkish hair."ff "In an old poem we find a hero's 'body like the 
flowing gold;' and an old Cornish song extols a pretty maid for her white face 
and yellow hair. Flowing locks of this colour were praised as most graceftd 
and becoming, by the bards who addressed the sun, as 'the golden-haired.' This 
was admired by the Celtic youth of former times, and 'the yellow-haired laddie* 
and 'lassie wi' the lint-white locks' continue favourites with their descendants to 
the present day."f-H' — It may be added, that even when wigs were first in- 
troduced into Britain, flaxen was the favourite colonr. 

Stanzas 24, 25, The inhabitants of the old North were as remarkable 
as their modern descendants, for their ingenuity in all manner of handiwork. 
The females excelled in embroidery, of which we find many graphic descriptions 
in the Sagas. We translate literally one, from Ssemund's Sdda: ffff 



* We translate from "Svenska folhets Eistoria, of Strinnholtn," t.II. p. 249. — 
f 'Iceland,' p. 283. — f f From the Swedish Translation, by Prof. IMje- 
gren, of G&nge Rolfs Saga, note p. 205. — fff Logan, Scottish Gael, I. 
105. — f+ff Gudrtm's GrUf str. 14, 15, 16. 



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"She (Thora,) for to glad me Sword-hosU and helm-hofti 

Work'd is gold thread Hig^ ChieCa foilowiBg; 

Southlandish Halls, and 

Swaoi of the Danei "Ships of Sigmond 

Svept from land, with 

"Oak taUeta ve figar'd Gay-gilt deekmenta and 

The sports of Heroes, • Grar'd-oat stems; 

And on onr hand-worfc We broider-d on broad tap'stry 

High Kings' Champions, How they were battling 

Bright red backlers, Sigar and Sigeir 

Brave Hnn Chieftains, South on Fivi." 

''Great delight had they/' adds the VoUtmga Saga, "in this their 
needle-work, and greatly was Gndmn's sorrow eased thereby". We need not 
add, that the celebrated and inTalnabie Bayeux^Tapeitry was the product of the 
Scandinavian needle. 

Stanza 24» 'And billows bine'. "In mare purparenm." Virg. Georg, 
IV. 373. In British parlance, "the ^een sea" is a phrase so familiar, that in 
justification of the favourite epithet, blue or purple, of our northern bards, it 
may be advisable to cite further the authority of an acute observer. "The water 
of the main ocean is well known to be as transparent and as colourless as that 
of the most pure springs; and it is only when seen in very deep seas that any 
eeitain and unchangeable colour appears. This colour is commonly ultrama- 
rine blue." * 

Stanza 31. This has always been true; but that it was especially so 
in the period of Frithiof — witness the Norse adventures and North-man 
exploita and conquests in every part of Europe and even in Africa and Asia, 
from the commencement to the close of those Sea-King expeditions which disco- 
vered and colonized America, Greenland, and Iceland, — which tvsict subdued 
England itself, — and which left Europe remodeled! 

Canto IL 



Sianm It According to the Younger Edda f , the vault of Heaven is 
supported by four Dwarfs, East, West, North and South. 

Stanza 13. The Falcon, the sacred bird of Egypt and of Greece, was 
also the bird of Oden in Seandinavia. Angurship from its entrails was very. 



* Scoreshifs AreUe Herons, copied from Strong, p. 15. — + Gylfag. ch. VIII. 



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228 

oommon» and Oden hinueif -was invoked to gmde the decision of Hw Ang^on; 
that is to say» — an intrigoiog Priestcraft floorishes eveiy where, when it can 
find dopes. 

BtoMa 14, The SeandinaTians, like the German warriors of old^ ador- 
ned their shields with earrings, engravings or paintings of flowers &o. 

Stanza 16. Who is not here reminded of Pope's magnificent and in- 
dignant burst — 

"Stack o'er with titles, and hang round with strings, 

That thou ma/st be, hj kings, or whores of kings; 

Boast the pure blood of an illostrioos raoe. 

In quiet flow from Lnereoe to Lucrece: 

But by your fathers' worth if yours yon rate. 

Count me those only who were good and great 

Go I if your ancient, but ignoble, blood 

Has crept through scoundrels ever since the flood, 

Gol and pretend your family is young; 

Nor own your fathers have been fools so long. 

What can ennoble sots, or slaves, or cowards? 

Alas! not all the blood of all the Howards." ' 

Stanza 24, The Kingship of the old North was originally as it ahonld 
be, <— an Elective Presidency; though the history of the Scandinavian King- 
doms afifords melancholy proof enough, how respect for the "divine races*' (as 
the families said to be descended from Oden were called) overwhelmed the land 
with destructive minorites or imbecile manhood. With the "hereditary prin* 
ciple," whether monarchic or aristocratic equally cementing Dynasties formed in 
Kingdoms gained by the sword, came in also "hereditary degradation." How 
beautifully energetic is our inimitable Pope, on this subject I — 

"Who first taught souls enslaved, and realms undone, 

Th' enormous faith of many made for one; 

That proud exception to all nature's Laws, 

To* invert the world, and counterwork its cause P — 

Force first made conquest, and that conquest, law; 

Till Superstition taught the tyrant awe. 

Then 'shared the tyranny, then lent it aid, 

And Gods of conquerors, slaves of subjects made." f 

Stanzas 26, 27, &c. See Index, art. havahal. 



• Essay on Man, IV. 205—216. — f Ibid, IH. 241—248. 



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229 

stanza 37» ScandmaTian Sea-Kings and Warriors are often mentioned 
in tlie Sagas as choosing their bnrial-plaee by bays and arms of tbe sea; as if« 
even when dead, they could not be parted firom their favonrite element! — The 
latter half of this verse has a striking parallel.* We translate only what im- 
mediately relates to the subject. — ''King Tngrar made peace with the Danes; 
then took he to ravage along the East-Sea. Bnt, one summer, he drew oat his 
men, hasted np to Estland, and all the summer plundered that district bight 
Sten: then came the Est-men down with a mighty host, and so they battled 
there; but the land-troops were so many, that the Sviar (Swedes) could not 
stand against them. So Yngvar, the King, fell — and his host fled away. 
There rests he in his Cairn, right along by the salt wave's side .... thus 

saith Thiodolfer; 

And th' East-Sea Ocean's Song — 

For Svea-King To joy him — channted!" 

Canto m. 



Page 29, 'In th' earth!' The HAuair<K)LLD, Hill-Age (Barrow or 
Burial Age), which succeeded the bsuna-olld, Bum or Pile Age, commenced 
in Scandinavia with Tngve Frey. f 

Id. 'Successors.' It was not uncommon, in these times, for two sons 
or a father and son to reign together. 

Page 30, 'Ten twelves.' The duodecimal mode of computation is still 
common in Britain, as well as in Scandinavia. The long' or 'great hundred' 
or 'thousand' &c. are well known in most trades. 

Page 31, 'Chimney'. "The circumstance so prettily introduced implies 
rather an orifice in the roof than the lengthened funnel of modem chimnies. 
Beckman draws a similar inference from a passage of Herodotus, "who relates 
(L. YIII. c. 137) that a king of Lebaea, when one of his servants asked for 
his wages, offered him in jest the Sun, which at that time shone into the 
house through the chimney." ff 

Page 33. 'Giant.' "This anecdote belongs to the Saga of Thorstein. 
The legend informs us that the name of the fair who had the good fortune to 
attract the attention of this elegant and disinterested suitor, was Hunvor; and 
that she possessed distinguished beauty, and unrivalled perfection in all the arts 



* Ynglinga-Saga ch. 36. — + fifn. Sturleson, K. Sag. Preface. — H Strong's 
Translation of Fritkiof, p. 47. 



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ftod MeomplishmeBtB beseeming her age taoA statran. A Tirgtn Pnekfpe, howe- 
m, she prefentd the nlkeii web of her broidery to the silken tranun^ of 
Hymen, so that many accounted this proposal to be a jidgement npon her." * 
See Index, art ikon-hxad, tivell, tikiico TiFiLZ.saoH. 

Id, 'Sun's Gates. Tradition, facts, and etymology unite in assertiDg 
that the Tribes whom Oden led over to conquer and colonize the North — 
came from Western Asia, probably the regions lying around the Caspian See. 

JPtige 34^ *The twelve Immortals' ware (without reckoning Oden) 
Thor, Balder, Niord, Frey, Brage, Heimdall, Hoder, Yidar, Ale or Vale, Uller, 
Forsete and Loke. 

Page 35. 'Antumn-Judge/ The Scandinavians held their judicial Tliag 
or Diet (Assize) in the antnmn. 

Page 3d. 'And live Self.' Burial while living is not without example 
in the Sagas. For instance: f "And as he (Thrain) was now so old, that he 
could fight no more, he caused himself, while yet living,. to be placed within 
his Barrow with much goods." The whole chapter is highly entertaining. 
Again: -H* "Northward in Naumn-dale were two brothers, both kings, Herlaugr 
and Hrollaugr. For three summers had they been building them a Barrow. 
Of wood, stones, and lime was the Barrow made. Now when as this Cairn 
was finished, got the Brothers tidings that Harald was in full march against 
them with his army. Then caused King Herlaugr much food and drink to be 
carried into his mound, and thereafter went he in to the Barrow together with 
XII men. After this, he had the Cairn closed up again after him." — Of the 
above characteristic fact, the talented and tasteful Ohlenschlager has made an 
extremely picturesque use, in the last Scene of his 'Helge'. — As to the inter- 
ment of war-vessels also. Strong observes, p. 50: "That occasionally the corpse 
was inhumed, seated in a galley or ship, has been already noticed; and we can 
scarcely hesitate to trace the practise to the symbolical character of A sepulchre, 
attributed to the ark. P. B. Muller, nevertheless, attributes this expensive usage, 
like the Lapland practise of interring in a boat, to the prevailing desire to 
provide the departed with suitable equipage in a future state." — This latter 
is, doubtless, the correct opinion. See the Saga of HdJcan the Good, ch. ^. 



' Strong p. 48. — + Romund Greipson's Saga, ch. 4. — f f Harald the Fair- 
hatred's Saga, ch. 8. 



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2S1 

JPage 40. 'Thor's own place*. "So, at least, according to Adam of 
Bremen, he sat in the Temple of Upsala: — '"Nobillissimnm/' &c. "that nation 
(the Swedish) hat a most noble temple, which is entitled Uhtola. In this 
temple, which is entirely fitted up with gold, the people venerate the statues 
of three gods: so situated that the most potent, Thor, has a distinct seat in 
the centre, Woden and Fricco being placed on his right and left." * 



Canto IV. 



Staiaa 18. See Index, art oexssodd. 

8tanaa 20. It was extremely common, in old times, to hold public 
meetings and assemblies on the Barrows of celebrated Kings and Warriors. 
Owing to the gradual elevation of the ground, all present could easily behold 
the presiding Judge or chief speaker. It was in compliance with this custom, 
which the Northern Kings long preserved, that Gustavus Yasa addressed the 
assembled Dalecarlians from Frey's Barrow (called also Ting-Hill) near Upsala, 
and the men of Helsingland from Norrala Kimgsgard (royal ch&teau). 

Stanza 25, This was no 'figure of speech.' The Scandinavians firmly 
believed in the dead life of the buried hero, or rather that a kind of double 
spirit from him inhabited the cairn, f 

Stanza 28. The word 'man* here is degrading, and signifies one in 
the King's immediate service and depending upon his pleasure. Frithiof himself 
thus inherited from his father twelve mercenaries liable to service. Such hired 
warriors lived in numbers (a kind of body-guard) at the royal courts, besides 
the servants employed by the prince in his household. Heroes themselves often 
entered the service of a Monarch in this way, no exact pay being stipulated, 
but sure of being rewarded by gold and lands. In general however, the free 
possessor t>f land and goods, proud of his independence, would have been asha- 
med to become the lackey of a prince, and only took up arms in defence of his 
native country when endangered by a foreign invasion. 



Strong, p. 52. — f See on this curious, but hitherto not sufficiently ex- 
plained, subject, Prof. Liljegrens Swedish Trans, of G&nge Rolfs Saga, 
note, p. 252. Odjers Svea Rikes H&fder, I. 278 and Grundtvigs Nordena 
Mythologies art. Niflheim. 



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232 

Canto V. 

Skuusa IS, The old Northeni custom preveiited either host or guest 
from speaking of the oeeasion for the letter's visit, till he had fireely partaken 
the rights of Hospitality. 

Stanza 16, BiTiiiation from the entrails of a slaughtered horse 'vas 
costomary with the ancient Northmen. The sacred steeds (white and nnprofa- 
ned hy lahonr) also showed hy their neighing, snorting, and manner of lifting 
the foot whether the victim was aceeptahle to the Gods. &c. The same super- 
stition we find among the old Persians. * 

Stanza 20, Striking the War-Shield was a Scandinavian hattlesnm- 
mons which all, far and near, were obliged to obey. This custom is also 
mentioned by OMtanf, "The King took his deathful spear, and struck the 
deeply-sounding shield: his shield that hung high in night, the dismal sign 
of war." 

Canto VI. 

Stanza 2. TTet a Pawn.' Unfortunately the expressive and cutting 
pun of the original cannot be preserved in an English Translation. The word 
*bonde' means both 'Pawn', and 'Peasant' or 'Yeoman' (free, and often powerful, 
landed proprietor). Consequently Frithiof s answer — 

"Fralsas kan han med en bonde^\ 

Yet a Pawn (Peasant) can all recover, — 
refers to the expression of the taunting Helge, in the IVth Canto 

"Vir syster ar ej for en bonde-son," 

Our Sister is not for a Peasant's Son I 
We may as well remark here once for all, that the Northern Sagas 
abound with specimens of punning, witticism, double entendre and enigma. The 
wit displayed, however, was sometimes sharp as steel. 

Canto VH. 



stanza 6, 'Like Saga in a marriage room', — the Goddess of History 
meditating upon the line Qf heroes to emanate from the recent union." f f 



* Crewtzer, V. 70. VI. 19. — f Temora, b. VII. — H Strong, p. 93. 



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233 

Stama 7, 'Northlaiid's Nighlingales*. Siroms says, p. 93, the Song- 
thrush, Turdm micfictM; but Mohntke prefers the Red-wing, Turdus ilmcuM, 

Statma IB. So Southey says (of Love) 

"Its holy flame for ever burneih, 

From Heav'n it came, to Heay'n returueth." 

Stama 14. See Index, art. einheriar. 

Stanzas 10, 90, So in Shakespeare} f 

Jul. "AVilt thou be gone? it is not yet near dayj 

It was the nightingale and not the lark, . • « • 

Believe me love , it is the nightingale 

Yon light is not daylight. I know it, I; 

It is some meteor that the sun exhales." 

Canto VIII. 



Page 75, %insman', 'Cousin'. The royal maid claims kindredship 
with the God, as being descended from the Asar. The Scandinavians 
long reverenced the Houses sprung from the deified Heroes. See Index , 
art. SEMiNG. 

Paife 80, * Greek-land's Ocean'. The Viking-expeditions of the 
Northmen were often extended to the most distant coasts. Besides discov- 
* ering so many unknown lands , tlieir fleets (unguided by any compass) 
traversed Europe and ravaged Africa and even Asia! The Varingar or 
Varanges, who were in the service of the Byzantine Emperors, and con- 
stituted their incorruptible and unconquerable body-guard, were for the 
most part Scandinavian adventurers. 

Page 89, Xet him deny who dares, and hears my reason!' It is 
rather difficult to convey properly the ikreat implied in the original : — 
"Jag har ett ord att saga den som vagrar." 

Canto IX. 

Stoma 7. *0n his hand'. "The ancient English illuminators liave 
uniformly distinguished the portrait of King Stephen by giving him a 
hawk upon his hand, to signify I presume, by that symbol, that he was 



* Aomeo and Juliel, Act. IIT. sc. 5. 



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234 

itobly thougli nol royally born." * Rolf Krake and Ms twelve champions, 
when visiling the treacherous Adel King of Sweden, had all — the better 
to disguise which was Rolf — falcons upon their shoulders* 

Canto X. 



Stoma 7. *Bear-paw\ ~ a pun ; Bjorn means Bear. 

Stama 8. *Martcn', "Mnslela martes; the pine marten. In proof of 
the facility wiih which this liule animal scales tlie yet unfelled masts of 
the forest, it may be staled, on the authority of Buffon, that it usurps 
the nest of the squirrel and of the buzzard, and dislodges the wood-pecker 
from its mine." + See Index, art. bear, whalb. 

Canto XI. 



6iamM a, 'Unnerves the sword from slaying'. The expression of 
the original is "svard kan dofva," in other words, so exorcise the sword 
of his adversary that it shall become blunt and incapable of biting, wound- 
ing. — "However confident in personal power, the heroes of the North 
did not scruple to court the alliance of the magic art. Brynhildr accord- 
ingly instructs Sigurd: 

"Sigrunar skaltu kunna Would the Chief in arms excel , 

ef thu vilt snotr vera Runes of Conquest read thou well! 

ok rist a hjalli hjors Graving on thy gauntlet's hide, 

d vettrunum On the liilt that girds thy side , 

ok a valbystum On thy war-spear's bristled oak , 

ok nefna tvisvar Ty. Twice the mighty Tyr invoke." ft 

"The practise alluded to might be deemed scarcely consistent with the 
heroic character of the age; but it should be recollected, that if runic 
spells were called in to blunt the edge of the sword, sorcery had been 
previously employed to impart to the blade an unearthly temper. Oden 
himself, we are informed, instructed the Aser in the mysteries of the 
magic art through runes aud chaunts — Galldrarj — and such science , ac- 
cording to the ancient lay Big^t-mal, formed part of the education of a 
young potentate: — 



♦ Strutfi $port$ ^nd pattimen ^c, EU. l833 p. a4. — + Strong, p. l37. — +f D:op. i53. 



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235 

"En konr iingr Prince was versed 

knnni mnar In runic lore , 

eefinn rnnar Aunes coeval, 

oc alldr rnnar: Runes of yore, 

meir kunni hann Men could fend 

monnum biarga With magic spell , 

eggiar deyfa Swords could blunt, 

elldi at Isegia." And fire could quell," * 

This superstition was not yet extinct in the middle ages, and 
Major Snodjjfratt mentions f a similar belief: — A part of the mountaineers 
inliabiting the borders of China, were employed in the Burmese service 
under the command of three young and beautiful women of high rank, 
-who believed they could render the bullets of the English ^larmless*. 
Of course, they all fell victims totheir superstitious rashness. — Something 
of the same sort, in which however the Catholic Priest was the wizard, 
was common among the "wild Irish", daring the famous and well-founded 
rebellions there. 

Siatma 18. *Glas8 panes.' "It must be in the recollection of every 
one who has liad an opportunity to peruse the very curious old House- 
hold-Book of the Norlhumberland Family, that whenever the Earl re- 
moved from Alnwick Castle to London, not only tlie arras was taken 
down in all the rooms, but the glass was also carefully taken out of the 
windows."^ +f 

Id. *And locks*. Even at this day, a latch is the only door* 
fastening in Norlhcrn Scandinavia, some parts of Switzerland, and various 
other sequestered districts. 

Siama 19, ^Candle' is elegantly introduced here, as being an 
evident and comparatively modern addition to the luxuries of a Northern 
Chief. Formerly young boys attended with pine-torches to light up llie 
banquets of the great. Such turpentine-wood torches are still used ])y the 
common people of the high North and of Scotland. They arc fastened 
between the boards of the walls. 

Canto XH. 

Pagt 191, 'And bread will have.* This line refers to a custom uni- 
versal in tlie North , of treating and encouraging the horses by giving 



♦ Strong, p. 3x5. — f Narrative of the Burmese War. — -H- i»f r Kinif, Arch. VI. 284. 



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230 

tliem, occasionally, pieces of a coarser sort of the hard rye-bread (a kind 
of Scotch cakes) nsed almost every where in Germany and Scandinavia <&:c. 

Id. *Oath.' This bitter commendation has reference to Helge's 
public and scandalons breach of lus Coronation oath, (w^ithout speaking 
of the separate compact made previous to his embassy) by which he had 
X^romised to maintain the rites, of religion, the public peace, and the pri- 
vate liberties. 

Page 194. 'Sure the victim's fair.* In the Original, '^det ar dock 
skont," — a melancholy half-ironic self-raillery* 

Canto XIII. 



Stoma i, 'Midnighi's Sun.' It is well known that the Sun never 
sets, and is consequently visible all night long, atTorne&when the nights 
are at ihe longest. This is also the case , under the same degree , in Nor- 
way, particularly from the mountains. Sogn, however, is 5 degrees south, 
of Torne&j so that we must add with Strong, p. 175. "Here we must crave 
on behalf of our author a few degrees oipoetie latUude, or considerable allow- 
ance for refraction, which is really augmented in cold climates, through 
condensation of the atmosphere." 

StamoM 9. 'Balder 's Pyre,* "This expression is applied here in 
tliree different significations: — to the Mythick pile of the Deity; to the 
emblematic fire upon the hearth; and to the burning Temple and grove, 
in wliich the image of the deity was consumed as on a funeral pile." * 

Stoma 3, 'Flint-knives.' "In ancient times flint was fashioned into 
cutting instruments, and it is conjectured that tlie stone-knives used by 
tlie Hebrews were of this mineral." f 

Stoma 8. "Not as King, but as the challenged, Helge was entitled, 
agreeably to the rule of Nortliern cliivalry, to the first stroke. So on the 
occasion of the contest between Viking andlrouskull, related in the third 
Canto, the latter addressed his opponent: — "Strike thou first, for such 
is the law of duel" — Holmgaungm Uff , — • as I am the challenger; and in the 
meantime I must stand quiet, nor can I apprehend any danger from so 
doing. Then Viking drew Angrvathil, and as it were lightning radiated 
from it." Saga Thorst. Vih. Again, in the SagaKetil's Hseugs, the same usage 
is noticed: — "The first cut is the right of him who is called out.** ft 



■■ St, 



ong, p. 177. — t Jameson* t Min. I. a37. — ff Strong ^ p. 177, 



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237 

StatHM 16, "The degree of facility- or reluctance with wliich die 
armlet that adorned an image might be removed, seems to hare served as 
a criterion of the disposition of the deity towards tl>e experimenter. Ac- 
cordingly it is related of a Norwegian Connt, Hacon, that finding his 
efforts repeatedly fruitless, he continned to renew his devotions until the 
image at length permitted bim to abstract the ring — when he quitted the 
temple satisfied that the deity was propitious. — Fsereyinga Saga. c. 23"* 
See Index, art. armring. 

Slanmm 99, This noble «Mii/« — of the Flammg Bhme tO the Fire-red Coek 
— is the more admirable here as , to use the words of Rev. Mr. Strong — 
"the final conflagration of the world , typified in .the Mythns by Balder's 
funeral pile , is to be ushered in by a general crow of the gold-combed 
Cock in AsgRrd, the fire-red upon earth, and the livid in the shades 
below." That gentleman's translation, however, "A fire-red watch-bird 
springs ,** which gives us a real chanticleer instead of a metaphcrieai one , i« 
a lapiua calami. 

Canto XIV. 



Page 139, *For Balder's — Brother.' "Such repeated acrimonious 
references to Helg^'s pretensions to divine origin might naturally be eli- 
cited through his allegation of this plea for the rejection of Frithiofs 
suit." + 

Id, *The Oak.* "Skaldick phraseology abounded, as might be 
expected, in synonymes for weapons and gallies. To anEnglish ear wonted 
to the patriotic vaunt, "Heart of oak are your ships," the term here em- 
ployed will sound less alien than even the more ordinary metaphor, sea- 
dragon, serpent, or worm — wm,*^ — See Index, art. dragon, sea-horse. 

Page 141, *That trick was good.* "This stratagem, of which Bjorn 
assumed the merit, is not peculiar to our Saga; it was really an exx)edient 
which the paucity of craft might easily suggest to a fugitive. To the same 
wile , Leifr — PiER. S. 56 , c. ; and herraud , Sag. 12 , 13 , K. — had re- 
course ; and this latter instance is related in a narrative combining so 
characteristically tlie embellishment of the Skald, with the matter of fact of 
an eye-witness, that it may not be briefly dismilsed. This Prince of East- 
Gaullaud having rescued the sister of Godmund, King of Glsesvellr, in 
Finland, from a temple of Jomal, where she had been immured, was rc- 



• Do p. 177. — •{- Po p. 



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238 

warded by her affeciioa ; bnt daring his absence on a warlike expedition, 
his royal sire, to whose charge the betrothed had been confided, was 
OTcrpowered by a finnish army, his country was ravaged, and the fair 
reclaimed. The enemy being too powerful to be openly assailed, Her- 
rand and his foster-brother Bosi, accompanied by a friendly magician, 
named Smith, sailed in a single galley to attempt the recovery of Hleithr. 
They reached Glaesvcllr on the eve of her forced nuptials to a champion 
of the king, Siggeir and wilh the promptitude of "Young Lochinvar," it 
was determined to "tread a measure" with the bride. Sigurd, the confi- 
dent and Iiarper of tlie monarch, haying been waylaid and slain with his 
sole attendant, their skins were conveyed to Smith, who prepared from 
them larvae — nmgrimvr — for himself and Bosi; and thus disguised in tlie 
tegument and dress of their victims , these representatives proceeded boldly 
to the castle , whilst Herraud undertook the arrangements without. Ap- 
prehending forcible abduction, Godmnnd had erected an enormous Hall, 
in which the nuptials were to be celebrated amidst numerous guards; 
and had placed at each of the hundred doors two warders, instructed 
to repel any unknown applicant for admission. This precaution proved, 
of course no obstacle to our teeming Sigurd , who followed by Ids man , 
entered where the sovereign himself stood, and was warmly greet- 
ed. His first care was to exhort the steward and butlers to ply lh<§ 
guests liberally with the strongest beverage, as doing meet honour to 
the entertainer. The nobles and bride , attended by her maidens of 
high degree , having then been seated with due ceremony, the feigned 
Sigurd, gifted with the harp, and more than the skill of his predecessor, 
struck up ; winning loud applause by each flourish , which announced the 
formal introduction of a bumper. At first, however, his pilch w^as low^ , 
so that the King stimulated him to greater exertion; bnt when the com- 
memoration-cup of Thor was ushered in, Sigurd changed his Key, so that 
knives , dishes , and whatever was at liberty, began to be in commotion ; 
many of the guests , also , sprang from tlieir seats , and danced upon the 
pavement: this movement continued for some time. Next came the cup 
dedicated to all the .^sir, and again the harper altered his tone, striking 
with such energy, that echo — dvergmdU — responded to every note : all 
present, save the cliief,^the bride and bridegroom, now stood up, and 
the dance was general ; this strain was also of considerable duration. The 
King then inquired whether his skill was exhausted; but the reply was, 
that he relaxed merely to give pause for rest and regale: some popular 
melodies succeeded, and the cup of Oden then arrived. Now Sigurd opened 
his harp, which was so large that a person might stand upright within ,, 



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239 

andslione as of solid ore. He took up a wliite embroidered glove, and com- 
menced the tune, termed "faldafeykir" — veil-dUperter : — tlien leaped the 
veils from the females , and sported under tlie beam ; men and -women 
joined the maze, and nothing could resist the excitement. This was suc- 
ceeded by Freya's cup, the last to be emptied: and now Sigurd prepar- 
ing the King for a more potent string, struck with such effect* that "the 
monarch, loo, was fascinated; he, the bride and bridegroom, danced a\ 
merrily as any of the party, and the hurly-burly became universal. The 
nuptial couch stood on an elevated platform , and thither Smith , who now 
took the hand of the bride , contrived to cast various pieces of plate from 
the table equipage; and night being far advanced, the spoil was abstracted 
through a window by his accomplices. Herraud, in the meantime, had 
rendered all the vet$eb tahi'ck lay near hit own unfit for tea. The mirth was at its 
height, when a tall personable man entered in^scarlet Kirlle and silver 
girdle, fringed with gold; he was unarmed and dancing gradually to the 
spot where Godmund stood, he raised his fist, and inflicted so severe a 
blow upon the Chief, that blood gushed fortli, several teetli dropped, and 
a swoon ensued. The assailant immediately rushed forth closely followed 
by Sigurd, who, observing the action, had thrown his harp upon the bed, 
and the bridegroom drawing his sword, with many of the guests, pursued. 
"Whilst the residue were occupied with the fallen monarch. Smith, with 
the bride , skipped up the steps to the platform where the harp lay, and 
placing her in the instrument, he attached it to a cord lowered by his 
confederates, and both escaped through the window. They reached the 
boat safely: the fugitive having made a circuit, soon arrived also, and at 
his heels the supposed Sigurd and his armed foe. All sprang on board; 
but the harper turning upon the unfortunate bridegroom, hurled him into 
the sea, whence he was rescued with difficulty by the men on shore. 
His brother and a body of armed men instantly put off in a galley to 
pursue the abductors, who now made every effort by oars and sail to ac- 
celerate their flight; scarcely however had the enemies of Herraud launch- " 
ed forth , ere Aw ttratagem tueceeded, and Ae vettel filled, TIlus pursuit became 
hopeless; inebriety, moreover, added to the embarrassment, and although 
Godmund soon recovered his recollection, merriment was converted into 
sighing and sorrow." * 

Page 14», *Tiiat scoundrel-framing.* The 'niding-st^ng* was a kind 
of post or pillory, on which the names of those were inscribed who had 
flagranlly disgraced themselves by crimes or cowardice. It is yet sometimes 



♦ Strong't Frithiof, p, 190, 



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240 

nsed, in ihe North. SirMf very aptly observes, p. 192. ''Fritkiof, in vrhose 
mind the idea of a Banta-stone must be as intimately associated with the 
hero whose fame it commemorated , as the Niding-stake with the onteast 
whose name it piUoried, is therefore, in perfect U^m§, when he tannt- 
ingly assures Helge of security, from the respect which he entertains for 
the consecrated Rnne-mark, which his spearhead is wofil to carve. Helge 
had formerly threatened Frithiof , that if he did not recover the tribute 
from Angantyr, he should be *^a branded coward" — Amv mmu nidutg — 
and the insult is now retorted and exaggerated." 

Page 144. Stama 9.' Ye tablet-fountains for mighty Thorl* '^J mno- 
hallar for valdig Thor!"— Ye stre telling cliff-groups on whose stony page 
Thor, the Thunderer, can inscribe his runes mysterious: — a most magnifi- 
cent and majestic image ! — There is seen to this day near Hoby in Ble- 
king, a flat rock called Rwumo, on which, within double lines that may 
be traced for 24 yards Harald Hildetand's Scald — XI Centuries ago ! — 
carved Troll-runes against Sigurd Ring. * Many rune-inscriptions on rocks 
are to be found in Sweden and Norway f . Job , also , speaks of ''words 
graven in the rock for ever" t+. 

Canto XV. 



Sutmat 2—11, ''Many things were there established in their band, 
to be observed in champion-fashion. Thus among the rest, was it — that 
no man should bear a sword more than one ell long; so near, at least, 
should each one cloze wilh his foe. Then got they claymours (short thick 
broad-swords) made for ibem, that the blows might tell the better. None 
of them had less strength singly, than XII common men together. Women 
and children took they never prisoners. Never should they have their 
wounds bound up, till that 48 hours had passed." * . . . "That custom had 
they also , that they never tented over their ship, and never reeved the 
sail for a Tempest's sake." f+f 

Stama 6. See Index , art. oden. Byron has a thought somewhat similar : 
"The rising morn will view the chiefs embark; 
But waves are somewhat treacherous in the dark: 



Wie»elgren*» "Sferiges Skona Litteratnr " II. Sag. — + Svea tUket B&fder, af 
Geif'er, 1. l53. — ft XIX. 24. — +ff Half'$ and Balf* Champions* Saga, ch. 10. 
See also the 7th 8th and 9th strophes of the magoificent i6th ch. in the 
same Saga. 



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241 

And Tevellers maj more teGarely sleep 
On silken couch than o*er the rugged deep." * 
SiaitM 9, "This professional hostility was so thoroughly understood, 
that when Halfdan, with an overpowering superiority of force, meets 
another adventurer, Niorfi, he immediately addresses him: "I must give 
thee , as usual , a choice ;'* but., sinking the alternative , simply proposes 
that he should abandon Ms wealth, ships, and arms, on condition of a 
free dismissal. The brave buccaneer, though acknowledging the hopeless- 
ness of resistance, determines to perish with his vessels; and his opponent, 
not to be excelled in chivalry, then detaches a part of his fleet, and com- 
mences an engagement with equal force. After tliree days of hard fighting, 
they begin to enquire what was to be gained by conquest: and asNiorfi's 
squadron proves to be Ughtfy laden, a truce is proposed, and an alliance 
concluded." Strong, p. 203. + 

Stamui 14, "Like the heroes of Homer, those of ancient Scandi- 
navia, in the excess of their overboiling courage, dared to defy the gods 
themselves. * Where is he,* exclaimed a champion, *whom they call Odin, 
that warrior so completely armed, who hath but one eye to guide him? 
Ah! if I could but seeliim, this redoubted spouse ofFrigga, in vain should 
he be covered with his snow-white buckler, in vain mounted upon his 
lofty steed, he should not leave his abode of Lelhra wiihout a wound. 
It is lawful to encounter a warrior god !" ff 

Canto XVI. 



Pag. 156, *Ho8t-fight on ice/ Great battles were sometimes fought 
on the ice, as the mountainous regions offered few plains fitted for that 
purpose. 

Canto XVH. 



SuuuM 10^12, See a similar transformation beautifully described 
in Byron*s Cor$air, II. 4. 

Siamui 14, Strong observes, p. 220. "Holinshed slates, that in the 
year UYO, upon the day of the young Prince's coronation, king Henry the 
Second "served his son at the table as a server, bringing up tlie Bore's 



♦ Corsair, IT. a. — f The extract is from Thortten Vikingsson's Saga^ ch, 7. 

ft North. Ant. I, ai5. 

3 



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head, with trumpeu hefort it, accordiag to the manner." See Index, art*. 

FRBY'S BOAR. 

Stoma 23, *Hi8 sword then grasped/ "History records an anecdote 
of Erik Eiegod — Ever-gocd — King of Denmark , which thongh savonring 
of the thrice-stricken harp of the Elle-maid, and plainly to be receired 
with some grains of allowance , is too apposite to be omitted here. This 
monarch was seated at the festive board, when a mnsician was announ- 
ced who professed to wield at pleasure the emotions of the human heart* 
He was summoned into the royal presence, to prove his dexterity; but 
long excused himself, alleging that the mind of the monarch would be 
disorded. This premonition serving merely to aggravate curiosity, he 'Vtas 
then commanded to play, with a menace of the consequences of disobedi- 
ence. The mnsician now finding remonstrance fruitless, requested the 
attendants to conceal, first, all the weapons and arms in the saloon. This 
injunction having been executed, and the door locked, he commenced his 
minstrelsy. The first piece which he played had the effect of rendering 
the whole court melancholy and depressed. The second piece excited 
them all to merriment, so that they sprang from their seats and danced: 
but with the third they were wrought up-4o frenzy. In tliis fit of mad- 
ness , the king forced open a cabinet, seized a sword, and slew four of 
his ministers; and it was found necessary to rush upon and coerce him 
until the paroxysm subsided. "Whether," adds the historian, "the harp 
of the musician produced such an effect naturally, or the prepossessed 
imagination of the monarch were the source of the phenomenon, I will 
not venture to pronounce.*' The pious Erik on recovering liis self-posses- 
sion, deeply afflicted at the catastrophe, not contented with the penance 
enjoined by Canute the Great, vowed to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, 
and pray for the souls of his four victims at the Holy Sepulchre. From 
this determination, neither tears nor prayers could divert him, and he 
died at Cyprus, 1105, on his way thither. — bolberg's Damn, At>. Hut** • 

Canto XVIII. 



Stamut 9, The skill of the Scandinavian Youth , in performing 
evolutions and carving figures and letters while in rapid motion over their 
*icy plains', is amazing. Often have we gazed at their exploits with won- 
der and admiration. 



♦ Sfrong*9 FrUhiof, p. aa3. 



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243 
Canto XIX. 

SutfUM 9, Hunting and Hawking were not coufined to the immense 
forests of the North, but long stood their ground in the South of Europe 
also. 'V\'"alter, Bishop of Rochester in the 13th century, made it his sole 
employment, even when upwards of eighty years old; and tlie ladies, both 
alone and attended by their lords , winded the horn and roused the game 
with remarkable skill. Queen Elizabeth's passion for the Chase is well 
known. — "The great hunting matches were the means of preserving a 
social intercourse between remote tribes, and of bringing together the 
chiefs and principal men of the country, for the adjustment of differences, 
arrangement of proceedings , &c. Huntings were often given in compli- 
ment to the visits of friends , and the vassals were summoned in suitable 
numbers." * 

StamM 13, 14, Gifted Birds , or rather spirits in their shape , are 
a "divine machinery" frequently introduced in the Ballads and Sagas of 
the North. This is one out of a thousand resemblances to Asiatic man- 
ners. "Many also in the North, as in idolatrous Israel, asserted that they 
could understand the cries of birds — so that they became a language 
studied with great zeal both by kings and peasants." f 

SiatiM 18, See a somewhat similar instance of magnanimity, in 
Tjftler*t Hi$t, of Scotland, II. 400. 

Stattaa 20, *With upborne shield.' According to the old Northern 
custom, a shield was carried on high instead of colours, and *to come 
with the Shield of "War* {hartksldy generally perhaps, red) was equiva- 
lent to a declaration of hostilities. — The *upborne shield' therefore , 
which could only be carried between sun-rise and sun-set, was a sign of 
open and honourable warfare. See Index, art. shield. 

Canto XX. 

Stomut S, *Fire*8 light-curl'd daughters ,' — the graceful and slimly- 
bending unoke'wreatht , — is hazarded in the spirit of the Scaldic phraseo- 
logy, though neither warranted nor forbidden by the original's ^Siigande rskem,* 

Staima 11, 'Death-runes.' See Index, art. geirsodd. 

Stomut 14, "It is plain that a more glorious crown, a helmet of 
salvation, rose before the imagination of the poet, as he penned tliis char- 



* Logans Gail, II, 42. ~ f Valmt JliW. I. 188. 



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244 

acteristic passage. Yet the seatimenit imputed to this Pagan CMeftain is 
not at all overcharged: the h»pe of a dying Odenite, though not vouched 
like that of the Christian, -was more easily exalted into joy; since it was 
little repressed through any sense of responsibility, and inflated by igno- 
rant enthusiasm." * — We cannot help adding a single Strophe of the 
celebrated Deaik-Song of Regnar Lodirok, which was probably in Tegner's re- 
collection when he composed this Canto: — 

ST. 29. 
'Xease my strain! I hear a voice 
From realms where martial souls rejoice. 
I hear the Maids of slaughter call, 
Who bid me hence to Odin's Hall. 
High-seated in their blest abodes , 
I soon shall quaff the drink of gods. 
The hours of life have glided by ; 
I fall, but smiling shall I die." f 

Canto XXI. 



Siama jf. ^c. See Remarks on the alliterative Poetry of the old Eng- 
lish Bards , in Warton» Helnfuet of Ane, Eng, Poetry II. 276—280. For a valuable 
comparison of the Icelandic and Anglo-Saxon systems of verse, we refer 
to Crotthoinu Fom-Norditka Minnen, I. ad fLnem. 

Id, *His Courser.' "If the Levantine Achilles consumed upon the 
pile of Patroclus a stud of proud-necked coursers , the Northern Sigurd was 
equally careful that the shade of Harald-Hildetand should be provided 
with a pompous saddle-horse, on which he might ride forth amidst the 
host of the slain to Valhalla: if the tomb of Hring be poetically furnish- 
ed with his yet surviving charger, his lifeless side girt with its faithful 
blade , that of Chilperic I. really disclosed remains of his former war- 
horse, amongst rusty and decayed trappings, arms, and accoutrements. 
The Laplander interring a flint and combustibles to light the departed 
along the dark passages of his cavernous way, or the Western savage, 
in addition to garments and grain , bestowing , as in mockery of the pal- 
lid corpse , ^'des couleurs pour se peindre ," betrayed not greater blindness 



* Strong, p. a57. — f HerherCi Mpedmem of Iceiandk Poetry, We would have pre- 
ferred the last line to have run tims: 

I fall, but laugh; and langhing die! 



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245 

than ih^ philosopKic Greek inserting liis viaticum between the rigid teeth 
or squandering life and wealth upon the pile. The range of man's disco- 
veries is cut short at the grave , and beyond this point even Revelation 
seems rather meted out to dispel delusion than to communicate know- 
ledge.'"^ The Scythians had the same burial- customs as the Scandinavians. 

Stamut 3, 'Corn-ears.' In England, so late as in the reign of Henry 
Vin. Brides, we are informed,** wore a garland of corn-ears. 

Statma 9, The synonymes for gold , in the old Scaldic Poetry, are 
almost numberless. Many of them are founded upon legendary fable, 
while some are elegantly expressive; such***) as Agu-'s (the Ocean-god's) 
/Jref; Frefat (Venus') Tear$i the flame ef the wrist (from its being so generally 
made into Bracelets by the Northmen); the fire of the ttream (pointing, says 
Geijer, f f to the gold-bearing floods of the Caucasus) , &:c. It is called 
Dwarf 'day-ihine , for tliat the Pigmies who peopled the hills and caverns had 
no iolar-dag-thme. 

Canto XXII. 



Stanaa 5, *A Sun in blood.' — Painted blood-red. 

Stama 10. "So when Baldvfin, Count of Flanders, was invested — 
an. 1204 — by the Crusaders with the Eastern purple, "the barons and 
knights, agreeably to Byzantine custom, elevated the Emperor on a Buckler 
and bore him into the church of St. Sophia." f-l-f Both the Romans aud 
the Northmen had this custom. For a general or ruler to be raised on 
the *Shield of* War' was an evident token of Superiority! 

StaiuM 90. 'Time's sj^reading Tree!' See Index, art. ygdrasil. 

Canto XXm. 



Stama 19, 'An air-born Phantom.* The Translator cannot call to 
mind the existence of any national popular Synonyme for "Hagring ;" Fata- 
Morgana is too learned, and the Mirage is the lately adopted child of a fo- 



* Strong, p. a68. — ** Brand, Pop, Ant, — *** Pr, Edda, Skaldflkap. ch. Sa and 
45. -- f "Now when the Gods had sate them on their seats, Agir had shin- 
ing gold placed npon the floor of the Hall, and this sparkled and lighted up 
the H«I1 like nnto fire, — just as in Yalhall swords were instead of fire." 
Do, ch. 33. — if Hdfder, I. 365. See also the Pro»e Edda, Skaldskaparmal , 
5 32—46. — f++ Miil$*s Cru$adet, U. 144, 



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reign desert, wliile Sight and Vigion &c. are all too indefLnite. — "When 
Nature stretclies lier canvas of vapour, and widi a pencil of reflexible and 
refrangible light draws fanciful images of objects in themselves fanlaslic , 
a less susceptible and inexperienced observer than Frilhiof might be par- 
doned, should he give to the picture ideal touches, and ascribe the vision, 
to preternatural Agency. The arcliitectural skill of fancy is elegantly 
recognized by John Lander — the African Traveller — in his poetic and 
affecting monody: — 

**With bounding steps I gain'd the hill's ascent 
To muse in silence on tlie firmament, 
Where orient clouds that met my raptured sight 
Seemed blissful lakes in seas of silvery light, 
Rocks, mountains, caverns, precipices bold, 
Refulgent towers, and templet built with gold: 
And borne aloft on fancy's soaring wings. 
Were gorgeous thrones and palaces of kings." 

ZM, Ganette, Jmn, S. * 
Sttttuut i5» * Time's pure Spring.' Mimer's Well. 

Canto XXIV. 



Siamut 5. *The Serpent twisted.* "It should be observed that the 
knots wont to be engraven on Runick monuments, to denote an indisso- 
luble bond of fidelity and affection, were commonly anguiform; that genus 
of serpents, alone, having a .propensity ' to convolve into knots or gyres. 
And when such anguiform knot occurs , the first care of the decypherer 
should be directed to the discovery of the head; as indicating tlie com- 
mencement of the scroll." ** 

StanM It. *Belt.' * Gauntlets, See Index, art. thor. 
Stanaa 19, 'Oblivion's Heron.' "As an authority for tlds expression, 
Bishop Tegn^r himself refers to a passage in the Havamal: — 
** Ominnis hegri heitir He , oblivion's heron highl 

Sa er yfir auldrom thrumir O'er the toper stays his flight, 

Han slelr gedi guma." Filching reason , clouding light." *** 

Stama 14, 'The Scale.* "Our poet in this suspension of the ba- 
lance, might plead sublunary in addition to celestial precedent, as the 



♦ Strong, p. 292. — ** Do. p. So;, quoted from Miches Thes. Gr, IsU — **♦ Do. 
p. 3o8. Havamal str. I4< 



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following passage will leslify: — **Erat Comid bilanx argentea inanrata, 
binis ponderibns , anreo altero , altero argenteo adjectis, in utroquc kumana 
tffigiet cselata erat; talibns enim Teteres nti consuererant: id Luti, sive 
sortes, nomin&runt." * 

Ih, *Gold-comb*d Gock'&c, Snck are the signs, which — as sings 
the Prophetess of the North — shall usher in the day terrible alike to 
gods and men: — 

"Gdl nm Asnm Crow*d his -^sir-call 

Giillin-kambi Cock wilh glistening crest; 

Sa rekiir holda He in O den's hall 

At Heria fodnrs: Wakes the Brare from rest: 

Enn annar gdl Back the rust-red bird 

Fyrir jord nedann Flung the warning sound; 

Sotraudur hani Hela's Shadows heard 

At solum Heliar." 'Neath the deep profound."** 

Sutma 9i. *Grasp ye the Sense, or no?' — ^^forttdn I dtmu eUer ejf** 
an imitation of the Vala's repeate'S. interrogation — "viloth enn, etha 
hvat" *** — *Know ye yet, or how?' 

SteJiaa 93, ♦ This Stanza is copied from the specimens translated 
in an excellent Notice of Tegner's FrOhiof, in BlackwooiVt Magamne, No. 135, 
Feb. 1828. 

Stoma 26, *♦ These lines are also copied from the same source. 
Ih. 'Proud steeds.' Horses were frequently offered , in the old North, 
among other animals. They were especially sacrificed to Oden, as the 
god of War; and to Thor, in token of the Horses which drew the chariot 
of the Sun. Cyrus the Great also offered Horses to that Luminary. At 
the great atonement-sacrifice at Lederun, the capital of Sseland, 99 hor- 
ses, and the same number of men, dogs, cocks and hawks were* offered 
at once. •{• 

Stamut 98. *Presag'd its trutlis.' **With a similar pregnant inference, 
the Swedish historian (Geijer) takes his leave of the resinking Vala: — 
"So sounds the Toice of the Northern Sibyl! faint, but half intelligible, 
through the long vault of ages. It speaks of other times , other men and 
minds, fettered in the bonds of superstition, yet yearning, even they, af- 
ter eternal light; and expressing that craving, although in faltering phrase." 
I. 339. +f 



* Torf, IT. 3i3, qnoted in Strong, p. 3ll, — ** Do. same page.— *** Elder Bdda, 
Voluspa , passim. — f Conf, Daltm 1. 171 & 188. — f f Strong, p. 3i5. 



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MYTHOLO GICAL 

ANTIQUARIAN and EXPLANATORY 

INDEX. 



Alphbm (tlie Historical), called also VAen, was situated, says the 
Hervara Saga i), between Romriver (Glomen) and Gant-elfven. 

ALFHBM , (BLP-HOMB) , the Palace of Frej, and chief Castle of the 
district, called by the same name, inhabited by the Light-Fairies. The 
whole region lay in the third Hearen, Vid-blain (the widely- blue), which 
the flames of Ragnarok shall not reach, a) 
"Alfhem to Frey they gave, — In Time's first days, — As tooth-gift." 3) 

ALL-FATHBR , (allfadbr) , the great Spirit 4) , Him who liveth through- 
out all generations 5) , and whom we dare not name 6) , the Creator of the 
Sun 7), andGoYernor of all things 8), the Lofty One, the Ancient, tlie Re- 
vealer of Mysteries, the Manifold 9), &c. —the Great Almighty God whom 
all the corruptions of barbarism and idolatry coi\Ld never entirely con- 
found either with the heathen *father of the gods' or with the historical 
Oden. See odbn. 

ATVGAPJTYR (arngrimsson), "The gigantic son of a Viking and island 
chief, named Amgrim; and one of twelve .brethren renowned as the first 
Berserkir. These he accompanied to Samsey, whither one of them, Hior- 
vard, had challenged Hialmar, a brave Swedish leader, his successful ri- 
val, in the favour of Ingebiorg, daughter of the reigning monarch at Up- 
sala. The hostile parties met on the shore, after the Berserkir, in a fit 
of martial frenzy, had attacked and slain the attendants of Hialmar, whilst 
their chief, with his foster-brother, Oddr, ascended an eminence to re- 
connoitre. Two against twelve shewed fearful disproportion, but the 
former were in full vigour the latter labouring under exliaustion, conse- 
quent upon the preceding paroxysm: and too brave to fly, the gallant 
pair resolved to hazard the encounter. After some friendly disputation. 



l) Ch. I. So also YngUnga-Saga, cli. 53. — a) Proie-Edda, GylfagiDDing, 17. *— 
3) On cuttiag his first tooth — PceHc Edda Grimoism^I, str, 5. — 4) Proie- 
Edda, Gylfagioning, 3. — 5) Do, — 6) Poeiie Edda, Hyndla's Song, 4i. — 
7) LoHdndma, p. 19. Skalda, p. 94, — 8) Baraid the fair-haifd's Saga, cb. 4. — 
9) Poetk Edda, Grimaismiil , 47 — 5l. Prote-Edda, Gylfaginniog, 20. 



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it nfras agreed that Hialmar, a» the mo»t perilous eiuprize , should engage 
Attgaiitjr; -whilst Ms confederate brayed the eleven. Accordingly, after a 
preliminary condition had been exacted by the Berserk, that if he fell, 
his sword should be interred with its owner — "ok vil ek hafa Tyrfing 
i haug metli mer" — the duel commenced; and was long continued with 
tremendous fury and reciprocal wounds: the reek — according to the 
Chronicler — ascending from the nostrils and mouths of the combatants, 
as from a fiery furnace. After standing for some time "spectator of the 
fight," Oddr drew off his opponents; and haying appealed to their cour- 
age as champions, and not slaves, and to the ancient edict, "man to man," 
was first confronted by Hioryard, whom he quickly despatched, and suc- 
cessively by the survivors , who all shared the same fate : Ids wrought 
silver tunic, presented to him by a fair enchantress — Alfodr — in Ireland, 
defyiug the edge of steel. Unscathed he returned to the spot, where he 
had left his friend, waging doubtful conflict, and found Angantyr fallen, 
and Hialmar seated upon a hillock, pale as a corpse. In rhythmic reci- 
tative, Oddr questioned and condoled with his ghastly comrade, who 
taking, up the strain, replied: — 

**Sar hefi ek sextan "Wounds sixteen I rue 

slitna brynju Cleft my helm and head, 

svarl el mer fyri sjdnum, darkness clouds my view, 

s^kat ek ganga; fails my feeble tread; 

hneyt mer vilh hjarta Fierce .Angantyr play'd 

hjorr Angantyrs heart-deep pangs I feel, 

hvass blothrefill. Dwarfs two-edged Ids blade 

hertli i eitri, poison lemper'd steel. 

"He then commenced his Swan-Song, wldch extends through six 
stanzas, and having closed il, expired. Oddr then deposited the Berserkir 
Willi their arms, cumnladng a barrow over them; and having completed 
this laborious task, carried tlie body of Ms friend to the ship, and sailed 
for Upsala. The Princess betrothed to Hialmar, overpowered by the me- 
lancholy tidings of Ids decease, died of a broken heart, and was buried 
in the same tomb with her lover." i) See tirpii^g. 

ANGAT^TYR (HBRMUffDSSON) , was Jarl of the Orkneys. His father was 
Jarl of Gotland, and a renowned warrior and Sea-King. On Anganlyr's 
first meeting with Thorsten and Bele, they came to pitched combat, and 
after two days hard fighting, followed by a severe duel (both the cham* 



X) Strong $ Frithiof, p, ftSg. 



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250 

pions standing on one hide) — swore foslcr-brothership vrith. each other, 
and were inseparable in their after-rovings. After the concjnesl of the 
Orkneys by the three united braves, — "Bele offered Thorsten the Islands » 
that he should be Jarl thereof; but he said , that he would not have it 
80 : — *rather will I be a Herse , and so not separate from thee , than be 
titled Jarl and live far away from thy side/ — Then offered he the same 
unto Anganlyr, the wliich he straightway accepted, becoming Jarl over 
the Islands, and binding himself to pay tribute every year therefor," i) 

A!VGURVADEL, (or ANGRVATHiLL) THE PORD OP SORROW, a name per- 
haps given from the blue colour and transparency of the steel. See swords. 

ARM-RiiVG, (Bracelet, Armclasp) an ornament, usually of gold, 
constantly and extravagantly worn by the old inliabitants of Scandinavia 
Xcc. To such an extent was this practise carried, that it gave a separate 
appellation to the precious metals, — eldr IUK» or hth hrmndumfT) — the fire 
of the wrist, or wrist-flame. —The custom perhaps arose from the conve- 
nient and agreable form in which treasure was thus secured about the 
person, at a time when properly was extremely insecure. But Arm-rings 
were also frequently regarded as Amulets and talismans, and their use 
undoubtedly came from the East, where we find them retained to this day. 

ARMS, of all Kinds, and often of great rarity and beauty, were 
always publicly worn by tlie Gothic nations, who introduced this custom 
into Southern Europe. But especially at the Ting, Diet, and all other 
folk-motes the free Northman presented himself "armed up to the teeth;" 
and, in proportion as he laid aside his wea/Miu, his Uberiies were gradually 
filched from him by nobles, priests and tyrants. — In God's good time, it 
is to be hoped, he will take back both the one and the other I 

ARNGRIM , father of angantyr and his XI Brothers. 

AS or ASS, (Goth, anz, Etruscan ais) , Chief Pillar or Support, 
God, Demi-God, Hero. Plural asar or iESiR, the divine Race, first applied 
to the Asiatic followers of Oden, and then to the last predominant Scan- 
dinavian Deities whose names they had assumed, generally. When com* 
pounded, it becomes ASA-; as asa-balder, &c. — See asgard. 

ASA-BALDER, ASA-THOR , &C. See BALDER, THOR. <&C. 

asgXrd, or Qodheim, is the celestial abode from which Oden and 
his Asar descended on Earth to Manhem or Sweden to mix with the child- 
ren of men. At the same time , it signifies the original seat of Oden the 
hero, on the river Tanais. 



l) Thorsten VihingstorCt Saga, cb. a4. — a) Sn. Edda , Skaldslap. 4^* 



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251 

ASRBR (ASH). "Then said Gangleri (TA* Wayfarer) : *Miioh methiuks 
-was it ivhicli they had accomplished , when the heavens and the earth 
were made, the sun and the heavenly bodies were placed, and day and 
night had been ordered; bat whence came the men who live on our 
globe? — Har {the Lofiy One) replieth: *As the Sons of Bor (the Gods Oden, Vile 
and Ve) walked along the sea-shore, found they two trees, and taking 
them up, made of them men. The first gave unto them spirit and life , the 
second understanding and movement, and the third features speech hearing 
and sight. Garments gave they to them also, and names; tlie man was 
hight A$ker, and the woman fm^/a; and from them have come all mankind, 
to whom it was given to build in Midg&rd." i) — Listen also to tlie Valal 
"Till Three came "Spirit they held not , 

Yon Troop from out , Thought had they none , 

ASAR — all loving Nor blood nor voice 

And strong — to the shore ; Nor beauteous hue : 

On the land they found Oden gave Spirit, 

Little worth And Thought gave Haner, 

Aska and Embla And blood gave Loder 

Lying all lifeless: — And beauteous hue!" 2) 

"We find curious resemblances to this Mythus , among the Greeks 
who affirmed tlie human race to be ihe fruit of the A»h, flSAlCCQ XCCQUOQ^ -*— 
the Latins, whose Populue means Poplar, — and the Persians, who thought 
mankind were descended from a tree, 
ASSIZE, See ting* 

ASTRILD, Love, the Cupid of the North. — From the Teutonic root 
AST , Love , Desire , and connected w^ith Eatter, or Aettar^ (German Ottern) 
the feast of Venus among the Britons and Germans , and astarte ashtaroth , 
&c. the Syrian Venus. 



BALDER, (THE POTENT) related to Bel, Baal, &C. Lord, a title of the 

Sun. Hence Balder is the Source of light and life, the delight of Gods and 
men, the good, — **Oden*s second son is Balder; ... so fair is he in feat- 
ure and so bright, tliat a sliining splendour surroundetli him . . • the 
wisest of the Asar is he, and the most sweetly-speaking, and tliereto most 
mild. That quality, also , followeth him , that his doomings never can 
be changed.*' 3) But alas! the 'Guardian of Valhall' 4) is threatened by 



I) Sn. Edda, Gylfag. 9. — 2) Sem. Edda, Vibupa,, 1 7, 18. —3) Sn,Edda, Gylfag. 
aa. — 4) vsluspa, 38. 



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252 

misfortnues which gain him the melancholy tillcs *the bloody God* t) 
and *the-vreepingGod'a). Oden himself visits the abode ofHel3), bnt onlj 
to gain a confirmation of Balder's dreams. Then taketh Frigga oath of 
all existences , liTiug and lifeless , that they -vronld not harm her son ; bnt 
the tender mistletoe she neglects, and this becomes his bane. As the Gods 
are aiming at him as at a mark, to show that he is now invulnerable, the 
ever-evil Loke place ih the yonng plant in the hands of the blind Hoder 
{H0tr»d), directs his aim, and — Balder falls! — *'and this is the greatest 
misfortune which lias ever befallen Gods and Men!" 4) So soon as the 
Gods had somewhat recovered from this blow, they sent Helmod {the He- 
roic) to Hel, commissioned to offer ransom for her prey; this she granted, 
on condition that every thing, living and dead, lamented the deceased. — 
*^This all nature did, men and animals, earth and stones and trees and 
every ore ; for thou hast surely seen how these things weep, when they 
come from the cold into the heat. Now as the messengers are journeying 
home • • • • they find a giantess called Thock, who answerelh thus: 
"Thock will weep , but Nor of dead nor of living 

"With dry tears. Force 1 the son; -^ 

For Balder's death-pile: Let Hel hold fast what she hath!" 5) 

This was attributed to Loke , and terribly was it revenged. But 
Balder shall return , with that New Earth of which the Vala sings. 6) — 
*'This beautiful Mythos is undoubtedly an image jof the leaf of the seasons 
(the life of tJie year?) destroyed by Winter, and of the subsequent re-awa*- 
kening of Nature by the Spring. But at the same time it carries with it 
another, and more remote signification — being a symbol of all time , and 
of the changes of the great year of the world, and in this sense it implies 
a higher meaning , as it represents the general dissolution as a consequence 
of the first death of the God (Gudadod) — the death of Goodness and Jus- 
tice in the world. Balder returns, followed by reward and punishment, 
by a new heaven and a new earlli. Through this, and at the same time 
the inviolable sanctity which the Northern Mythology attaches to an oath, 
it rises above Nature , and acquires a moral value for mankind.'* 7) See 

BREIDABLICR, HODER, LORE, NANNA , VALE, WHITE GOD. 

balder's hagb, — "at Sogn, in Norway, a Sanctuary consecrated 
to Balder, was surrounded by an extensive enclosure , and consisted of 
buildings constructed with great cost. There was one temple for the Gods, 



1) Vdluspa^ 36. — a) Sn, Edda, Skaldskap. 5. — 3) Vegtamaqtida. — 4) Sn, Edda, 
Gylfag. 49. — 5) Do. Do, — 6) Vdltnpa, str. 6a. — 7) GefferM Svoa Rike$ Bifder, 
I. 354; trans, in the Foreign, Rev, Ap. 1828, p. 54i. 



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253 

and anodier for llie Goddesses of Valliall, — the latter, especially, ex- 
tremely liigh." i) 

BALDiR's PYRB, is properly the burning of his corpse, together with 
that ofNanna, on his ship Ringhorne which had been pushed from shore 
by the Witch-giantess Hyrrocken (/Irtf-TTAirficmrf). Thor consecrated the blaz- 
ing Pile with his Hammer, and Gods , Men , and GUmis assembled to express 
their sorrow at his fate ! 2) — In another sense , however, it is synonymous 
with his festival, Bel-tan, the solar fire, usually kindled (commonly with 
fresh-obtained flame) on the 1st of May. '^It was also not unfreqneutly 
kept on MidsummeT'dag, from a not unnatural idea, tliat of all the days in 
the year that in particular should be selected in which the sun was the 
longest predominant; and it was observed by fires from a notion no less 
natural, that there was a peculiar fitness in making offerings to the great 
god of day from his own element." 3) 

BARROW, (perhaps derived from berg, hill) Grave-mound, sepul- 
chral heap, was a vast mass of earth and stones raised over the remains of 
a chief or warrior of renown. Commonly one or more timbered or walled 
chambers, protected the corpse from contact with the soil itself. Such 
Barrows or Cairns are found in Scandinavia and in the British Isles, Po- 
land and Russia, especially in the steppes ofTartary. "The borderers upon 
these deserts (near Tromsky) have for many years continued to dig for trea- 
sure deposited in these .tumuli : and the Russian court being informed of 
these depredations, dispatched an officer to open such of the tumuli as 
were too large for the marauding parties to undertake. He selected the 
barrow of largest dimensions, and a deep covering of earth and stones 
having been removed, the workmen came to three vaults. The centre 
and largest , containing the bones of the chief, was easily distinguished by the 
sword , spear, bow, quiver, and arrow , which lay beside him. In the vault 
beyond him , toward which his feet lay, were his horse and bridle and 
stirrups. The body of the prince lay in a reclining posture upon a sheet 
of pure gold, extending from head to foot; and another sheet of gold, of 
the like dimensions, was spread over him. He was wrapt in a rich mantle, 
bordered with gold, and studded with rubies and emeralds. His head, 
neck, breast, and arms naked, and ivithout any ornament. In the lesser 
vault lay the princess, distinguished by her female ornaments. She was 
placed reclining against the wall, with a gold chain of many links, set 
with rubies, round her neck, and gold bracelets round her arms. The 



I) FiHH Maynu$eny Nordisk Arcbaiologi. — 2) Sn, Bdda, Gylfag. 49. — 3) Boucher** 
Glossary, 



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254 

head, breast, and arms, "were naked. The l>odj was covered with a rich 
robe , but without any border of gold or jewels ; and was laid on a sheet 
of ilne gold, and covered over with anoilier. The four sheets of gold 
weighed 40 lbs. The robes of both looked fair and complete ; but , upon, 
touching, crumbled into dust." i) 

BADTA-STONB , (MARR*ST0If B , Or STOIf B OP THB FALLBN) WaS a narrOW 

and lofiy block set up to the remembrance of a distinguished Chief. The 
custom of erecting such monuments was as old as Oden himself. '^Over 
all those men who any manly exploit had performed, should Bauut-Stone* 
be raised." a) Sometimes they stood on a Cairn , but more commonly by a 
path-way — "Siste , Viator !" — "But , when we consider the continual 
warfare of our forefathers, and the respect paid by heatlienism to the last 
duties to the deceased, — they were probably also raised over men w^ho 
had fallen far away, no friend or Kinsman near them, as the only tribute 
that could be given them by the home- abiding and the still- surviving, 
and as a compensation for those funeral offices which it was impossible 
for tlie relatives to fulfil." 3) ~ Bauta-stones, owing to their exposed form, 
are now rare even in the North; The oldest whose date is positively cer- 
tain ascend to tlie Xth Century ; the most recent come down to the XUIth. 
Frithiofs Bauta-Stone , represented in the Frontispiece , is a remarkably 
fine specimen of this antique Scandinavian Remembrance-Stone , and must 
boast an age of more than 1000 years! — Sublime, indeed, is the maxim 
of tlie Ancient Oden: — 

Sour er betri, 
|>6tt s^ si|> of-alinn 
eptir genginn guma: 
sialdan bautasteinar 
standa brauto neer, 
nema reisi ni|>r at ni)>. 4) 
Tis good to boast a Son, e*en tliough 
But late the tender plant should grow. 
Nay ! though the Sire himself hath died. — 
Ah! seldom Bauta-S tones arise, 
Just where the broad path pleasant lies, 
If not by Son to Father sanctified! 
BXAR. {Canto II). "Popular tradition gives the Bear the strength 
of XJI men, and the Lap and Fin regard him to this day as some thing 



I) Beiri Journeif from Peteraburgh to Pekin, 1. aog. — a) Yngh'nga.^9€i , cb. VIII. — 
3) Geijer, Svea Wkei U&fder, I. iS;. — 4) ««" J^rfrfa, Uafamal, St. 73. 



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255 

supernatural."!) {Canto X), "So, when the 8i)on8e of Hogni related her 
ominons dream , that "a bear entering , tore np the high seat of the King , 
and having brandished his paws, to the terror of them all, at length seized 
them powerless in his jaws, thus creating indescribable consternation;** 
he eyaded her conclusion , replying , that it foreboded "tempest ; since the 
object imagined was a white-hear,*' In truth, it seems not improbable that 
our poet had in view this very passage of the Volsunga Saga, for Kost- 
bera immediately proceeds to narrate a second dream, in which an eagle 
was tlie actor, and which she alleges must forebode ill, since the bird ap- 
peared to be the disguised form (Aamr) of King Atli , whose treachery she 
foresaw.*' a) 

BELB, was the son of Skate, and succeeded his father in the King- 
dom of Sogn. — "Widely was Bele renowned in every land." 3) 

BBRSERR, (BARE SERK , Bare shirt , unmailed warrior). The Berserks 
were a class of combatants in whom military enthusiasm often developed 
itself either as assumed frenzy or real madness. Even chains could scarce- 
ly restrain them 4) ; indeed they were the natural cxcrescence-growtli of 
a period when force and fight, hlood and brutality were the melancholy reverse 
of the medal of pirate plnnderings. Friend or foe , breast or buckler^ 
slick or stone, dead or living was the same to an excited Berserk: ungo- 
vernable in his fury, he would wildly wander 

"Running an Indian Muck at all he met.** 

"Subsequently the denomination seems to have been applied to 
ferocious champions, sometims retained in pay as a body-guard to the 
sovereign • • . In process of civilization, the word, once a title of honour, 
became, as it is employed by Frithiof, a term of reproach.** 5) 

BERSERR*s-couRSE (Bcrserksg^g) the fit of fury which seized tlie 
Berserk when dangerously excited by his martial frenzy. "When under 
the influence of this paroxysm , he was a raging wolf to his friends , and 
an armed maniac to his enemies, and only force or the battle-field could 
subdue or exhaust Ms fury. One method which his companions took in 
such cases was, to form an impenetrable wall of shields about him, keep- 
ing him there like a wild bull in a net till his savage force was spent. 
— "But his (Oden's) men rushed forward without mail, and were mad as 
dogs or wolves, and bit upon their shields, and were as strong as bears 
or bulls. Men slew they, and neither fire nor iron laid hold upon them. 



1) Atame afUng, Not 8 till XVI sSngeD, — *) Strong** Frithiof, p. i37. — 
3) ThoTiten Vikiug$$on*i Saga, cli. 17. -- 4) Saxo Gram, Lib, VII. — 5) Strong, 
p. 1 53. 



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256 

This is called the Berserk* s-eourte.*' i) "Their custom was it, whea they 
were with their men aloue , and found the £»*««} A VcoMr«« coming upon them., 
that they went up on the land and fought with great stones or trees. For 
the misfortune had hefallen them, that they had killed tlieir own men 
and had spoiled their ships." a) — . yVe cannot help adding the description 
of a Master, who writes with all the correctness of an Autiuqarian and 
all the feeling of a poet: — 

"Profane not, youth — it is not tliine 

To judge the spirit of our line — 

The bold Berserkar's rage divine, 

Through whose inspiring, deeds are wrought, 

Past human strength and human thought. 

"When full upon his gloomy soul 

The champion feels the influence roll. 

He swims the lake , he leaps the wall — 

Heeds not the depth, nor plumbs the fall — 

Unshielded, mailless on he goes 

Singly against a host of foes; 

Their spears he holds like wilher'd reeds, 

Their mail like maiden's silken weeds ; 

One 'gainst a hundred will he strive , 

Take countless wounds, and yet survive. 

Then rush the eagles to liis cry 

Of slaughter and of victory, — 

And blood he quaffs like Odin's bowl , 

Deep drinks his sword, — deep drinks his soul; 

And all that meet him in his ire 

He gives to ruin , rout , and fire , 

Then, like gorged lion, seeks some den, 

And couches till he's man agen. — 

Thou knowst the signs of look and limb , 

"When 'gins that rage to overbrim — 

Thou know'st when I am moved, and whyj 

And w^Iien thou seest me roll mine eye , 

Set my teeth thus, and stamp my foot, 

Regard thy safety, and be mute." 

Walter Seott, Harald the Dauntless . IH , st. 8. 



I) Ynglingtt Saga, ch. VI. — 2) Hervara Saga, cli. III. 



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257 

BIP-ROST or BAP-ROST (lllC TREMBLING BRIDGE). — "TllCll asked 

Gangleri C^he Wayfarery, *which 18 the palh to Heaven from the Earth?' — . 
Then answexeth Har CThe Lofty One) with a smile , *]Voi wisely hast thou 
now questioned; is it not said that the Gods made a Bridge from Earth 
to Heaven, and that it hight is Bifroatf This must thou sure have seen, — 
perhaps thou callestit/A* Bainhote, Three colours hath it, and is exceeding 
strong, and is huilt with more strength and cunning than other works. 
But however strong it is, it shall break, when Muspel's Sons advance to 
ride thereover, swimming their horses over mighty floods and so advan- 
cing. • • • Bifrost is doubtless a bridge right excellent, but nought in all 
the world can stand, when Muspel's Sons come forth to battle'." 1) — 
"Then demanded Gangleri, *Brennelh fire over Bifrost?' Har re pile ih; 
*That which thou seest red in the Bow, is burning fire. Frost-trolls and 
Mountain-Giants would go up to Heaven, if all could journey over Bifrost ' 
that might choose." 2) — Geijer observes 3) ; **In the Persian Mythology 
also» we find a Divine Bridge, tchiivavad, resembling the baprost of the 
North. Gsrres, I, 257. II. 584, The Classic Myth calls this heavenly bridge 
the Milky Way, 

Est via sublimis, coelo manifesta sereno 
Lactea nomen habet; candore notabilis ipso. 
Hac iter est Superis ad magni Tecta Tonantis. 

See GJALLAR-HORN , UEIMDALL. — Ovid, Met. I, 168—170." 

bj'orw blAtand, (bear blue-tooth). — "Their" (Kol's and Trona's) 
"eldest child was Bjorn Bldtand. His teeth were blue of colour, and an 
ell and a half stood they from out his mouth: therewith slew he people 
in battle , or when that he was enraged." 4> 

BLOOD-EAGLE , SO Called from a distant resemblance of the mangled 
body to a spread Eagle. — To carve the Blood-Eagle is a common ex- 
pression in the Sagas , and was a cruel punishment worthy of an age in 
wliich children were tossed on spears! It consisted in cutting the figure 
of an eagle on the back of the sufferer, separating the ribs from the back- 
bone , and drawing the lungs from out the opening. This terrible ven- 
geance , however, which was also called the Blood-Owl, was only taken on 
detested enemies or the most wretched villains. 5) 

BRACELET, See ARMRING. 

BRAGE (tlie SONOROUS) , the Bardic God , and fourth son of Oden 
and of Frigga. "Distinguished for wisdom is he , right eloquent and rich 



I) Sn. Edda, Gylfag. l3. — 2) Do. l5. — 3) Svea Bikes Ha/der, I, 3/j/|. — 4) Thor- 
sten Vikinys$oits Saga, cli. III. — 5) See Bagnar Lodbrok's Saga. 



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258 

in words , and the Master of Song." 1) He was represented bj the figure 
of an old man, with a snow-white beard' reaching down to his girdle; 
bnt the tones of his golden harp , ajiid the sweet mnsic of his voice channt- 
ing the exploits of Gods and of Heroes, proved that his genius like his 
immortality (for he partook in common with the other Gods of the appleft 
guarded by his Spouse) was always young. Mimer's fountain, open only 
to him and Oden, ib the well whence flows his flood of poesy; and mys- 
terious runes engraven upon his tongue, impart irresistible fascination to 
every effusion. 

"The Ash , Ygdrasil, Best is Bifrost of bridge*. 

Is best among trees ; Brage of Scalds, 

Skidbladnir 'mong ships ; Habrok of hawks 

Oden 'mong the* Asar; And Garmer 'mong hounds.** 2) 

*Mong horses Sleipnir; See iduna. 

BRAN, the favorite dog of Frithiof. His name seems to have beeii 
suggested by a passage in Ostian 3): — ""While-breasted Bran came bound- 
ing with joy to the known path of Fingal. He came and looked towards 
the cave where the blue-eyed hunter lay, for he was wont to stride, 
with morning, to the dewy bed of the roe. It was then the tears of the 
king came down, and all his soul was dark." 

BREiDABLiCR, (THE BROAD-SHINING), The Castlc and District of Bal- 
der. "There is, also, a place Breidablick hight, than the which no 
spot is more fair." 4) . . . . **]Vo thing impure may enter therein, as is 
here said: 
Breidablick hight is In that land where know I 

There where Balder halh Rune- staves are fewest 

Built him a Hall , Dead men that wake !" 5) 

BRETLAND, {BrettemoM Land, the LAND of the BRITONS), the name given 
by the old Scandinavians to the coast and provinces of Wah$, Occasion- 
ally it was extended to England in general. 

BURIAL-FEAST, See GRAVE-ALE. 



CAIRN, See BARROW. 

CHESS-PLtYiNG has been known in llie Norlh from the earliest 
times, and was doubtless introduced by its Eastern colonists. The boards 
were often highly valuable , and were reckoned worthy of adorning the 



l) Sn, Edda, Gylfag. eh. 26. — a) S«m. Edda^ Grimner's Song, str. 45. — 3) 
Temora, VIII. — 4) Sn, Rdda , Gylfag. ch. 1 7. — 5) Do. cb. H2, ~ S««. Kdda , 
Grimner's SoDg, str. 12. 



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259 

temples of the Gods. 1) Specimens have been found in the Cairns of 
North-Eastern Russia. 2) In Eiffits Saga yve even find some kind of Playing 
Automaton mentioned. 3) The Icelanders are to this day distinguished Chess-* 
players, and our games in general, holh willi and without dice, are con- 
stantly occurring in the Sagas. 

CHIMNIES were not used by the old Scandinavians. 

CORSLET-HATER, (brynjo-batare) is an expressive Scaldic epithet 
for War-Sword, 4) 

DAY. — "Norvi or Narfi was liight a Jotun [evil Giant], who 
dwelled in Jotun-home. A daughter had he, called Night (Nott). She was 
dark and gloomy like her race , and was given in marriage to the man 
hight Naglfari, and their son was called Authr (or Udr), — Next took 
she him, who was Annarr hight; their daughter was named the Earth (Jorth). 
— Last of all had she Dellmg, He was of the Asar-race , and their son 
was Drnf (Dagr), who was light and fair like as his fathers. Then took 
Allfather Night, together with Day her son, gave them two horses and 
two cars, and set them up in tlie heaven, that tliey should each journey 
round the Earth, every twice XII hours. Night rides before, on that 
horse called Hrimfaxi, which every Morning bedews the Earth with the 
foam that drops from his bit. That horse which Day halli is hight Skin- 
faxi," — (*'or also Cffed" 5), — "and filleth both air and Earth with the 
shining of his mane." 6) 

"Fortli his Steed drove The streaming mane far 

Delling's Son [Day] Manhem lighted. 

With stones so precious Drew Dvalin's sport [the Sun] 

lUch surrounded: Car-drawing horse." 7) 

DELLING'S SON , See DAY. 

DiAR, A title originally applied to Oden and his Cliiefs. "There 
[in Asg&rd] was it the custom , that the XII Pontiff-Guardians of his 
[Oden's] Court were the highest. They should superintend the Sacri- 
fices, and judge between man and man. oiar were they called, or Droti* 
nor,*' 8) This priestly appellation was claimed by all the presumed descend- 
ants of the Dwme races ; but in proportion as the spiritual gave way to. 



l) EigiTs and Asmtaufi Saga, ch. 8, 9. — StwlSg St, Saga, cb. 1 7. — a) Strahlen- 
herg, Nordostl. Eur. uad Asian, p. 356. ^- 3) "Tafl that, sem sj^Ift leki ser, 
tbegar nokkur leki annars vegar.*' — 4) Hervara Saga, cb. VII, str. i8. — 
5) 8n, Edda, Skaldskaparmal, cb. 58. — 6) Do, Gylfag. 10. — 7) Sittn, Edda , 
Odeo's Raven-chauDt, str. 24. — 8) Ynglinga Saga ch. 11. 



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260 

llie temporal power, the flainiuical DroU was merged in the battle-leading 
J!r«.sf. 1) 

DIET, Wittcnagemot , Folkmote , Public Meeting of the armed 
freemen of a District, is synonymous (in the more extended meaning of 
the latter) with ting, which see, 

DIRGE, See DRAPA. 

DiSAR, (pi. of Dis, Deity, Goddess) is an appellation appropriated 
to the Ooddesses collec timely. The great annual Upsala sacrifice was 
called DUar-hlot, 

DiSAR-DALE, Panthe ou- Valley , an appellative from some Disar- 
Temple in the neighbourhood. It was in a similar Di»ar-dale that Queen 
Helga committed suicide. 2) 

DiSAR-SACRiFiCB, {Dumr-ofret, Vaar-hht). The great mid- winter oJTer- 
ing to the Gods and Goddesses , in Sweden and Norway. 

DISAR- SAL , (The HALL , Temple , of the disar) , Pantheon. 

DRAGON , (DRAKE) was a common name for the old ScandinaTian 
War-ships, and extremely well answered to their general form and appear- 
ance. Such gallies were also called serpents snakes and worms, &c, 
and the smaller sort snails and shells. — "Yet the ancient poets by no 
means limited their range into the animal world to the reptile race : we 
find ships designated the sea-king's horse , reindeer, bear, hart, elk, otter, 
w^olf, ox, elm-jade, &c. and in the Krdkumdl the ignoble ass itself supplies 
an appellation for the laden vessel: — 

"Rodinn var ^gis asni There whilst braying weapons strow'd, 

ofarr i dyn geira." -^gir's asses lost their load." 3) 

The Scandinavian *Dragon' had often silkeo or curiously wrought 
sails, of various or striped colours, and was some limes gorgeously adorn*^ 
ed with gilding and painting, — while the richly-embellished War- 
Shields ran , shining , along the bulwarks. We translate ime description 
out of many occurring in the Sagas : — "Great pains took King Rolf to 
lay up well his Dragon GrhHan-naut , and all over from the water's edge 
had he the same full -painted with divers colours, both yellow, red, green, 
blue , black , and di£Perent shades of gold. The Dragon-Head [the figure- 
head of the vessel] had he adorned with corslets, and chain- work went 
also across the neck. On the ship's-bord, wherever he thought it might 
be suitable , caused he gilding to be added. Much more magnificent was 
this ship than any other, and seemed to surpass all other vessels as King 



l) Conf. Geijers Sven Bikes Wdfder, I. 4c)4. — 5t) Hervara Saga, cb. XI, — 3) Shottff, 



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261 

Rolf surpassed all oilier Kings here in (he Northland." 1) See Note to 
*OalL' Canto XJV, and art. sba-horse. 

DUAPA, (HARP-SUNG DIRGE, frOHi drepa to Strike) the Death-Song, So- 
lemn Chauut or rhythmic Panegyric harped by the assembled Bards at 
the funeral Banquet of a distinguished Prince or Hero. Many such Songs 
of praise, of great antiquity and extraordinary and sublime beauty, are 
still extant in the Icelandic Literature. — "The public orator of the 
Northman was his Skald, metre his conventional language; and where 
popular opinion regarded death as a triumph, and futurity as a scene of 
festivities, elegy had been revolting ; laudatory and gratulating strains 
ivould be alone appropriate , the shout of exulting enthusiasm must cheer 
the apotheosis of its hero." 2) 

DRiNRiNG-HORNS wcrc nsually of polished ox- or urus-horn, some* 
times of wood or ivory. Commonly they were provided with feet (of 
silver &c.) , and need not therefore be emptied at once. Another sort 
w^as without any support, and was necessarily drained at once. Some 
Drinking-horns were of an enormous size , and very finely wrought with 
ornaments and runes; others again were small and simple. 

DWARF, (DVARC). — "The Cyclopcs in miniature; the miners of 
the North, apparently identified with the aboriginal Finns. These pig- 
mies, though hideous in form and malevolent in disposition, are admitted 
to have excelled the very jEsir in mechanical skill and metallurgy. A 
superiority scarcely to be disputed, since we find them not merely for- 
ging hair of gold to replace the locks which mischievous Lok^ had cut 
from the bright- ringleted wife of Thor; but fabricating a golden-bristled 
boar from a skin committed to the forge: a ring {Draupna) from which 
others periodically distilled; and a ship — SkidbUtdnir^ the gliding laminee, 
— which supplied its own breezes, and was so conveniently elastic, that 
although capable of containing all the ^sir with their arms, it might be 
folded together and put into the pocket. The Dwarfs, mythologically 
regarded, betray their descent from thn mysteries of the Cabiri , the fa- 
bricators of the ark. "The natives of Iceland still term Dvergatmidi any 
workmanship w^hich they wish to describe as particularly artificial," — 
Henderson t Iceland, 192." 3) The Dwarfs dwelt in rocks and caverns, and 
had quickened from the body of the slaughtered Ymer. 



1) Gothrik and Roir* Saga, cb. 26. — 2) Strong, p. 263. — 3) Do. p. 48. 



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262 

BARTfi, DaogUter of NlgUt, Bride o£ Oden , Mother oC Tlior, Sis- 
ter of Day, Floor of Heaven ; 1) &c. 

^'Saj tliou llieu, good All- wise Earth 'Us hight 'mong men, 

(For all Man's beginnings But 'mong the' Asar land, 

Sure thou, Dwarf, dost know;) Way the Vanir call it; 

How that Earth is hight , Green-deck* d Jdtuar (Giants) say, 

Here for mortals lying Growing the' Elf-race name it 

In each sep'rate world? — Gra9«/ Heav'n's Powers cry!" 2) 

EA8T-SBA, {6stersjan) the Baltic. 

EFJE-suND, *'al the Orkneys," subjoins Bishop Tegn^r. — Egluey, 
Bvie on Mainland, and Papa-sironMag , have each been proposed as the mo- 
dern sites. 

EiiVHBRiAR, (Single combatants). — ''Oden is hight Allfather, for 
that he is the Father of all the Gods. He is also called Valfaiher [Father 
of all the Ghosen^Slain] , for that his chosen sons are all they who fall 
in battle. These receiveth he inVallkall and Yingolf , and tkere are they 
hight Emkermr." 3) — "Then asked Gingleri the [Wayfarer], 'What have 
the Einheriar to drink, which can supply them together with their meat 
[the flesh of tlie ever-renewed boar Saehrimner], or is water their drink 
there?* —• Then answereih Har [the Lofiy One,] * Wonderfully spierest 
thou now , that Allfalher should bid to him Kings or Jarls or other Chief 
men, and should give them water to drink! And, indeed, many men I 
trow come up toYaUiall who, we should think, had dearly bought their 
water-drinking, if no better cheer could be expected there, — even such 
as have suffered wounds and pains unto the death. Nay! sometliing very 
different have I to tell thee thereabout. A goat there is, hight Hejdnm, 
[thus resembling tlie Amaithea of the ancients] which standeth up in Val- 
hall and biteth leaves from the branches of that right famous tree called 
Leratlir. Now from out her teats there runneth so much mead, that she 
fiUelh therewith each day a driuking-vessel (tub) so huge that all the 
Einheriar are made drunken thereby.' Then quod Gangleri , 'Most curious 
surely is that Goat, and right excellent must be the tree whose leaves 
she croppeth." 4) — '^But what are the pastimes of the Einheriar, while tliey 
are not drinking?' Har replieth; 'Every day when they have taken their 
garments upon them they array themselves for battle , march out to the 
great Court- Yard of Valliall, and so fight manfully, felling each other 
to the earth. Such is their sport. But when it draweth towards the 



I) Sn, Edda, Skaldskapariual , eh. a4. — a) Sam. Edda, SoDg of All-Wise, str. 
10, H. — 3) Sn, Edda, Gylfag. , cb. 20. — 4) Do, ch. Sq. 



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263 

iime ihat they shall break tlieir fast, then ride they home to Yalhall, 
and sit down to drink. As it is here said: 

"All the Einheriar Death-champions choose they, 

InOden's Town From the Contest then ride 

Hard battle every day : And rcconcil'd sit at the board." 1) 

ELRS — were formerly abundant in the Scandinavian woods. As 
these gradually became thinner, they abandoned them, to seek out the 
wild forests farther north and are now almost unknown in the southern 
districts of the Peninsula. 

ELLIDAJ (THB 8URP-<3UTTER). TThc engraving of this, Frilhiofs 
favourite Dragon-ship , is taken from the descriptions in the Sagas , as 
compared with facsimile drawings of tlie celebrated Bayeux-Tapestry. 
Many of the old Scandinavian war-ships must have been exceedingly strik- 
ing, and their general appearance probably very much resembled the 
Roman and Grecian gallies. 



FAPNBR, {Fe-Ofnir, the WEALTH-SPINNER) the famous Dragou who sat 
brooding over the enormous wealth procured for the death of Otter. — 
"The beautiful allegory of the dragon who conceals the treasure , and 
transmitting it from hand to hand, makes it the continual stimulus of 
new crimes, of constantly increasing atrocity, and iUust rates the dreadful 
power of the auri taera fmnet over the heart of man, is the same in the 
Teutonic as in the Skandinavlan Romances." 2) 

FAIRIES, iAlfitr, Elves) were descended from Alfur, a son of Oden. 
They were river-genii (from Elf, stream) and are the source of Oberon and 
his merry tribe, — Elf, Alf, Alp, becoming Aube, Auberon (in french). 
The Scandinavian peasant, in many districts, still devoutly believes in 
the £lf-race and their pranks. 

FENRis , (from Fenri, abyss) , •— one of the three monster-offspring 
of Loke, — "a giant wolf, which — as the Edda relates — was kept al- 
most from birth amongst the -<Esir, until alarmed by its monstrous growth, 
and certain ominous prophecies of its future destructiveness, they re- 
solved to secure it by a chain. Secure in. conscious might, it permitted 
tliem to try successively various fetters , which it broke with ease ; but 
at length ingenious Dwarfs fabricated a cord of six materials , which thus 
became rarities or non-entities: the sound of a cat's tread, the beard of 
a female, the roots of a mountain, the nerves of a bear, the saliva of a 



I) Sn. Edda, Gylfag. ch. 4i. — i) Wheatons Hiat, of the Northmen, p. 8a. 



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264 

bird, and llie breath of a fish. Tliis ligature appeared so slight, that the 
creature suspected artifice ; and -would not suffer it to be wound around 
its limbs, before its keeper, Tyr, had placed his baud in its mouth, as 
a guaranty that no treachery was designed. Their enemy was thus en- 
chained , but Tyr*s arm paid the forfeit , and at the appointed day of the 
mundane catastrophe, Fenris shall burst its fetters, and devour Oden. — 
This wolf, according to Mallet, is a symbol of Time." i) 

FIRE-CROSS. {Bud-kafU, Bid-Staff) , was a short staff, one end of 
which was burned with fire , while the other was perforated with a cord. 
This, on any pressing emergency, was transferred from district to district 
with incredible rapidity, and the addition of a few runes or marks would 
still more clearly explain the verbal message. The simplicity of this ex- 
pedient was admirable , in times when civilization and its accompanying 
arts had made such little progress. Sir WalUr Seott remarks 2) : *'At sight 
of the Fiery Ctau, every man, from sixteen years old to sixty, capable of 
bearing arms, was obliged instantly to repair, in Ms best arms and ac- 
coutrements, to the place of rendezvous. He who failed to appear suffered 
the extremities of fire aud sword, which were emblematically denounced 
to the disobedient by the bloody and burnt marks upon this warlike sig- 
nal. During the civil war of 1745 — 6, the fiery Gross often made its cir- 
cuit; and upon one occasion it passed through the whole district ofBread- 
albane, a tract of thirty-two miles, in three hours." Traces of tin's custom 
are still found in the North of Scotland and Sweden, but only in the 
Song of the Bard shall we again start at 

"the Cross of fire 
Which glanced like lightening up Strath-Ire!" 

Bjorn Baldmrten thus sums Up , iu his Icelandic Lexicon , the varie- 
ties of the Bid-staff: — **SJgnum, quo convocari contribules solent, est 
lignum, nonnumqnam ferratum, forma tecuriB quando negotia regia expe- 
dienda suut ; teli, quando inopina necessitas, ut csedes patrata ant invasio 
hostis cogit conventum; et emdM quando necessitates oeconomicae et pia 
corpora sunt objectum consultationis." 

POLKVANG, (the RECEPTACLE of the PEOPLES), perhaps from the mul- 
titudes who thronged its halls. — "Freja is the most illustrious of the 
Asynjor [Asa- Goddesses] ; she hath that dwelling in heaven, which is 
hight Folkvang, Whenever she rideth to battle , she takelh the one half 
of the fallen and Oden the other, as is here said:— 



l) Strong $ FrUhiof, p. 3l2, — a) Note F to the Ladg of the Lake, 



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265 

"Folkvang 'lis hight, Of heroes who fall, she 

Where Freja doth rule Half takes each day, 

O'er seats in the Hall : And one half Oden hath." 1) 

The Goddess of Love was thus, tike the Venus of so many other 
nations, also the Goddess of Death* 2) See freja. 

^'forsbtb hight is, the son of Balder and of Nanna, the Daughter 
of Nep. He hath that Hall in Hearen which is called Glitner, and all 
who draw unto him with questions of dispute, set out again on their 
road full reconciled. Thus is his Judgement-Court the best known to 
either Gods or Men. As is here said: •— 

"Glitner's hight that Hall, which There Forsete dwelleth 
High gold-pillars bear. Almost every day — 

"While silver roofs it over: Disputes arranging friendly." 3) 

Forsete was worshiped in the island of Heligolaod, in times an- 
terior to the written Eddas 4). 

FOSTERAGE was common in the North , and was a mark of mutual 
confidence and respect. It was also the substitute of the period for 
schools 5) &c. 

FOSTER-BROTHERS Were educated together, and when fast friends 
formed alliances which were held sacred , comprehended severe duties', 
and were not seldom strengthened by mystical ceremonies. But not only 
members of the same household, stranger-champions also who had tried 
and proved each other's courage and accomplishments, entered into this 
the mo$t Bacred band known to the Northmen , 6) and which was founded on 
community of goods. 7) — Sometimes the form was accompanied with offer- 
ing their blood to the tutelar Gods of their alliance , but generally it was 
as follows: *^The hand-muscle cut they so that it bled, and went out and 
stood under a long-cut slip of grass-turf, swearing there the oath — to 
revenge the one the other, should either of them fall by violence." 8) 
"The Highlanders say, that affectionate to a man is a friend, but a foster- 
brother is as the life-blood of his heart." 9) 

FEAMNAS, (headland), a Promoutory on Sogne-frith, Bergen's Stift, 
Norway, on which FrithioPs Estate lay. 10) 



I) Sn. Bdda, Gylfag. 24. — a) conf. Geijers Svea A. Hdfd. I, 36l. — 3) S». Edda, 
ch. 32. — 4) Iq the VIII cent. See Geifer, ibid. pag. 29a, — 5) See the long 
and valaable note of JAljtgren, Orvar Odd's Saga, p. a36. — • 6) Thorgrim 
Prude*s Saga &c. quoted by IdlfegreH, in his Translation of Oivar Odd't Saga, 
p. 243. — 7) EigiC$ and AsmundU Saga, ch. 2, 4. — 8) Thortlen Vikinguons Saga, 
ch. 21. — 9) Logan's Gaifl, I, 174. — 10) All the Land$capg-view» of Framnas 

6 



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266 

FEBJA, the Vennt of the North, was the Daughter of Niord and 
Shade. "Freja is tiie most distingiushed of the Asynjor ["next to Frig- 
ga." 1)] . . . . Her Hall is Sesrymner, and large and fair it is. When 
she fareth abroad, she rideth behind two cats harnessed to her car. She 
doth favour such as call upon her, and from her naine is that name of 
honour, that dames of high rank are bight Frejor [Fruar, Frauenj. Well 
liketh she Songs of Love , and good is it to invoke her in our wooings." 2) 
"She look in marriage the man hight Oder (Odr) j their daughter is called 
Hnoss, who is so fair that every thing beautiful and precious is named 
Hnois after her. Oder journied far, far, away; Freja weepeth after him, and 
her tears are the red gold. Many names hath Freja; the cause thereof is, 
that she changed her name often, when that she wandered among un- 
known peoples to search after Oder. 3) Freja and her brother Frey 
are often confounded, a thing not to be wondered at when we remember 
the Deut Vema and the God ^A^fQoSiTog of the ancients. 4) This Goddess 
was worshiped from an early period by the Lombards, Yandals, Angli, &c. 
— and was invoked by the Anglo-Saxons to preside over the day thence 
and still called Fri-dajf {Frega-tUgg), See FOLRVANG , VANADIS. 

FREY was worshiped at Upsala, together with Oden and Thor. 
"Niiird, of Noatun, got after that two children. The son was hight 
Frey, the Daughter Freja; fair in feature were they, and right mighty. 
Frey is the chlefest among the Asar; he ruleth over rain and sunshine 
and the produce of the Earth, and on him it is good to call for harvests 
and for peace. Over the goods of men ruleth he also." 5) Frey, "the 
wise one" 6) was, however, propitiated wilh human blood. 7) 

frey's boar was called Gullinbursti , (^« gold-hruiled) and it was 
perhaps from this circumstance that this ravager of the fields was conse- 
crated and sacriiiced to the God of fertility. The same animal was also 
consecrated to the Indian Vi$hnu, and the Egyptian Sun-God was called 
Pre or Frey} and lo the Sun 'and Moon they, like the Scandinavians, devoted 
the swine. 8) The old English custom of the 'Boar's Head at Christmas* 



and its Deighbourhood vblch occnr in this work (opposite the engraved 
Title, and prefixed to Cantos I, IV, VII and XVI) are extremely faithful. 
They are engraved from 5 large paintings (from drawings taken by himself 
on the spot) by Herr Calmeier, a distingnished Norwegian artist born in the 
District (Bergen) illustrated by his pencil. — i) Sn. Edda, Gylfag. ch. 35. 
-- 2) Do. ch. 24. — 3) Do. ch. 35. — 4) Maerohiut, Saiyrnal. III. 8. — 5) Sm. 
Edda, Gylfag. 24. — 6) S«m, Edda, Skirnisfor, str. I, 2. — 7) Saxo Gram, 
B. III. — YngUnga Saga, ch. 18. — 8) Finn Magmuem Nord. Arch. 



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267 

•^as doubtless from the same sonrce. The same words will apply to the 
'Britoa hold' and to the hero of the Norlli : 

''And he drinketh of Ms bugle borne the wine , 
Before him standeth the btawne of the tasked swine." 1) 
*^It was the custom of these feasts to bring in the boar's head in 
great state; sometimes the whole boar himself, stuffed, and standing on 
his legs • • • . carried by the Master of the feasts and the servants, with 
the trumpets sounding before him." 2) In like manner "two swans orna- 
mented with golden net-work having been brought in, upon their being 
placed on the table , the king [Edward] rose , and made a solemn vow to 
God and to the Swans, that he would set out for Scotland" &c. 3). One 
more extract will suffice on this ceremony of vowing, derived by tlie French 
from the Northman province of Normandy. — "Followed by a train of 
females ) and accompanied by a band of music, this queen of the feast 
pompously entered the hall, bearing the bird [the Peacock] on a dish of 
gold or silver, and placed it before the master of the mansion, or before 

some guest most renowned for courtesy and valour This glorious 

destruction [the Carving] awakened such enthusiasm in the knightly 
carver, that it was usual for him to rise from his seat, and, with his 
hand extended over the bird , vow to undertake some daring enterprize of 
love or valour. Tlie form of the oath on this occasion was, — *I vow to 
God, to the blessed Virgin , and to the peacock, to &c.* When he ceased, 
the dish was presented to the other guests in succession; and they vied 
with each otiier in the rashness and extravagance of tlieir promises. This 
ceremony was called, the *Vow of the Peacock* (Vieu du Paon)." 4) 

fret's sword, "which was so good a falchion tiiat it fought of 
itself", 5) was given by him to Skirner, as reward for his embassy to 
Gerda. This whole Legend is delightful, but an abridgement would spoil 
its beauty. It is found .at large in the Eddas. 6) For its ouiUne, see 
GEROA. 

FRI6GA, **Fj6rgyn's daughter, Oden's Spouse, Balder's Mother, 
Queen of the Asar and Asynjor" 7) &c. — "She hath that dwelling Fensal 
hight, which is very fair." 8) — "All the fates of mei^ knoweth she, 
though she spaes thereof unto no one." 9) Sharing the throne of Oden , 



I) Chaucer, The Franklein's Tale. -« a) Tytlert Hat, of Scotland, II. 409. — 3) Do, 
I, a86. — 4) Vahhaux, of ike Xll and XIII Cent, selec. by Le Grand, trans, by 
Way, notes by Ellis, III. l3o. — 5) Sn. Bdda, Gylfag. 3;. — 6) Do. — Srnm. 
Bdda, Skirnisfor. — 7) Sn, Bdda, Skaldskap. ch. 19. — &) Do. Gylfag. 35. -« 
g) Do. ch. 20. 



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268 

and at the same time often Gonfoanded -vfitli the Weather-God Frey, 1) 
she vras at once the Juno and the Cyhele or Geres of the Scandinavian 
Mythology. Frigga -was magnificent and majestic , and had three Virgin, 
attendants, among whom FuOii (Perfection) was the chief. 2) 

FRiTHioF means tlie thief or spoiler of peace. This Hero , the 
son of Thorsten , is celebrated in the Literature of the North. 

FUNERAL-ALE , See GRAVE-ALE. 

FYLRE originally meant any district capable of supporting an armed 
force of 50 Warriors, 3) and which had its own independent Chief, — . 
thence called Fylke-King. 



GANDViR, (SERPENT-BAY, SO caUed from its tortuosity), the Who* 
Sea. This name is now obsolete. 

GEFiON, a Goddess personifying Virgin Purity. "The fourth [A- 
synja , Asa-Goddess] is Gefion ; she is a Virgin , and they who who die 
maids belong unto her." 4) 

"All life's long destinies 
Like me myself [Oden] 
Sheiknowelh well enough," 5) 

The giant-spouse, who ploughed Seeland from the Scandinavian 
Mainland, and whose furrow was — ike Sound! — must have been a differ- 
ent personage. Her story is not without a barbarous romance. 6). 

GBIRSODD , (SPEAR-POINT). Marka $ik Geh-eoddi^ tO mark OUe'sself with 
tlie spear-point, was to carve one'sself to Oden, 7) making 9 rune-marks 
["perhaps the rune Tyr (i^, T) , it bearing at once the appellation of a 
god of war, and the nearest resemblance to the head of a dart or spear" 8] 
on the breast and arms. This substitute for a bat tie -death was commenced 
by Oden, 9) and was resorted to by the Chiefs and warriors of the North 
that an appearance, at least, of honourable wounds might save them from 
the disgrace of a straw-death (str&-d6d , death in one's bed or of old age 
&c,) Previous to this glorious exit, they clotlied themselves in their 
richest armour, and prepared to meet their enemy. The Scandinavian 
imagined that the straw-dead went down to Hela and to forge tf nine ss, 
while the bleeding champion hastened, as he died, to join the combats 
of the Einheriar in Valhall. That this was a political institution, creat- 



l) Hervara Saga, cli. 14. — a) Sn. Edda, Gylfag. 35. — 3) Do» Skaldskap. 66,— 
4) Do. Gylfag. 35. — 5) S«m. Edda, Lok^'s Abase, str. 21. — 6) Sn, Edda, 
Gylfag. ch. I. — Ynglinga Saga, ch, 5, — 7) Do, ch. II. — 8) Strong , p» 257. 
— 9) Ynglinga Saga, lO, 



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269 

ing and preserving a martial spirit among tlie people, like jHohammed's 
Paradise, is more than probable. 1) 

GRHDA, (THE GUARDED), ''tlie fairest of all -women" 2) ~ ^'personi- 
ficalion of modesty; daughter of the giant Gymir, "Warder,- and sponse 
of Frey. This deity having presumed on one occasion to ascend the 
throne of All-Father , perceived towards the North a magnificent palace , 
whence issued a female form, whose glistening hair [? hands] gave lustre 
to the air and water. After duly recording his pangs arising from despair 
of obtaining this mortal beauty, his loss of speech and appetite, the my- 
thus proceeds to state that through the ministry of his confidant Sktmer, 
the Shiner, whom he had bribed by a present of his sword, the damsel, 
after incredible obstacles had been surmounted, was obtained for him in 
marriage. Her residence , like the bower of Brynhilda , — 
'^O ! strange is the bower where Brynhilda reclines 
Around it the watch-fire high bickering shines," Aon. W, Herbert, 
was encircled by a magic flame , and when this had been safely pene- 
trated, deaf alike to his entreaties and threats, and proof against his 
costly gifts , long did the virgin still defy the utmost efforts of the impor- 
tunate emissary. But a resort to witchery still remained, and with this 
its irresistible armour love ultimately triumphed," 3) Gerda is said to 
have symbolized the Aurora Borealis. Secondary phenomena were usu- 
ally attributed to the giant- race. 

GiMLE , (PURE FIRE). ^'To the Southward at the end of the world, 
is a Hall, of all the fairest, and brighter than the Sun. Gimle is it higlit. 
It shall stand there when both Heaven and Earth are no more. In that 
City shall dwell good men and righteous , from generation even to gener- 
ation." 4) "Best is it to be in Gimle , in Heaven." 5) 

GJALLAR-HORN , (the SOUNDING-TRUMPET), wiU be blowu by Heimdall 
to summon the Gods and Einheriar to battle at Ragnarok. 6) But it is 
also with this Horn that Mimer drinks out of his well of "Wisdom. 7 ) See 

HEIMDALL, 

GLITNER, See FORSBTE. 

GRAVE-ALB or GRAVE-FEAST; — "The custom was it in those times, 
that when the Arval [funeral banquet] should be made after Kings or 
Jarls, — he who should give the Grave-ale and take the Inheritance was 
to sit on the foot-stool before the High-Seat, even until that Goblet was 



1) Conf. Dalint Svea Riket Hi$l,, I, n5. — 2) Sn. Edda^ Gylfag. 37. — 3) Slrotiff, 
p. i4. — 4) Sn. Edda, Gylfag. 1 7. — 5) Do. 52. — 6) Stem, Edda, VSluspa , 
»tr. 47 — 7) Sn. Edda, Gylfag., ch. 1 5. 



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270 

brought in which was called the Brage-goblet [ah being accompanied 
with some speech or minstrelsy, Brage, in honour of the deceaised.] Thus 
should he stand opposite the Brage-goblet, first make a vow, and then 
drink out the Bumper. — Thereafter should he be led up to the High- 
Seat, the which his Father had owned: So, thereupon, had he succeeded 
to the inheritance after him." 1) Till this Feast, which was often very 
magnificent and was given in the Family-ltall , had been accomplished, no 
one could succeed to his Ancestral rights; but it could not be held at all, 
if the Chief had been privily slain , unless the revenge of blood (blood- 
were) had been exacted by the heir. 2) 

GRAVE -mou5D , See barrow. 

GiTDBRAND , a fertile vale in the district of Aggerhuns, near Sogn, 
in Norway. It obtained its name from Brand, the son of Raum, who 
was broiight up to the service of the Gods , and was therefore called 
Gttd'brand, which name he afterwards transferred to the district under 
him. 3) 

GRSNmGASui<rD , (GREBNSOUND) , between Zealand , Moen and Falster. 



HAGBART. — "The tragic fate of this hero is connected with a 
story of faithful love , variously embellished, but substaiilially embodied 
in the version subjoined. Hagbart, son of a king of Trondheim, cruising 
with others of his family, met two sons of the monarch of Zealand em- 
ployed in similar adventure : a conflict of course ensued , -which termina- 
ted after a hard struggle in a consolidation of the hostile forces. Hagbart 
proceeded with his new confederates to the court of Sigar, their father, 
wliere a mutual attachment was formed between the Danish Princess and 
the Norwegian Viking. Her brothers however, rejected the proposed 
alliance, and fell victims to the indignation of her lover , who conse- 
quently was necessitated to fly. Affection, nevertheless, soon recalled 
him in disguise , and being betrayed by a female attendant of his Signe , 
he was made prisoner. A Diet was then summoned, where difference of 
opinion prevailed; one party deeming it advisable, that, as the Princes 
were no more, he should be permitted to marry the Monarch's daughter, 
and become protector of the realm ; whilst their opponents maintained , 
that his violation of the rights of hospitality could only be expiated by 



l) Ynglinga Saga, cb. 4o. — a) Gei^t Svea Hikes Hist, 1, 3oi. — 3) Sitfverstolpes 
FdrhdtL emeUan Sverige och Notrige , 1 , 48. 



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271 

death. The latter counsel prevailed , and preparations were made for his 
execution. Sign4 haying learned the decision, preceded him, as had been 
covenanted, by voluntary decease, first setting fire to the apartment in 
which she committed the act. Thus died a fond pair to be embalmed by 
the Skald ; or rather to survive in the annals of romantic history long 
as a gentle eye shall exist to weep over sorrow, — a heart to sympathize 
with despair." 1) — Many districts in the three Scandinavian kingdoms 
lay claim to having been the scene of the lover's fate. Most probably it 
occurred at Hagbarholm, in Nordlands Amt, in Norway. The Swedish 
Ballad called Habor and Signild 2) , which sings this legend and which 
itself goes up to the Xlllth Cent, is far more beautiful in its incidents 
than the above outline. Indeed Haghart and Sisne in the North, answer to 
Romeo and Jtdiet or Abelard and Heloise in the South and "West. 

HAGE, Sanctuary, Sacred Grove. 

HALFDAN , (which mcaus the strong thane) , is a name common in the 
old Sagas. He was the son of Bele. 

HAM means form, shape, figure, disguise, avatar (incarnation) 
&c. Thence hamast, kamatkiptatt, kamthypa &c, to change one's shape. The 
Witches, Trolls, Jotnar Sec. of old Scandinavia had such tremendous 
powers in this way , that the word Ham is an extremely proper appel- 
lative for the Magician-Eagle. "We find many instances of exactly the same 
superstition in the 'Arabian Nights' and other Asiatic Saga-books. 
Gods of weather and Storm-Enchanters are as old as j^olus , and were 
familiar to. the North. Ogdten had a bag, called Vedurbalg; when he shook 
this, such cold and tempest went thereout that within 3 days lakes and 
fiiths were covered with enormously-strong ice, and no human being 
could bear the piercing blast. 3) — By changing forms with her, a sorceress 
occupied for three days the place of Signy, wife of Siggeir, king of 
Gothland. 4) — '*Such interchange of person occurs, indeed, as an ordi- 
nary expedient in Mythick history , and probably to the faculty of jump- 
ing into and out of '*a skin" at pleasure , thus attributed to the Northern 
Protei and Proteee, we may trace the origin of a couplet still preserved 
amongst our plebeian facetise." 5). 

HaVAMaL , (HBAYE-SONG , sublimc Discourse) , a Book of Proverbs 
forming the second Chapter of Ssemund's or the Ancient Edda. Of this 
M. Mallet writes. "The Sublime Discourse is attributed to Oden himself, 



I) Strong, p. an. ■— a) Geijers och AfmelU Svenska Folkvuor, I, l37. — 3) Thorsten 
Vikingiton't Saga, ch. II, 35. conf. Gdnge Rolfs Saga, 37, 46, and Ortww Odd's 
Saga, cb. la. — 4) Volsunga Saga, — 5) Strong, p. i36. 



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272 

vrho is said to have given these precepts of "vrisdom to mankind. This 
piece is the only one of the kind now in the world. We have directly 
from the ancient Scythians themselves no other monument on the suhject 
of morality. Thus this moral system may, in some measure, supply the 
loss of the maxims which Zamolxis, Dicenceus and Anacharsis, gave to 
their countrymen.'* 1) The whole deserves immortality in every language 
on God's Earth; want of room, however, prevents us from extracting more 
than those strophes wliich have been more immediately employed by 
Tegn^r in his charming II Canto : — 



St. 16. (Xni,XIV.) "Silent and 
thoughtful 
Should the Ruler's child be, 
And brave in battle: 
Giftful and glad 
Each mortal should live , 
And calmly wait — Death. 

35. (XIX.) "Devious winds the way 
Wended to false friend. 
Tenanting thy track: 
Short's the pleasing path 
Plodded to firm friend, 
Tho* his threshold's far. 2) 

51. (XV.) "Fast fades the tree that 
Stands by thy cot 

All bar'd of green branches and bark : 
So 'tis with the the man no 
Mortal be-friends , 
Why should he long live on? 

63. (XX.) "Speir and speak. 
Who sage may be 
And wise is call'd: 
With one commune , 
Not with a second; • 
All jtli* world knows what three hear. 

76. (XVin). "Little enough he 
knows 
Who nothing knoweth; 



One the' other infatuates. 

Rich one man is, 

And poor anotlier; 

Who wise is , shows it not. 

77, 78. (XXIX.) "Riches perish, 
Kinsmen perish, 
Thy own life soon is done ; 
But Fame shall ne'er 
Die out, when e'er 
A good one thou hast won. 

"Riches perish. 
Kinsmen perish. 
Thou must perish too; 
This, I wot, 
Shall perish not: 
Doom to mortals due." 2) 

79. (XXVI.) "Wide well-fill'd 
barns I saw 

For Wealth's proud sons ; 

Now bear they hope's [the beggar's] 
low staff. 

So wealth's away 

Like wink of eye , 

Most changeful friend he is. 

82, (XXVIL) "In the' ev'ning — 
praise the day, 
The wife too praise — when dead 
(burn'd) ; 



i) North. Anti^. Percjf , 3o5, — 2) This Stanza is copied from Strong, p. 32, 33). 



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273 

Praise sword — which stood ihe Fray, 85, ^'Maidens' words , 
And maid — who has heen wed ; Shall no one trust 
When cross'd — then praise the ice, Nor what by woman's said ; 
And ale — when drunk it is. For on whirling wheel 

87. (XXVIII.) <'Ice of one night, Wrought was their heart, 
Snake laid in ring, ^^^^^ P^*<^'^ ^»s *» ^^^^^ breast." 

HEAVEN. — Hear the Dwarf! 
^^Heav*n 'lis hight 'mong men, Bat Jotnar the' Upper World; 

High shade 'mong the Gods , Fairies Fair-cliff say , 

Wind-high Vaner call it And Dwarfs the Draping Hall," 1) 

HEJD, the name of the Witch-bear witli Tegner, is a name fre- 
quently applied to "cunning women" and enchantresses. 2). 

"heimdall, one God is hight; he is called the White As; great 

ifi he and holy, and was horn of maidens nine, all sisters He 

dwellelh at the place called Heaven-mount, near Bifrost. The Warder 
of the Gods is he , and silteth there by the end of Heaven to guard the 
Bridge from the Hill-Giants: Less sleep needelh he than a bird; equally 
sees he night and day, a hundred miles from him; the grass also heareth 
he growing on the earth, and wool on the sheiep and all that soundeth 
louder. That trumpet hath he called Giallarhorn , whose blast is heard 
afar through every world." 3) 

heimskringla , (the home-circle), the globe, the earth. 

hel , or HELA, answers to the Proserpine of the Latins. She was 
the daughter of Loke , by Aiigurboda, a giantess. By birth and educa- 
tion she was hateful to the Gods, and "He [Oden] cast her into Niffel- 
hem, giving her rule over 9 worlds, that she should ordain abodes for 
all who were sent to her, namely such as die of sickness or of old age. 
Mighty buildings hath she there, and a rampart and grated portals. Mise- 
ry, is her Hall, Hunger her Dish, Famine her Knife, Go-late her Thrall, 
& Go-lazy her Woman-slave : Treacherous Deceit is the Threshold over 
wliich one goes. Pining Sickness is her Bed, and pale-making Grief her 
Curtains. She is blue to llie one half, the other part is of human colour. 
So well known is her shape, — terrible and gloomy is her look." 4) From 
the name of this Goddess , we have derived our Hell, 

HEL6E , (one of the sons of Bele) , means Holy. 



l) Stem, Edda, SoDg of All-Wise, str. l3. — 2) Do, Voluspa, 25. — Landnam. B, 
s. 186. — Valntd, Saga, c. 10. — 3) Sn, Edda, Gylfag. 27, — /,) Do,, 34. 

7 



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nEMS, (from B«r, War), Capuin-genef al ; the dignity was heredi- 
tary , bnt inferior to that of a Jarl. 1). 

HIGH-CHAIK, or HI0H-8EAT, (Hog-bSnk, the Icelandic Ha»«eH or 
UndpifOy A throne-like Seat in the centre of the Southern Wall. Gonunonly 
there was another similar High-Chair opposite this, on the North wall; 
the latter was next in dignity to the former. The High-Seat was not re- 
moved to the Dais, at the npper end of the Hall, till the time of the 
Norwegian King Olof 2) at tlie close of the 11th Centnry, The OndvegA 
mbar, SettieUUnr, (High-Seat Pillars) were commonly carved with the Image 
of some God; it was these Idol-pillars that Harold, the first emigrant to 
Iceland, threw into the sea, that they might guide him to the place where 
he should fix his settlement. 3) 

HILDING, (the WARRIOR), the Fosterer and Educator of Frithiof and 
Ingeborg. 

hildur's sport , a common Scandinavian synonyme for war , and 
8u£S.ciently expressive of the popular feeling. — "A king named Haugni 
had a daughter hight Hildur. A king named Hedin , the son of Hjar- 
randa, took her as war-spoil. KingHaugne was absent on a king's-mote, 
and when he speired that his kingdom had been ravaged and that his 
daughter had been carried away, he hasted with his forces to seek after 
Hedin , it being told Mm that be had sailed northward along the coast. 
But so soon as King Haugni came into Norway , he heard that Hedin had 
sailed westward over the sea. Then saileth Haugni after him as far as to 
the Orkneys, and when he was come thither hight High-hU, Hedin was 
there before him with his troops. Then wended Hildur unto her father, 
bidding him a neclclace from Hedin in reconciliation, *but at the same 
time', she added, 4s Hedin ready to give battle, nor has Haugni any 
mercy to expect from him/ Haugni answereth his daughter harshly; and 
when she found Hedin, told she him that Haugni would have no accom- 
modation, and that he should prepare for war. This do they both, going 
up on to the island and marshalling their men in battle array. Then 
calleth Hedin to Haugni Ms father-in-law, and offereth Mm friendship, 
together with much gold as a fine therefor. Then answereth Haugni , 
*Too late biddest thou tliis, if thou wilt be reconciled, for now have I 
drawn DaintUify which Dwarfs have made , which must alway be some 
man's bane whenever it be bared, which never fails in the blow, and 
which giveth no wound that ever can be healed.' Hedin replieth, *The 



l) Finn Magnusem Nord, Arch, •— > 2) Otof ShVe't Saga, ch. 2. — Geijer$ Svea Rike$ 
HaftUr, I, 193. 



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275 

Sword llion praisest well, but not the 'victory; that blade call I good, 
which never betrays its master.' Then began they that contest called the 
Hjadiug-fight , and the whole day were battling. But when evening came 
on, the kings returned on board their vessels. Hildur went by night 
to tlie field of war, and waked up by her enchantments all who were 
dead, and the next day the kings went back to tlie battle-place and fought, 
and with them all who had fallen tlie day before. So the contest conti- 
nued therefore, the one day after the other; all who had fallen, together 
with the arms wliich lay on the field, being turned to stone. But so soon 
as it dawned, all the dead stood up and fought, and all their weapons 
were new again. So is it said in old chaunts, that the Hjading-men shall 
bide thus until Aagnarok." 1) 

''bodeh, is one of the Asar liight; he is blind, but exceeding 
strong, and the Gods would willingly wish they never need name him, 
for his hands* work shall long enough remain in the memory both of 
Gods and Men." 2) Many autliors regard him as a symbol of the night. 

See BALDER. 

IDA-VALE, the residence of AUfather and his XII Diar in the Morn-^ 
ing of lime. The Home of Gladness (Gladshem) was their Palace there , 
and ''both within and without was all like gold." 3) — ''Then quod 
Gangleri [the Wayfarer], 'Live there still then any Gods, or is there yet 
any heaven or earth?' Har [tli^e Lofty One] answered ; 'Then an Earth 
shooteth up from out the sea, and green and fair it is, and unsown crops 
grow thereupon. Yidar and Yale live, so that neither the waters nor Sur- 
tur's flames have injured them , and on Ida-Yale tliey dwell , where As- 
g&rd was before. Then come the sons of Thor, Modi and Magni, and 
have MjoUner once more. Them follow Balder and Hoder from Hel: 
down sit they then all together and commune with each other, remem- 
bering their runes [former arts and destinies] , and counselling of tidings 
far back before , and of Midg&rd's-Serpent and the Fenris-YN^olf. Then 
fijid they in the grass tablets of gold, even those which tlie Asar had pos- 
sessed 

"A Daughter bright Ride shall she tlien. 

Bears Elf-splendour [the Sun] YVhen the Fow'rs [Gods] die, 

Before she's gorg'd by Fenris: Maid, on her Mother's path I 

"And now , if thou dost ask yet further, know I not from whence 
it can come. For no man have I heard speak further of the world's fates; 



J) Sn, Kdda, Skaldskap., cli. 5o. — ») J?«. Gylfag. 28. — 3) Do, ch. 14^ 



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276 

be content now, tKereTore, witliwliat tUonliast learned." 1) — ''The cen* 
trical fortress , -which the Gods constructed from the eyebrows of Ymer , 
and which towered from tlie midst of the earth equally distant on all 
sides from the sea, is certainly the Mem of the Hindoos and Indo-Scythe, 
which is described in a manner precisely similar^ Accordingly, as the 
Gotlis termed the flat summit of this holy abode rA« pkm of Ida, so the 
Hindoo mythologists denominate it Ida-VraUa, or the circle of Ida." 2), 

*'iouNoriDUNA, [the sedulous], is his [Brage's] Spouse; sheguard- 
eth in a basket the apples of which the Gods must eat when they grow 
old , and which make them all young again \ and so must it be till Rag- 
narok". 3) 

INGEBORG, (Daughter of King Bele) means, Citadel of Youth. 

IRON-HEAD (JERNHOS).— '^Their [Kol's and Trona's] third child was 
hight Harek; when he was seven years old, he was bald oyer all his 
head. His skull was as hard as steel, and he was therefore called Jen- 
ho$ [Iron-head] or Jempanna [Ironbrow] . • • • Now it happened one day, 
that a man, if he could so be called) went down over tlie mountains: 
never had his like been seen for size and ugliness, and he resembled 
a giant rather than a man. A two-pronged spear had he in liis hand. 
Now it was so, that the king sate at table during this time; and when 
this terrible man drew near to the door of llie Hall, and asked permis- 
sion to go in thereat, the doorkeepers refused him the same. Thereupon 
stuck he at them with his spear, and each of the prongs hit one man's 
breast, and went out through his back. Hereupon lifted he them up over 
his head , and cast them dead a long way from him on the ground. Next 
went he in, and stood before the High-Seat of the king, saying: 'Seeing 
now, king King, that I have esteemed thee so far as to visit thee here, 
— it seemeth to me only thy duty not to refuse my errand!* — The king 
enquired, what it might be, and what he was called. He anwered: 
'Harek Jernhos am I hight , and am a son of [Kol] Kroppenbag , of India- 
land; but my business here is tliis, — that ye shall abandon to me your 
Daughter, Land, and Men. And most folk will doubtless say, that thy 
kingdom will be in much better hands, if governed by me, tlian if thou 
hast it who art so weakly and so old." 4) See viking vifellsson. 

ISLE-DUEL or isle-fight, (Holm-giug , Isle-trip). — Challenges to 
single combat on some island or rock on the coast (that there might nei- 
ther be deceit, assistance, nor escape) were the common amende of offend- 



O Sn. Edda, Gylfag., cb. 53. — 2) Faher't Orig. Pag. Idol. I. 220. — 3) Sn, 
Edda, Gylfag. 26. — 4) Thorsten Vtkingssona Saga, cli. 3, 2. 



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277 

ed Scandinavian honour. The >%'hole system o£ the old Northern stales 
rested upon Individualism carried to an enormous excess. Its necessary 
consequence 'might is right*, club-law, followed; and as superstition and 
intrigue gradually made the high-born and at last the monarch the strongest, tlie 
liberties of the people fell. 



JADAR, tlie present Jaderen, in Slavauger's Amt. 

JARL (Earl, Thane) was originally the title of an independent 
Chief in the Norlh. Next it was borne by Norwegian Princes 1) ; then by 
tributary governors^ and at last by any Viceroy, Major Domiu, Mayor du 
Palais &c. It expired in the 14t}i Century. The Scotch synonyme, Thane, 
died out in 1476. 2) 

JOTUNHBIM, the Home of the Jotnar. ''The deeds of Asa-Thor are 
narrated in the Eddas. He was continually engaged in conflict with the 
Giants, Trolds, and all the enemies of the gods; and in this combat used 
the arms of the elder [Thunder-God, Aukar (chariot),] Thor; the thunder- 
bolt and its symbol, the all-crushing hammer. Nowhere were they secure 
from his attack; since every morning he undertook some new expedition, 
and, like the Hercules of Grecian fable , was nnweariedly occupied in 
assailing. and endeavouring to extirpate the foes of the gods. As the elder 
Thor, however, waged war against the aborigines of the land, so it ap- 
pears that the younger directed his hostility against the votaries of the 
ancient gods especially, who would not concur in the Odinite reform- 
ation. Accordingly, the old Icelandick poem, Thortdrapa, expressly testi- 
fies that he expelled all the Jotnar deities , and overthrew their altars. 
The adherents of the ancient faith deserted therefore , in a great measnre, 
Skandinavia, and fled with their gods , first, to Fin'nland, and snbse- 
cfuently further toward the shore of the 'Wliite Sea, where Jotunheim 
and Utg^rd , tlieir dwellings and the seat of their religion , were." 

JUMALA, (thb supreme), from time immemorial the Finnish term 
for the Great God. The Legend 4) of his splendid Temple is historically 
untrue. "To him no tokens were attributed , and no distinguishing qua- 
lities. He wafi,- the only, the highest, he who himself invisible governed all. 
In Biarmaland was set up his Image , by itself; the lower deities had 
nothing such." — "Northward on a cape by Vin-&, (The river Dvina) 
stood this Jumala-Idol, within a spot consecrated thereto, and surrounded 
by a lofty paling." 5) Rich and sacred it was , and became a kind of 



1) Ju$. Norr. AuUc. — a) Hiddel, Arcb. IX. 33o. — 3) MUnter, I. 86, quoted by 
Strong, ]). 3o8. — 4) quoted by Dalm, I, 184 » from Herraud's and Botat Saga, 
— 5) ArufidssonM Larobok i Fiulandt Hiatoria och Geografi, p. 9. 8. 



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278 

national sauclaary for tlie Finnisii Tribes. -- **Il may be wortliy remark, 
that tlie name Jwmiel occurs in the list of angelic princes , given in (he 
apocryphal book ascribed to Enoch.** 1) 



LIGHTBNER, a title of THOH, 

LIGHT-FAIRY, a good Elf or genie. The Light-fairies inhabited 
the third Heaven, the Ether. ^*firighter are they than the Sun to look 
upon.** 2) See alfhem. 

LOFX, (the BETHOTHBR, from fo/a to promise), "the eighth [Asynja] 
is so mild and good when one iuvoketh her, that she is permitted by 
AUfather or Frigga to join men and women together, notwithstanding all 
hindrances and difficulties. Therefore from her name is Lof come , and 
hftu (praised) when one praises any thing much." 3) Lofn was thus the 
Goddess presiding over Wedlock. 

LORE , '^falsehood , or Logi, flame) , Personation of Malice and 
Subtlety combined. The Eddaic biography of Loke presents several strik- 
ing coincidences with the history of an earlier Deceiver. For a time , he 
is held in high estimation by the j^sir; nay, is the foster-brother of O- 
den himself, but undergoes a complete change of disposition, becoming 
the enemy af all goodness , and the destroyer of its representative , Bal- 
der. It is he who beguiles Idnna, the possessor of the~ilpples of immor- 
tality, out of Atgdrd — Paradise. He is the parent of the great serpent, 
personifying the Deluge. He is likewise the parent of Hela — Death. And 
he is bound in chains, until the last day, when he shall hreak loose 
from his imprisonment , and with his evil confederates fight against the 
gods. The Eddaic Mythology abounds with stories of his shrewd or tor- 
menting exploits , and it is worthy remark , that his exterior is represen- 
ted to be elegant and attractive ; Satan as an angel of light. The fable 
of his punishment, horrible as it is, deserves to be introduced, as supply- 
ing a curious proof how many centuries the Scottish bard had been anti- 
cipated in the favourable testimony: — 

"But when affliction rends the brow, 
A ministering angel, thou." 

"Secured upon a rock which sustains him on three acute apices, 
by ligaments composed of the entrails of his own offspring , he would be 
exposed to a perpetual gnttulous descent of burning venom from a poison- 
ous serpent suspended over his face , did not IU$ wife Sigmta, notwithstanding 
his former infidelity, remain coiuiaHibf seated by his side, holding a vessel with 
wliich she intercepts the falling drops. It is only during the interval whilst 



I) Strong, p. 3l5. — a) ««. Edda, Gylfag, l-. — 3) Do. ch. 35. 



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279 

ftlie empties the overflowing vase, Uial his flcsli receives the caustic , which 
inflicts pain so tremendons that he howls with horror, and writhing his 
agonized frame occasions earth^akes.** 1) 

LONG-DRAGON, War-Galley. See dragon* 



MARR, Pound-weight. 

MEGINGJARD. See THOR. 
MEAD-HORN. ScC DRINRING-RORN. 

midgXrd, (the central region , and ahode of man), hetween AsgSrd, the 
Asar region, and Utg&rd, the Giant-land. 

midgArds-sbrpent , (Jormnngandr) , a Monster, the sonof Lokeand 
Angerhoda , the giant-hag. By command of AUfather it was cast into the 
depths of the sea, "and grew so, that he lieth in the midst of the ocean, 
about all lands, and hiteth in his tail." 2) He shall break loose, and 
madly contend against the Gods on ike great day of Ragnarok. Thor gives 
him tlie death-blow, but himself falls, poisoned by his pestiferous breath. 
This fiend-snake was doubtless the old physical deity of the Deluge- 
Ocean ; but the idea, like so many others in the Northern Mythology, is 
of Asiatic origin, and a trace of it is preserved in the old Testament: — 
"In that day the Lord, with his sore and great and strong sword, shall 
punish Leviathan the piercing Serpent, even Leviathan that crooked Ser- 
pent, and he shall slay the Dragon that is in the sea." 3) "Perhaps belief 
in its power might be strengthened, through the occasional appearance of 
giant snakes, lifting up their heads from the abysses of the Northern 
Ocean.'* 4) 

MIMER, (MEMORY), E Sage of the Northern Myth, who is accounted 
Possessor of the fount of Wisdom. "Of this well, according to theEdda, 
Oden himself was nnable to obtain a draught until he had consented to 
leave in pledge for it one of his eyes , still visible in the flood. The mon- 
oculous Oden may probably be traced to the ancient significant hiero- 
glyph, which emblematized the omniscience of the Supreme Being, — an 
ege. Yet is there much verisimilitude in the interpretation adopted by 
Geijer, s. 347, which identifies the lost orb of light, vnth the nocturnal 
sun that immersed in the ocean, performs its course around the region 
of shadows. Or, again, for there is no exclnsiveness in such types, it 
may figure the reflection of the solar disk on the surface of the watery 
mirror. Mimer was slain by the Vanes (Sclavonians) , who , mythologi- 



1) Strong, p. 167. — a) Sn. EdJa, Gylfag. 34 3) /wia*, XXVII, /. — 4) MUn- 

ter, I. 32. 



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280 

cally considered, are a dark and niysterions race. In the Vohapa, or alli- 
terative channt of the prophetess, they are thns inlrodnced:— < ^^BroltinTar 
borgreggr, &c." 
"Batter d were the hurg- walls, Forth flew Oden fiercely, 

Bnilded by the j^sir; Fale-wing'd darts fast hurling; 

Victors o'er the valley First then folk wide-wasting 

Val'rous Vanes advanced , War deform'd the world." 

^'One resnlt of the conflict was the delivery of Mimer as a hostage 
into tlie power of the Vanes, aerials who decapitating their sage security, 
sent his head to Oden. This head, embalmed with certain mystic lierbs 
and runic incantations, became oracular, and the privy-counsellor of the 
ruler of Asg&rd. Mr. Faber, a name destined haply to survive until "know- 
ledge shall fail and prophecy shall cease ," refers to an idolatrous custom 
in Egypt, this singular superstition attributing fatidical qnalities to ahead 
"ingeniously prepared.'* A mimic head of Osiris , placed in "a dish, re- 
sembling the lunar crescent," was annually set afloat on the Nile, typi- 
fying, according to this interpreter, the great father, Noah, immured in 
his floating cofiin. From whatever source it took its rise , the notion that 
such oracles might really be constructed, was very widely diffased, and 
it is not, therefore, surprising that Oden should have had many imitators 
or rivals in the curious art. Amongst the most successful may be num- 
bered the "thrice-great Hermes" and our own scientific Roger Bacon, 
until some future "Willis or Savart shall construct an automaton, posses- 
sing a power of prediction as well as of articulation." 1) 

MOON, Brother of the Sun, Light of Night, "Year-teller, Dim- 
shiner, Hastener, Crooked, the Scarred" 2) &c. — "A man is named 
Mundilfori, ["Measurer of the Route" 3], w^ho had two children: they 
w^ere so fair and beautiful, that he called the one Moon; and the other, a 
daughter, Sun, giving her in marriage to that man liight Glenr. But the 
Gods were wrath at this pride , took them botii , and set them up in hea- 
ven. Stin let they drive those horses wliich drew the chariot of the Sun, 
wliichthe Gods had created to give light unto the world , from those sparks 
which flew from Muspellieim. These horses are hight Arvakr [Early- 
waken] and Alsvitlir [All-burning], and under their haunches placed the 
Gods two wind-bellows for to cool them, and which in some songs are 
called Isarncol. Moon steereth tlie course of the Moon-Body, and ruleth 
for the waxing and the waning thereof. He took from the Earth two 



I) SfroHgy p. 46. — 3) Sn, Edda, Skaldskap. 56. *- 3) Grmdtvigi Nord, Myth, 



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281 

children, higlit Bil and Hinki, "wlio were going from the Well called 
Bjrgir, and who carried on their shoulders the bucket named Seegr, and 
the cowl-slaff (carrying-slick) Simnl. Vithfinnr is the name of their father, 
and these children alway follow Moon, as we from the Earlh can see/'l) 
— Moon will at last be devoured by a Wolf-monster who is constantly 
pursuing him« 2) — In all the Golho-Teutonic languages, Moon is ma$culine 
and Sun /emujine. — For the rest, listen to Night's Regent's names *4n every 
world." — 

''itftfon he's hight 'mongMen, Quick he's call'd 'mong Giants, 
GMe among the Gods, Sheen the Dwarfs exclaim, 

In Hel's world Hasimg Wheel: Year-teller Elves him name." 3) 

MORVEN, the north of Scotland, "Shalt thou then remain, thou 
aged hard! when the mighty have failed? But my fame shall remain, 
and grow like the oak of Morven ; which lifts its broad head to the storm , 
and rejoices in the course of the wind!" 4) 

MUSPELHEiM , (the HOME (WORLD) of MUSPEL) , soutliward in creation. 
"Light it is and hot, and so full of flames and burning, that none can 
dwell there who are strangers and have no citizenship (free land). Surtur 
is he named who liveth there at the end of that region, and defends the 
same ; a flaming sword hath he, and at the end of the world will he go 
forth, overcome all the Gods, and bren up all the "Worlds with fire." 5) 

muspel's sons, the Flame-Chiefs, inhabitants of Muspelheim. 



NAN?fA, (MAIDEN), daughter of Nep, and Spouse of Balder. "So 
inconsolable was her afiliction when this light of her life was extinguished, 
that at the sight of his body extended upon the pile , she sank heart-broken 
into the arms of death, and was committed to the same flame with the 
object of her faithful attachment. A beautiful personification of youthful 
innocence and conjugal aifection." 6) 

NASTRAND , (corpse-strand). "On Corpsc-straud is a Hall enormous 
and disgusting, whose doors are toward the North. Plaited it is, like 
unto a dryinghouse, and of nought but serpents'-backs. All the serpents'- 
heads are turned inside the building, and vomit etter, so that poison- 
streams flow along through the hall. Therein wade oath-robbers Hp^HU- 
rers) and murder-wolves (assassins) , as is here said :" — 7) 



i) Gylfag. XX. — a) Volospa, str. 3a. — 3) Sem. Edda, Song of All-Wise, «l. 

|5. — 4) OtiiaH, BerrathoD, ud finem, — 5) Gylfag. cb, 4. — 6) Strong, p. i5. 

— 7) Gylfag. 5a. 

8 



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282 

^'Strange liall saw she stand', Dripping yenom drops. 

Sun ne'er reacli'd ihal shore, Dew'd the window'd wall, 

Nastrand gave it name Shaped of serpent spines. 

Northward look'd the door: Stood that tortuous hall," 1) 

The horrible majesty, the sublime simplicity, of tliis conception, 
have never been surpassed in any mythology or by any Poet! 

ifiDHOGG, (scouNDRBL-GNAWEH) , a Dragon-mouster , Symbol of En- 
vious Destruction. — "The term palpably designates the "old serpent"; 
as the ash — Ygdraul — which he gnaws, corresponds with the "tree of 
life." Agreeably to this assumed identity, we find him actively engaged 
in the place of future torments: so the Yolnspa, stanza 45: — 

"Wliere the turbid flood Such whose gulling tongues 

Roll*d its poison-wave, "Wooed the wedded ear. 

FerjuT*d, bloodstain'd stood Corses piled beneath 

"Wretches doom'd to lave. Gorging Nidhogg lay. 

Wading deep in throngs There the wolf of death 

Loathsome forms appear, Rent his pallid prey." 2) 

NIFFELHEM, — "The NEBULOUS Homc ; the lowest sub-terraneal 
region, governed by Hela, and inhabited by the dead. In the Eddaic 
cosmogony, it is a figure of the Northern cold regions of the earth, whilst 
in a state of chaos; the treasure-house of ice and frost, whence issued 
the elements, which coming into collision with the fiery emanations from 
Muspelsheim, deposited the matter of the world — the body of the giant, 
Ymer." 3) 

NIGHT ; — "Night 'mong men she's call'd, Un-lighi Jotnar name her , 
The Mild One with the Gods, Slumher-gladmeit Elves say, 

DiiguUe 'mong th' Holy Pow'rs ; By Dwarfs Dream-mother hight." 4) 
"I suspect tliat the Mother Night of the ancient Goths was the very 
tame as the umvenal mother Night of the Orphic theology, and the all-productive 
Night or darkness of the Phoenician or Egyptian systems." 5) See day. 

WORNA, pi. NORNOR or Nornir) , the Fates, Destinies, Parcee, *three 
fatal Sisters' of the North. All mythologies agree in representing the 
Goddesses of Fate — (in other words the Resolutions and Laws of the 
Almighty) as controlling both Gods and Men, that is, all Inferior orders 
and Powers in creation. — The doom of the wise and blooming virgins 
of Valhall was so irrevocable, that even words escaping unadvisedly 



I) Volaspa, str. 44, translated by Strong, p. 245. — a) Strong, p. 288, — 3) 
Do. p. ^J^6. — 4) Seem. Edda^ SoDg of AU-Wisc, llr. 3l. — 5) Faher's Orig. 
Pag. Idol. I. a3l. 



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283 

mnsl be accomplished. "They are ihus characterized by ihc prophetess, 
Vala: - 

"Thence come maideus , Urda hight one , 

Much discerning, One Yerdandi , 

Three , forth that hall — staves they rune-scribe — 

Wliich stands tree-crown'd: yon lliird Sknlda." 1) 

"Many right fair places are there in Heaven, and a divine pro- 
tection is there ronnd about them all. There |standelh a Hall so beauteous 
under the Ash-tree [Ygdrasil] by the Well [of Urda] ,-and from this Hall 
those three Maidens come hight Urda, [hath been, The Past] Verdande , 
[being. The Preieni} and Skulda [should or shall be, The Ftiiure], These 
Maids ordain the ages of mankind , and -we call them Nommr, — But yet 
other Nornor are there, who come to every one tliat is born, and deter- 
mine his length of life ; these are of the race of Gods. Others agaitu are 
of £lf-origin , and tlie third sort are of Dwarf-descent. As is here said: -- 
"Far difTrent birth, ^believe I, Some are Asa-offspring, 
Boast the Nornor maids , Some are Fairy-children , 

Nor have they race alike : Some are Dvalin's [the Dwarf-chiefs] 

daughters. 
"Then quod Gangleri [the Wayfarer]: — *If the Nornor counsel 
for the destinies of men, sure ordain they very unevenly; for some have 
riches and pleasant life , while others have but little fortune or renown ; 
some have a long life , and others but a short one.' Har [the Lofty One] 
made answer: 'Good and well-sprung Nornor give good fortunes also; 
and when men fall into troubles, it is bad Nornor who are the cause 
thereof.'" 2) — This the old Northman firmly believed. The most clear 
and determined faialitm ran through the whole circle of his ideas, impart- 
ing a com tempt of danger and defiance of death never surpassed among 
the votaries of Muhammed. In all kinds of misfortune and difficulty, the 
same persuasion gave the most efficient consolation. So Angantyr Hei- 
dreksson , who has slain his brother in battle , concludes by exclaiming 
**nbtr er domur Noma,'* 3), *Evil doom the Nornor give !' — Hilding's "Impeach 
the Nornor" p. 124, and Frithiofs accusation against "the cruel Gods" 
are both highly Northern. 

It may be added , that the name Nornor was sometimes applied 
to Fplgier, guardian-splrits , •— and sometimes to Vahor, Volor^ Vahr, Divining- 
■women , Fortune-tellers or Witches &c. 



1) Strong, p. 256, from Voluspa, str, 20. — a) Gylfag., ch. l5. — 3) ilcrvaia 
Saga, ch« 19 ad fiaetUt 



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NORRANIG , Norse , thtt common aucient lauguagt of tlie three Scan* 
dinavian kingdoms Ike, (before tliey had contracted dialectic differen« 
ces) and the Imgm franco of Northern Europe in general. 



ocean's maids, the Billows, Waves. 

ODEN, (Dr Murray says Oden, Wodan &C. tllC mOVed Or excited; Geijer 
says Oden, Guodan &€. — the Good) , the Jupiter of the North, who hears 
the same relation to Allfather , in the Scandinavian Mythology , as Braluna 
to Brahm in that of India. — "He is the ruler of the Scandinavian Olym- 
pus, yet, like his classic congener, subject to a paramount fate, and to a 
dark and terrible destiny. He is the Val-fader, or batlle-god yet inferior 
to Thor in prowess, and living perpetually exposed to outrage and defeat 
from giants and giantesses. He is tlie parent of the gods, yet first progen- 
itor of the Royal dynasties of the North. In sum; he is supreme and 
inferior, derived and underived, mortal and divine. Some clue to this 
labyrinth is furnished by the consideration, that a vague conception of 
One Supreme Being, and a hope of immortality, mingle in the religions 
system of even the rudest tribes; and that the voice of tradition describ- 
ing the origin of this globe and the early fate of man, and perpetuating 
prophetic announcements of his and its ultimate destiny, has never wholly 
died away in tlie distance. These truths combining with the creations 
of fancy, which gave to physical agents and results, to the active and 
passive powers of nature , "a local habitation and a name ," elevating the 
creature to an equality with the Creator, formed necessarily a complicated 
and heterogeneous system; in which truth and error, ideal and actual, 
were blended in almost inexplicable confusion. The mythology of the 
North seems to have been further perplexed by a symbolical incorporation 
of the history of religious contests and vicissitudes; and to have been ren- 
dered still more incongruous by the substitution of a second inimigrant 
Oden for the ancient deity. No wonder then that an image formed by 
the collision of rays thus differing in hue and direction, should be indis- 
tinct and fanstastical : at once exhibiting traits of a universal and of a na- 
tional deity; of a god of war and of a priest; of an oracle and of a con- 
suiter of oracles; of a wizard and of a hero." 1) See allfatheh, geirs- 

ODD. 

0DEN*s BIRDS. "Ravens two seat them on his [Oden'sJ shoulders , 
and say in his ear all those tidings the which they see or hear. They are 



J) Strong, p. x5. 



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285 

thushigUt, Hugmn [ileaaoii , Tlionghtj andMi/nmn, [Will, Memory]. These 
•endelli he at day-break to fly round every laud, and back again come 
tliey at ihe first meal of day. Thereof becometh he wise from tidiugs 
manifold, and from this men call him the Raven-God. As is here said: 
^'Hnginn and Muuinn For Huginn I fear, 

Fly each day out Lest he should not return — 

This round globe over; But still more I look after Muninn."!) 

oden's drink. ^'Then said Gangleri, 'Doth Oden keep the same 
table as ihe Einheriar?' Har rcplielh : *That food -which standeth on Ms 
board, giveth he two wolves that he hath, and which are hight Geri 
and Freki. And, indeed, no provisions needeth he; wiis'B is both meat 
and drink unto him." 2) 

ODEPf'S HALL, the firmament. 

ORKNEYS, belonged for a very long time to Scandinavia. "The 
Orkney Islands were a favourite resort with Sea-Rovers , who found there 
a secure rendezvous duiing the innavigable season, and importing with 
them spoils of various descriptions, converted those deserts into treasures 
of wealth and costly merchandize. The precious metals, however, were 
sufilciently abundant in the North, and luxuries found their way, though 
less profusely, to the coasts of Skandinavia." 3) The name is explained 
by some , Deseri-nhi (from tlie Danish oerken and o«) , and by others StaUUht, 
from the Icelandic orhn. 



PROGRESS, Eriktgata, se-riks-gata , aU-realm»-circuitj the regular Progress 
of the newly-elected Sovereign to receive homage and confirmation from 
the several Tings of his different Provinces. The coronation followed the 
Progress. Of course the word is sometimes used for any royal tour in 
general* 

PUNNING was a favourite practise of the Northmen. "Possibly this 
paronomastic exercise was a relic of Eastern manners, since there a pun 
was not accounted beneath the dignity of even prophetic diction. So Mi- 
cah exclaims with noble fervour, (I. 10). 

"In Gath" — W1J[> knowledge — "make it not known,** — 

"In Acco" — weeping — "»ee/> ye nOl," 

"In Beth-Leaphra" — ihe home of dust — "roll thyself in the dwi,** 
Rel, Pair 4) 



I) Gy^aj. ch. 38. — 2) !>•. — 3) Strong, x53. — 4) Do. p. 220. 



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286 

RAG!CAK0R, Uic general conflagration, the last day, (according to 
one interpretation, tke nth or firt of the Detmonui according to another M# 
TwUifki of tko Ood$, ae the same catastrophe is named in the Hindu Mytho- 
logy)* — "Now flits the glance of Vala to tliat twilight of ages, when the 
gods shall be hurled from their seats; the universe destroyed: and would 
that space permitted to adduce entire the magnificent Eddaic description 
of this event \ Hear the prophetess ! 

'^Str. 40. Fate's dark volume reads the wise ; 
Sees with gifted eye afar, 
Twilight of the gods arise , 
And the tug of giant war. 
'^Fimbulvetr antecedes , the mighty winter threefold iu duration, 
unbroken by intervening summer: fit sequence to a triple period of uni- 
versal war and bloodshed ; when the parent shall not spare his child , 
nor brother, brother. 
*'Str. 46. Age of battle-ax, of brand: Age of storms, of murderous hand: 
Age of beasts that ravening prey: Ere the world shall pass away. 

"The fiery Cock of the Trolds, the gold-bright of the Msir , 
the rust-red in the subterraneous halls of Hela, crow in ominous concert. 
The fettered "Wolf howls, every chain is broken, the Giants gambol, 
Lok^ is free. Earth quakes, the Dwarfs sigh at the doors of iheir rocky 
caverns, Ygdrasil groans and trembles. The sea boils over its bounds, 
for the serpent of MidgRrd advances in gigantic frenzy, and heaves him- 
self on shore. Then Heimdal standing forth, blows a blast upon the 
Giallar-horn , which resounds through all worlds, and summons the dei- 
ties to war. Oden in vain communes with tlie head of Mimer. The eagle 
screams, and rends the frequent corpse; tlie billows roar; and Na^elfan — • 
the ship fabricated from nails of dead men — is launched, and rides on, 
steered by the giant Hrymer. But Heaven is rent, and Muspel's sons 
move in squadron through the gulf, headed by the sable Surtnr, the All- 
kindling, himself mailed in flame, and brandishing a sword that outsliines 
the solar beam. Beneath their tread, Bifrost the tremulous bridge, is 
crushed. Loke repairs with the sons of Hela, Hrymer with tlie giant 
race , to mingle in tlie general affray. All the Emkeriar — Yalliall's heroes 
— march in mighty train. Oden leads them on, the sire of gods and men , 
and on Vigrid's boundless plain commences the final conflict. The Wolf 
engorges Oden, but Yidar, the silent and strong, avenges his parent. 
Heimdal and Loke sink in mutual death. Frey falls before Surtnr. The 
Midg&rd- serpent is slain by Thor, but the poisoned victor scarcely sur- 
vives his foe. Suriur at length triumphs, hurls flames over the universe: — 



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''Blackness slironds ihe'orb of Jay ; Up ihe Worldlree'sl) mystic height , 

Earth is gnlphed in boiling waves; Fast the reeking raponr fiies; 

Not a lode-fttar*8 lingering ray, Rival clonds of lurid light, 

Natures last convulsion braves* Sport with heaven and fire the skies*'2) 



RAN or RANA, (the spoiler), spouse of AGiR, personified tlie tempes- 
tuous wicked deceitful deep. Hence tlie Sea is termed Ron'* landy pahice 
&c., and a ship Ran*i horte, ''Then saw the Asar that ran had a net, with 
which she caught up all those that perish on the sea." 3) 

RiNGARiRE or HrtngarAi^ the realm of King, on the western border 
of Chris tiania-fjord , comprehended the present Ringerike , Modun and 
Nnmmedal* 

ROTA, (FAIR LOCKS), an Equestrian Amazou , one of the Yalkyrior. 4) 

RUiSB, letter, mark, secret, spell, hieroglyphic &c. The Rune- 
alphabet consisted of 16 letters , resembling to a great extent the Etrus- 
can, old Greek, Phoenician &c. — Originally the property of the Pagan 
priestly and royal caste, they afterward became generally known, and 
were used both in witchcraft and composition. Several MSS. in rune- 
characters are still in existence, and runes themselves are even now un- 
derstood in some districts in t]ie North. For various information on Uiis 
subject we refer to Geijer 5) and Strinnholm. 6) 

RUNE-STAFF, Calcudar-stave , carved with Runic signs &c. , and 
which may be used instead of a common Almanac. Such Rune-staves 
were formerly universal in the North, and answered their purpose admir- 
ably well. See description op ingeborg's arm-ring. 

RUNE-STONB, Gravc-sione , carved with runes, erected to the re- 
membrance of the deceased. About 1600 Rune-stones are found in the 3 
Skandinavian kingdoms , of which 1100 belong to Svea-rike , and not less 
than 800 of these to Upland , the seat of the Oden-dynasly. Many of the 
rune-stones are undoubtedly heathen. 7) 



SAGA , (STORY, RELATION) , the CHo of the Norlh. She sits by So- 
quaback, relating to Odeu tlie fortunes of mankind. 



I) The Asb Ygdrasil. — a^ Gdjtrs Svea B. Bafd. I, 334, trans, by Strong, p. 
3i3. » 3) Skaldskap. cb. 33, ~ 4) Gylfag. cb. 36. — 5) Svea Raes mfd, I. 
135—174. — 6) Svemka FolktU Bit*, 11. 439—471. — 7) Strinkkohm, U. 440. — 



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288 

SBA. **S*a 'tl« call'd 'mong Men , Xet-itorM Jotnar cry , 
PlmH'wrfact 'mong the Gods, Watw-huUrett Elves say, 
The Vanir name il Wme; Dwarfs call it Wmfry Deep:' 1) 

SEA*HORSB. **To the trident of Neptune, in classic fiction, is at- 
tribnted the origin of the horse, and assnredly to the ocean, though not 
to its fabled ruler, has many a region been indebted for the introduction 
of that transmarine animal. An intimate and indissoluble association would 
thus be established between the land and sea rangers; and, possessing 
as they do many points of poetic resemblance, it is singular, perhaps, 
that the metaphor should not continually occur. Few comparisons can 
appear more obvious than the Homeric simile : — 



'Av^d( 



ccTi yiyvovTcLi* 



''which are to man 
His steeds, which bear him o'er the seas remote.** 
• - - - A Northman would be especially disposed to ascribe the subjuga- 
tion of the steed, and the control of the pennoned courser ~ Bymn to Nepi, 
to one and the same power." 2) See dragon. 

SEA-KING, a Chief, generally of royal birth, who had no kingdom 
to inherit at home, and therefore sought one on the waters. Higher in 
title than the VHungt, they were also commonly at the head of much more 
powerful fleets. Every Sea-King was a Yiking, but the reverse was only 
occasionally the case. 

SEA-MAIDS , Billows , Xgir's Daughters. 

8BMIN6, (the PACIFICATOR). "Thereafter jouruied he [Oden] north- 
ward, until he reached that sea which, as is thought, lieth about all 
lands. There set he his son as king , in the realm now hight Norway. 
Seming was he Called, and to him reckon Norway's kings ;their ancestry, 
together with its Jarls and other chief men, as is related in Haleygjatal.** 3) 

SHIELD , a universal arm among the Northmen. They were gener- 
ally defended with steel rims and bosses &c. and were often orna- 
mented with plates of gold, silver devices, and rich paintings or carv- 
ings* — **The Skandinavians generally had shields of a long oval form, 
just the height of the bearer, in order to protect him from arrows, darts, 
and stones, They, besides, made use of them to carry the dead to the 
grave ; to terrify the enemy by clashing their arms against them ; to form 



l) Sem, Kdda, SoDg of AU-Wise» str. a5. — 2) Strnng, p. a55. — 3) Sn. Kdda, 
Prefaee, sec, II. 



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289 

upon occasion a kind of shelter or tent -wlien tliej were obliged to encamp 
in tlie open field, or when the weather was bad. Nor was the shield less 
useful in naval encounters; for if tlie fear of falling into their enemies' 
hands obliged one of their warriors to cast himself into the sea, he conld 
easily escape by swimming npon his buckler of wood or leather." 1) 

SHIELD-MAID, a title applied to the Nornor and to the Valkyrior. 
It was also often used of the Amazonian adventurers of the North, such 
as Hervara, Alfhild and Thorberg. 

SHIELD UP PEACE, a White Shield, held up as token of a truce* 2) 

SHIELD OF WAR, a Red Shield, defying to battle, 

siGNE, daughter of Sigar, king of Zealand. See hagbaAt. 

SIGURD, ("Warder of Victory), Fafner's bane, the slayer of Fafner. 
«*0f the worthies of the North, no one has left behind him a fame so 
widely diffused, as he the illustrious spouse or victor of Brynhilda, and 
parent of Aslauga, preserved in the golden harp —with which her foster- 
father, Heimer, lulled her cries — to be the favourite and queen of the 
celebrated Regnar Lodbrok." 3) 

siRELO, Sicily, was as well as its wines well known to the North- 
men. They conquered it in the 11th century, and Roger united it to 
Naples by tlie name of the two Sicilies. 

srinpaxe, Sheen-fax, Shining-Mane. See day. 

SRULDA, one of the Destinies. See norna. 

SLEiPNER, (the SLIPPER or SLIDER), the fiend-Steed descended from 
lioke and Svadelfore, and belonging to Oden himself. Sleipner*s swift- 
ness was immense; "grey was he, 8 were his feet, and the best horse Jie 
is for Gods and men." 4) Crentzer imagines he was a figure of the 8-monlh8' 
winter of the North. 

SNAIL , Merchant-ship. 

soLUNDAR, See solundeA. 

SOKNE-SOUND, between the islands of Sokken and Broe, to the 
south of Rukken's-firth , in Stavanger Amt. 

SOTE, — "A celebrated freebooter, who, it seems, bequeathed 
his name to some rocks on the coast of Sweden , where he was accustom' 
ed to rendezvous, and where, at length, he lost his life, according to 
one account, in a battle against St. Olaf. Some other codices, however, 
assert, that the pirates escaped by flight, — Torf. Bist, III. 23. - - - - Our 



I^ Mallet, I. 240. quoted by Strong, p. 20I. — 2) See UljegrerCt Notes to his 
Swedisli traos. of Ort>ar Odd's Saga, p. 3o3. — 3) Strong, p. I18. ~ 4) Gglfag. 
cli. 42. 



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290 

fioet has borrowed the incident from a saga, ascribed by Miiller to the 
tenth centnry: who thus relates it in his Say, BibU. — ''At a ynle-feast in 
Gothland, the EarVs son, Hroar, made a tow to rifle the tomb of the 
Yiking Sot^, and the foster-brethren, Hordr and Geir, engaged to assist 
him. They travelled, twelre in number, through dense woods to the 
mound, and commenced the work of excavation. Toward evening, they 
liad reached the frame within, but on the following morning tlie sides 
of the breach had united. This was repeated on the two following days, 
until at length it occurred to them to insert a sword in the interstice. By 
this expedient, they succeeded on the fourth morning in penetrating the 
limber-work, and discovered the door of the chamber. As they were on. 
the point of opening it, Hordr bade the assistants be on their guard. He 
himself withdrew behind the door, but two of the people, less cautious, 
\vere struck dead by the stream of mephitic air. As no one was willing 
to descend, Hordr volunteered, on condition that he should be permitted 
to select three articles from the precious spoil. He was then lowered , 
but could descry nothing until Geir descended with fire and tapers. They 
now perceived an inner-door, and when this had been broken open, saw 
ft sliip richly laden, and Sole seated upon the poop. At the same time, 
however, such a volume of damp issued, with an explosion from the 
orifice , that the lights were extinguislied. Hordr next attempted to take 
possession of the booty, but tlie dead warrior chaunted a stanza, forbid> 
ding the bttelhpt. Hordr responded also in metre; whereupon the spectre 
attacked him, and was gaining the mastery, when Geir rekindled the 
tapers. Suddenly the spectre fell to the ground; first, nevertheless, pro- 
phesying that the gold-ring, the last treasure seized by Hiirdr, should 
prove the bane of its possessor until it came into the hands of a female. 
The trinket, accordingly, proved fatal to him, since he was betrayed and 
stabbed in the back for that promulgated reward," 1) 

8TREITALAND, the residence of King Ring, perhaps the present 
farm of Helge-land in the parish of Hole , where there still stands a large 
Barrow, 

SUN, "5«M she's hight 'mong Men, Eter-ghwing Jotnar say. 

Star among the Gods, Elves the Fatr-ditk call her, 

Dvalm'i play-iiatm- 'moug Dwarfs ; WorU-Ught the' Asar cry!" 2) 
So the Pagan Fins and Laps called one of their deities Behe or Beive-Neid, 
the sun or virgin sun , the Queen of Heaven, See moon. 

suRTUR, See mcspelheim, ragnaroe. 



1) Sirong^ p. 5o. — ») Softn. Udda, Song of AlLWise, sir. 17. 



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291 

SWORDS. Spencer says, 1) "We purchased from the natives and Ar- 
minian merchants at Bombara, a number of splendid sabres and poniards 
of the very first workmanship, and evidently of great antiquity; bat so 
well preserved, that they appeared as if they had only yesterday left the 
hands of the armourer; several of the blades were engraved or inlaid 
with gold characters. There were also full-length inscriptions on some of 
them, surmounted with the head of our Saviour or a Saint, vrliich gener- 
ally ran thus , — Parmi Dey e par my Rey. Ne me tire pas sans raison , 
et ne me remets pas sans honneur.'* — ''Some designations of blades wield-* 
ed by celebrated heroes of romance are almost as formidable as the 
weapons themselves. Who can hear undaunted the very mention of Ex- 
calibar , the magic sword of Arthur , that 

"Flam'd like burning brond," 
or even of Mimungr, the chef-tC autre of Velint, which could cleave a cable 
thirty feet in diameter, wafted by the current against its motionless edge; 
or of the more resonant Eckisax, with which Thidrek rescued Sintram 
from the jaws of a dragon; of Hildebrand's Nagellring; of Gusi's Drag- 
vendill, pronounced to be the best of swords; of Hraungvithr's Brynth- 
vari , which never lost its edge ; of Hogni's Sigurliomi ; of Rolfs Risa- 
nautr, heavy even to his arm, but too huge to be rfiised by any other; 
or, to name no more, of the two-edged glave of Hrofr, the unpronounce- 
able Hreggvidarnaulr!" 2) — We cannot help translating the following 
valuable note: — "To the Visu tribe the Bulgarians bring sabres from 
the Mahommedan countries. These sabres are not provided with any hilt 
or ornament, — but are simply blades, just as they come from the smithy. 
When one suspends them by a tliread, and fillips them with the finger 
— they ring again. Such sabres are suitable import-articles into the coun- 
try of Jura (Jugrien) , whose inhabitants pay a high price for them." See 
the Extracts from Arabic writers communicated by C. M. Fra^n, 76m- 
FosuloM ». and, Araher Berichie, In the oldest Rassian Chronicle (by Nestor) we 
are told tliat the inhabitants of Kiew who, before the foundation of 
the Russian empire by the Varegic princes, were tributaries under thp 
Chazarier, paid the same to them in double-edged swords. Indeed, when 
tlie Russians conquered Fermia (Biarmaland) they found sabres of steel 
among them. See SckUhter, RuaUche Ann, Supposing that all these sfatp- 
ments are correct — a thing we have no reason to doubt, there being no- 
thing improbable in the case ~ it must follow that Mussulman sabre-blades 



l) Trateh to the Caucasus, — 2) Strong, p. 47* 



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292 

also belonged to the articles intrpdnced into the northern regions of Rus- 
sia, in the course of the trade wilh ihe tribes residing there. — Will not 
lliis, perhaps, give a hint towards the explanation of the high-floMrn rela- 
tions 80 often occurring in the Sagas respecting the costly, wonderful, 
and Dwarf-forged swords?" 1) 

SYasTRAND, the residence ofKingBele and his family, lies opposite 
Framnas to the Nortli of Sogne-frith — here only 2000 yards across. 

soLUNDBR-iSLBS. — At the entrance of Sogne-friih, are now called 

YUre-SiUen, and IndreSuleH, 

sSquabacr. See desgkiption op ingsborg's arm-ring. 



THOR, (the mighty), the Son of Oden and the Earth, the Spouse of 
Sif. — *'The god and personification of tliunder; and, like the classic 
Mars, of brute slreuglh. First-born of Oden, he is the indefatigable enemy 
of the giants of the frost, at whom he hurls his formidable mace. In 
Norway, he divided wilh or retained from Oden the principal reverence, 
and in the personal and local nomenclatures of that portion of the pe- 
ninsula, his name occurs with peculiar frequency. The two goals, ibex, 
harnessed to his chariot, possessed the valuable property of recovering 
life and vigour each morning, after tlieir roasted carcasses had supplied 
an evening meal." — '*Three valuables also hath he. The one of these 
is the Hammer (Mace) MisUnur [the Bruiser] , which Frost-trolls and Mounl- 
ain-Gianls know, when it is uplift; nor is this to be wondered at, for 
the head of many a one of their fathers and kinsmen hath he broken 
therewith. The second precious thing he has, is a right excellent Megin- 
gjard [Megingiarthar , Belt Or Girder of Strength] and when he girdelh him- 
self therewith, his Ala-might is doubled to the half. But a third ibjug 
hath he which is exceeding precious, — his Iron-Glovet [jdrngUfar ^ Gaunt- 
lets]; these he cannot miss, for to grasp the hammer-shaft wilhal." 2) See 
a most charming description of the Hammer and its fabrication, in the 
Younger Edda, Skalskaparmal, ch. 35. — Creut»er interprets the Bell or 
Girdle, Megingjard^ into a symbol of the Ecliptic, and the Gauntlets into 
an emblem of the security of organic nature against wild organic fire. 

THORSTKN (viKiNGSSOiv). "The eldest son [of Viking's nine] was 

hight Thorsten The noblest of them all was he in every thing, 

a stout and tall-built man, strong, friend-rich and upright, true-fast and 
in all tilings to be depended on. Slow was he bimself to attack auolher, 
but terrible was his vengeance when that another fell upon liim. What 



l) Slrinnhohi, Svemha F. Jiid. U. i{fi. — 2) Strong, p. 16. — 3) Gylfag. ch. 21, 



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293 

time aught was done against him , could no one see whether he took the 
same well or ill; but long ihereafler remembered he ihe whole, even as 
il had only just taken place." 1) — "According to the writer of Thor- 
slein's Saga, or biography, he had married the only sister of king Bele ; 
and ihe account of this alliance is duly embellished with a tinge of ilie 
marvellous. Reluming from a successful cruise, Thorsten encountered a 
tempest, raised by the art of a magician, in the train of his implacable 
foe, Prince JokuU; and having lost his vessel and crew, swam toward 
the shore: but was on the point of perishing, exhausted by the breakers, 
when a tall female form, wading through the surf, approached. Her ap- 
pearance was unfeminine; and addressing him by name, she inquired 
whether he would purchase his life by a promise to grant whatever boon 
she might subsequently desire. This condition was accepted; and having 
borne him to land, she resuscitated his languid animation and dismissed 
him with good wishes, postponing the preference of her petition. His 
enemy, however, ascertaining his escape, did not relax his persecution; 
.and on one occasion contrived to surprise Thorsten when only accom- 
panied by a single brother, and to attack the two with an armed band. 
Back to back the brethren fought manfully, and slew most of their assail- 
ants; but Thorir at length fell, and Thorsten, desperately wounded and 
faint, was forced over the precipice to which he had retreated, in order 
lo secure his rear. Death seemed inevitable ; and he must soon have pe- 
rished, had he not been roused from his deli quium by the same deliveress 
who had rescued him from a watery grave. She again professed herself 
ready to assist him, provided that he wonld now redeem his pledge, by 
complying with her request. This was no other than an engagement to 
csijouse her; and, although he demurred on account of her unsighlliness, 
his desperate situation and his promise which the Northmen deemed in- 
violable, induced him to submit; and he only required as a preliminary, 
that his sword, Angrvathill, should be recovered from the wave. This slie 
effected, and the compact was made. She then informed Thorsten, that 
allliough she had twice saved his life, and had, moreover, destroyed his 
most formidable foe, the magician — having brought a preternatural dark- 
ness over the ship in which he sailed, and suspended him during that 
obscurity to the yard-ai-m — still had he fully repaid her: for his promise 
had released her from the spell under which she was bound to retain her 
present shape, until some one of generous birth C^elborinn mathr) should 
consent to wed her. Henceforth the sister of Bele would be herself again; 



l) Thorsten Vikingssons Saga, cli. 9, 



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and if Thovsten should persevere in Ms intention, he mast demand her 
hand of her brother, whom she knew he would shortly encounter and 
overcome. Her prediction was speedily accomplished, and the confeder- 
acy established between the two warriors was cemented by this cove- 
nanted marriage." 1) 

THRUDVANG, Or THRUTH-HEIM , [the PLAIN Or HO MB of the STRONG,] the 

realm of Thor. 

THRUDVANG's PORT, — BILSRIRNIR, tlie chief Castle and Capital of 
Thrudvang. 

"Five hundred floors (rooms) Of all those Houses 

And forty roundabout Whose roofs I know, 

So know I arch'd Bilskirnir My [0 den's] Son's [TJior's] is 
boasted; surely largest." 2) 

THUNDERING GOD, See THOR. 

TING, (originally meaning Talk, Conference) Public Meeting, Diet, 
Assize , Parliament , Wiltenagemol. "The practise of holding courts in 
the open air, which so long prevailed in Britain, was a relic of Druidism 
which subsisted in most Europaean countries. The court of Areopagus at 
Athens sat in the open air, and Pliny informs us that the Roman Senate 
was first so held. That circular inclosures of stone were used as courts 
of justice and places for trial and combat is well known. In Scandinavia 
they were long so appropriated; and in Shetland and Orkney the practise 
continued to very late times. In these last places they were called Ting, 
which, according to Dr. Murray, originally signified to nnrowtd. Of- these 
moot-hills the most remarkable is the Tyrwald in the isle of Man , upon 
which the I^uke of Atliol, as descendant of the ancient kings, annually 
presides." 3) 

TING-STONE , a high Stone-block on the highest part of the Ting- 
place. On this sate tlie Judge, king, or aspirant to the Crown, that he 
might be the better seen by the people. On the Mora-Bione, near Upsala, 
many kings have been elected, even late in the Christian Era. 

TiRFiNG. — "This sword, fabricated by two skilful Dwarfs, as a 
ransom for tlieir lives, possessed several surpassing qualities. Bright as 
a sunbeam, its hilt and guard were of gold; it defied rust and fracture; 
would cleave iron or stone with the same facility as a garment; and, 
whether in single or banded combat, conferred victory on tlie arm wliich 
wielded it. Yet the tasked and malicious artificers had also attached to 



i) Strong, p. 29. — 2) Sam, Ed4aj Grimner's Spng, str. 34. — 3) Loffan, Scotisll 
Gael, I, 208. 



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it a malediciion, that, whenever drawn, it should he the bane of man; 
sliould prove fatal to its original possessor, himself j and the iuslriiment 
of three heinous enormities. The personal imprecation was soon accom- 
plished ; for its owner, Svafrlami, having riven the massy iron-studded 
shield of Arngrim, with whom he was engaged, Tyrfing penetrated the 
ground, and before it could be withdrawn , was dissevered, with a portion 
of the arm which grasped it, by a stroke from the Yiking, who, seizing 
the liberated blade , slew his antagonist. From the conqueror Arngrim , 
it descended to his son, .A«igantyr, and was inhumed with him in a 
mound at Samsoe. The precaution, nevertheless, proved vain, for a 
posthumous daughter of the Berserk , inheriting his ferocious disposition , 
addicted herself to war and sorcery; and learning the history of her sire, 
proceeded wilh some Rovers, whose leader she became, toward the haunt- 
ed isle. "With dijficulty she persuaded her crew to approach a place 
where demons, they affirmed, were more formidable by day than else- 
where by night; nor could any prospect of gain induce one of them to 
land. Alone , therefore , and at sun-set , she was abandoned upon the 
shore , the sailors not venturing to observe their promise to await her 
return; and after a conference with a herdsman , who refused to accompany 
her to the tomb , she advanced to the scene of terrors. Fearful were the 
ilres erupted; yet undeterred by the danger, the rune-versed maiden 
hastened to the principal mound, and thus commenced her adjuration: — > 
""Wake, Angantyr, wake! Oifspring sole I stand , 

Berserk stern and wild, Forth thy tomb impart, 

Hear for Hervor's sake Svafrlami*s brand 

Thine and Svafa's child; t^orged by Dwarfish art.'* 

A long metrical parley ensued; but since neither flames nor 
ominous predictions could divert the heroine from her purpose, the 
charmed weapon was at length cast into her baud. The three predicted 
atrocities still remained to be perpetrated; and of these , her own son, 
Heidrek, was subsequently destined to be the agent or subject. Banished 
by his father for misconduct, he wa8presentedbyHervor,at his departure , 
with this ill-fated sword; and forgetting the penally attached, drew it 
with youthful inconsiderateness to contemplate its brilliancy: his only 
companion was then his brotlier, and him, urged by the spell, he con- 
sequently slew. The next deed of infamy — nidingsverk — enacted with 
tliis bane of man , was the treacherous murder of Heidrek's benefactor 
and father-in-law, with his infant son. And the assassination of this 
ruffian himself, effected by some captives wilh his own deadly blade, 
completed according to tlie Saga, the trio of crimes foretold. In the hand 
of a second Angantyr, Tyrfing became, notwithstanding, once more the 



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organ of fraternal homicide , and we may hope , was with him entomhed , 
lo be disinterred hy no second Hervor." -- From the Henara Saga. 1) 



ullerArer , Formerly a Fylkc-kingdom , independent District, in 
the present province of Yestmanland , Sweden. 

UPLAND comprehended the present amts of Christian and Hcde- 
mark, together with Ofver-Rommerige. 

UPSAL*S TEMPLE. — "At the ancient Upsala — Ynyve — Frey, the 
grandson of Oden, founded ahout the year 220 a temple, which was 
widely celebrated. I will not, like some curious historiographers, apply 
here all that Plato has written respecting the capital of his Atlantis ; yet 
certain it is, that the fabric was very magnificent, according to the notions 
of that age: of stone, cruciform, extending sixty ells in length and in 
hreadih, with a ring-wall or fence around it, nine hundred ells in cir- 
cumference. This temple is said to have been resplendent with gold , 
both internally and externally, and especially gorgeous from a golden, 
chain or cornice , which completely circuited it under the extremity of 
its roof. At the door of the Fane, according to the same authorities, 
stood a tree of unknown species , and retaining its leaf throughout the 
year." 2) — See Note to Canto III, page 40. 

URDA's chrystal wave. — "The fount of lime , under that root of 
the ash, YgdrasU — the Paradisiacal tree of knowledge — which extends 
to the jEsir. Beside this fount, accordingly, they collect daily, to hold 
their tribunal; that a draught of the water of experience may be constantly 
within their reach. Near tliis well, too, stands the beautiful palace of 
the NomtTt fates; Urda^ Verandi, Skulda — Past, Present, Future. The water 
is so sacred , that everytliing immersed tiierein becomes white as the lin- 
ing membrane of an egg-shell. From two swans, tenants of this flood , 
sprang the earthly race of these snow-white aquatics. Perchance tliese 
immortal birds chant the death-song of those doomed by the Fates, as 
their mortal congeners are reported to hymn their own. An appellation, 
wliich has much perplexed Biblical commentators , may possibly derive 
illustration from this page in the sacred archives of Scandinavia; and 
En-mishpat (Gen. XIV. 7), the fount of judgement, furnish a liitherto un- 
observed trace of Oriental affinity."3 ) 

UTGARD, (ouT-TOWN) the capital of Jotunheim. 



VALA , the name applied to the Northern Sibyls , who were regard- 
ed as holy, and consulted on occasions of importance. The ancient 



1) Strong, p. 290. — 2) Dalin, S?. R. Hist. I. i85, cited by Strong, p. 3o6. — 
3) Strong f p, n6. 



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297 

Germans and Italians had similar prophetesses; Horace applies the term 
Folia to the latter. The Voliispa , which opens the Poetic Edda , is perhaps 
the most ancient Chaunt ive hare, from the lips of the inspired '^Divining- 
"womcn" of antiquity. — The word Fol, in all the old Northern languages, 
means Fool or Madman; and we know that Oriental tribes always regard* 
ed such with veneration, as God-gifted mortals. 

VALASRJALF, See ARM-Ri:«G, 

VAL-FADSR, (FATHER of the SLAIN), See ODBN. 

VALHALL or VALHALLA, (Val-hoU), The HALL of the SLAm or ELECT. 

The Elysian Mansion of the North, where Oden receives and banquets 
the warriors who fall in battle. 

"Oden scans the battle-plain, "Five hundred lofty Doors, I ween, 

Draughts the heroes as they fall; In Yalhall's shining Hall are seen. 
Summoned to his board, the slain And twenty added twice thereto; 

Marvel at the glorious Hall. Einheriar Chiefs, eight hundred men, 

Piles of spears its columns rise, From each march out together, when 
HooEng shields its dome uprear; To battle 'gainst the "Wolf they 

E'en its thrones in warrior-guise go." 2) 

Glittering habergeons bear." 1) See einheriar, oden. 

YALRYRiA, (CHOOSER Or Couductor of thc SLAIN). This name was 
applied to the Battle-Goddesses, who led tlie fallen Warrior to the joys 
of the Spear-pillared Valhall. But the Valkyrias were also Shield-Maids, 
who bore round tlie mead &c., — at the banquets of the Einheriar. In 
this sense , they were Synonymous with the Houria of the Mohammedan 
Paradise. Misla and Sangrida , in Gray's Ode of the Fatal Siatert, were Val- 
kyrias. Sometimes a Heroine, sometimes a Destiny, thc Yalkyrias are 
described by the bards , now with blue eyes and golden hair — and anon 
with disshevelled locks, flaming glances, and hands reeking with gor9 
and plying the web of death! 

VANADis, (The VANA-GODDBSS , the Yeuus of the Don) , a surname of 
Freja. — "In various dialects of the Gothic language, waen or vaen, signi- 
fies fmleker, eletfau$, Ihre not Only deduces the name of Yenns from tliis 
root, but observes, that Lat. Ventutmis synonymous. Rudbcck asserts that 
the ancient Goths called the Earth Fetm-diaf maru dea, and WenadU, amoris deat 
viewing the latter as formed from wen amor and du dea." 3) 

VAR, (voR, the WARY Or the true). — "The nintli [Asynja, Asa- 
Goddess] is Yar (Y5r). She listeneth to those oaths and promises wliich 



1) Stem. Edday Grimner's Song, str. 8. 9. translated by Strong, p. 1 2. — 2) 

Crunner'a Song, Str. 23. — 3) Jamieton, Hermes Scvlli. 

10 



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298 

between men and women are exchanged; such engagements are therefore 
hight, Yar's words. She ii is, also, who panisheth such as break the 
same. Clever and wise is Yar, and askelh mnch, so that nothing can 
be concealed from her. A proverb is it, that a female is Var (aware, 
acute) when that she is wise about anything." 1) She was thus the 
Guardian-Goddess of Betrothal-oaths and of Marriage. 

YARG I VBDM, (WOLF IN TBB SANCTUARY), the old Scandinavian term 
for Temple-violator, sacrilegious criminal, banned outlaw &c. 

VAULUND, (the WONDBR-WORRBR) , at oncc the Yulcan and the Dae- 
dalus of the North. This extraordinary artist was of Finnish descent, and 
was a king's son. In bodily appearance he resembled his countrymen, 
being small of stature though strongly built. He shared with his brothers 
many strange vicissitudes, and at last came to the court of king Nidudr, 
who then ruled over Sweden. This king was feeble but exceeding covet- 
ous of gold, and accordingly eagerly desired to obtain possession of 
those precious and wonderful things of which Yauland was master. He 
therefore imprisoned liim, seized his jewels, treated him with great 
severity, and obliged him to employ his extraordinary skill in producing 
astonishing specimens af hammered and smithied metal. This cruel treat- 
ment, however, Yaulund dearly revenged, and he eventually succeeded 
to the throne of his oppressor. He lived long and happily , and received 
after his death divine honours. He was universally regarded in the 
North as the protector and patron of Smilhery, a kind of temporal Dunstan. 
Many great Chiefs, of course , boasted of possessing specimens of his won- 
derful art; and to several of these, miraculous powers were ascribed. 

"We read in the Icelandic Saga: — "King Nidungur reigned now 
in Jutland, and had in his train that excellent smith, Yelent, whom the 
Vaeringar (Sea-rangen) called Yolund. He was so celebrated throughout the 
northern world, that all were unanimous in placing him at the head of 
his craft; and to denote the superior excellence of any production of the 
furnace, it became usual to say that the artist must have been a Vobmder 
in skill. A rivalry having ensued between this interloper and the monarch's 
former smith , it was agreed that Yelint should fabricate a sword , and 
his opponent a helm, which the latter was also to put on, and if it were 
found proof against the edge of his steel, Yelint's head was to pay the 
forfeit. Accordingly, at the time appointed, Amilias, having previously 
expressed his determination to enforce the penalty, sat down upon a stool, 
defying Yelint to exprt all his strength. The latter, who stood behind 
him, then raising his weapon, cleft at a single stroke the armour and arm- 
ourer down to his girdle; and inquiring what he felt, was answered by 

X) Gylfag., ch. 35. 



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299 

Amilias, that he had an internal sensation as if arising from cold-ivater. 
'Shake thyself!' was Velint's reply; and this advice being adopted, the 
moieties of his dissected frame separate-d, and fell on opposite sides of 
the stool." 1) 

VEGTAMSQVIDA, (The LAY of the WATPARER) , One of the alliterative 
Chaants of the elder Edda. — "Under the designation of "Wayfarer 
{Vegtam) , Oden" visits the realm of Hela in quest of the departed Vala, 
{propheiei$) , in Order to obtain some information regarding the danger of 
Balder, who, to the dismay of all the tenants of AsgSrd, had been ren- 
dered dispirited tlirongh ominous dreams. The prophetess, roused from 
her slumber by his potent incantation, submits very ungraciously to the 
scrutiny; and as well through the purport of her relations, as through 
the tone and temper in which tliey are delivered , completely vindicates 
the simile of our poet, when comparing the "ill-boding wail of Vala, 
uttered with a voice of gloom," to the murmured sentence of malicious 
Helge. The ancient lay contains passages of awful sublimity; and that 
poet had drunk copiously of the inspiring cup of Brage , who penned 
an imitation of the Skaldic "Descent of Oden" in this lyric phrase: — 
"Up rose the king of men with speed. 
And saddled straight his coal-black steed , 
Down the yawning steep he rode 

That leads to Hela's drear abode." &c 

The British bard paraphrased very freely throughout, yet must it always 
be difficult to w^ish a single word obliterated, written by Mr. Gray." 2) 

"viDAR, [Vithar, the ANTAGONIST], is hight One [of the Chiefs of 
AsgSrd]. He is the Silent Asa-God. A shoe thick-welted hatli he. The 
strongest of all he is, next after Thor, and of him have the Gods much 
help in all dangerous troubles." 3) — "The "Wolf gorges Oden, who thus 
getteth his bane; but immediately thereafter rushes Yidar forward, and 
steppelh with one foot on his lower jaw. On that foot hath he the shoe, 
for which the leather has been, from of old, collected of all those bits 
which are cut off shoes for the toes or heels thereof. He, therefore, who 
will come to the help of the Asar, alway shall take care to cast aside 
these cuttings. With his other hand Vidar layeth hold of the "Wolf's 
upper jaw, and rlveth his throat asunder; and this is the death of the 
"Wolf." 4) Creuiter interprets this mighty son of Oden, into an emblem of 
the silent lapse of time. 

viPELL, (CLUB). "Now it came to pass one day, that the Jarls went 
in before tJie king, and Vifell sued for the hand of Eimyria, but Vesete 



l) Strong, p. 4^ — 2) Do, 117. — 3) Gylfag. cb. 29. — 4) Do, ch. 5i. 



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300 

for that of El sa. His denial gaTe the king unto them both. Hereupon became 
they mighllly enraged , and shortly after carried they off the maidens by force. 
Thereafter fled they from out the country, and dared not come before the 
presence of the king, for both had he exiled from his realm, and also caused 
incantations to be used, so that they should never thrive therein that land; 
herewith ordained he also , that their kinsmen should for ever be driven 
from their properly. Yesete settled li^self on that island or holm bight 
Borgnnderholm , and became father to Bue and to Sigurd Kappe. Vifell 
sailed out farilier to the east, taking up his abode on that island called 
VifclVs-Isle. By his wife , Eimyria , had he a son bight Viking ; early 
was he of great stature , and far stronger than other men." 1) Space will 
not allow us to translate farther; we refer to the amusing Saga itself. 

See VIKING YIFELLSSON. 

"vigwd's — bight the plain Days-journey' a hundred full 

Where, battling, meet It stretches every way: 

Surlur and Gods so mild: *Tis mark'd their field of fight." 2) 

VIKING, C^«*-««y» BAY-BOY Or WAR-BOY), the commou appellation of 
the numerous Northern bucaniers who formerly ravaged ''the Shores of 
every sea." As in early Greece, Piracy was originally in Scandinavia , 
an honourable and glorious path for booty and exploits. See sea-ring. 

VIKING (viPELLSSON). "Viking went in before the king, and salu- 
ted him. The king asked him of his name, and he answered even as it 
was. Hunvor [the king's daughter] sat at Ms side. Viking enquired 
whether she had not bidden him come thither? She said that so it was. 
Viking demanded, on what conditions he should fight the duel with 
Harek [Iron-head]. — *Thou shall have my daughter', said the king, 
*and an honorable dowry tliereunto.' — To this did Viking agree , and 
thereupon was Hervor betrothed unto him. Most men however thought 
he was but a dead man, if he should fight with Harek .... Viking now 
drew Angurvadel, and the falchion sliined, even as a fire burned from 
out it. When Harek saw this he said, — 'Never should I have fought 
with thee , had I known that tliou hadst Angurvadel in thy hands'; . . • • 
and even as he said these words, Viking hewed Harek across the skull 
and clove him down all his length, so that the sword went deep into 
the earth, even up to the hill thereof." 3) See iron-head. 

VINGOLF, (the FLOOR of FRIENDS or Gourt of Friendship), one of 
the Mansions of Paradise , in Asg&rd. — "Another Hall builded they [the 
Asarj thereunto ; here were altars for the Goddesses : all-fair it was , and 
this house men call Vingolf." 4) 



I) Thoraieu Vik. Saga, eli. I— 9.) Seem. Edda, Yaftrudner's Song, str. l8. — 
3) Thortten Vik. Saga, cli. 3, 4. — 4) Gylfa{>. 41. 



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301 

VIRGIN-BOWER. The lovers of tlie olden time were often snfiiciently 
violent in their wooings. Ravishment, rohhery, and forcible abduction 
were not unfrequently attempted, and often with success. The Virgin- 
bower (tAewnta, Jungfru-bur) or separate apartment of the Maidens, was 
therefore , harem-like , guarded and fortified with great care. "We some- 
times read, in the old songs and sagas, of draw-bridges and towers, not 
to speak of magic fires &:c. , bein^vsed for that purpose. 



WHALE. — "In Skaldic phraseology, Trolds or TroUs, i. e. demon- 
giants and giantesses , arc termed "whales of the mountains." The Saga 
of Hialmter and Oelver contains a very spirited description of a contest 
with a magic whale , which terminates in its defeat and subsidence." 1) 

WHITE GOD , a surname of Balder , who was also , during the chris- 
tianization of the North , often called The While Chrui, See balder. 

WOMEN-WAVES , "Witch-sent Storm-waves. 



YEOMAN, peasant, bonde (from Wa, to reside), was originally an in- 
dependent and often very powerful landholder, whose estate was lield 
without any condition of suit or service, 

Y6DRASIL , {Yggdratillf the HORSE of YGCR Or Oden , from Oden having 
been suspended tliereto in some magical or sacrificial ceremony,) the Tree 
of Time. — "Then quod Gangleri ; *which is the chief place and holiest 
seat of the Gods?' — Har answered; *it is by the Ash Ygdratil; there do 
the Gods give doom each day.* Gangleri then asked; 'what is there told 
regarding this place?' — Then maketh Jafnhar [The equally lofty One^ reply: 
'This Ash is of all trees the chiefest and the best ; the branches thereof 
strike out over the whole world, and stand up above the heaven. Three 
roots there are which uphold the tree, and stretch themselves far and 
wide abroad. One goelh to the Asar; another to the Frost-trolls where 
formerly Ginniingagap stood; and the third standeth over Niflheim, and 
under this root is Hvergelmir, where Nidhogg gnaweth it down below* 
Under that root which reachelh to the Fr ost- trolls, is Mimer's well, where 
wisdom and understanding are concealed." 2) 

"Ash know I high standing — Thence 'tis come the dew-drops 
*Tis Ygdrasil hight — That fall in the dale , 

Its crown ever water'd It stands there aye green 

"With white -flowing wave ; Over Urda's fount." 3) 

"The deeper signification of this Mylhus presents Ygdrasil as the 
increale, eternal, self-sustaining principle of life. Hence it trembles, it 
is true, on the day of the mundane catastrophe, yet falls not, but con- 



I) Stronyy p. iS;. — a) Gylfag. i5. — 3) Voluspa, str. 19. 

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302 

liniies to subsist after Ragnarok. According to this view, its three roots 
are also symbolical of Spirit, Organisation, and Matter, the three funda- 
mental conditions of all risible existence." i) — "It need scarcely he 
observed; that the great ash Yfdraui is palpably the Zambu of the Indian 
mount Men, and tliey are equally transcripts of tlie Paradisiacal tree of 
knowledge. The Goths have added to it, an infernal serpent, which 
perpetually gnaws its root from bela9: a curions part of the tradition 
which suiEciently bespeaks its own origin." 2) 

YMBR, a monstrous Giant, who existed in the beginning of time. 
He was slain by Oden , Veli and Ve , and the world was created from 
his dismembered carcase. This, of course, symbolizes the material ele- 
ments, distributed and organized by tlie Divine energies. 
"From Ymer's body "From out his brows 

The Earth was made , The mild Gods shap'd 

And from his blood the sea; Midgard for sons of men; 

Rocks from his bones; But from his brain 

Trees from his hair; Were all the heavy 

And high Heav'n from his skull: Clouds at once created." 3) 

YULE , is the old Northern word (Swedish Jul) for Christmas, and is 
still universally used in the North of England. Both Yule and the Yule- 
Garousal, which coincided with the winter-solstice , are far more ancient than 
t]ie Christian. Christmas and its rites, which the monks engrafted on them 
as a pious substitute. 

AGiR , the God of the sea. He symbolized tliis element in its 
greatness and mildness. Of course the word often means simply the 
Ocean. We find the term still occasionally used 4) to signify the bore or 
tide-wave of a large river. 

Xgir's daughters, Mer- maids (billows, waves) who are nine in 
number: Haningltefa, (heavcn-high) ; l>»/a, (Douser) ; BUAughadda, {Bloody- 
wave); Hefring, (Heaving); Uthr, (Water); Hravnn^ (Spoiler); Bylgja, (Billow) 
Drafn, (the Driving); and Ka^a, (Flood). 5) 



ODER, See Freja. 



X) H. Jj, Schley, quoted by Strong, p. 279. — 2) Faber, Orig. Pag. Id. 1. 34l. — 
3) Stem. E4da, Grimaer's Song, str. 40. 4i. — 4) Drgden, Tbren. Aug. x3o. — 
5) Skaldskarp. cb. 61. 



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ERRATA: 

"Ut hominum , ita lihrprum , nullus sine viliis editor : prae 
1 eliquis tamen veniam merentur iUi y qui et peregrini sunt idiomatis % 
et scripturae tarn yariae^ cpalis hie est." 

Andreaa Otho Lecturis Sal, 
(GloMiriam laDguarum Orieotaliom FraDcoforti MDCCII.) 



The following have been observed. 



P. 8 1» 14. for ^Heavn'S' rtad 'Heay'n's' 

— 31 — 8. „ 'Baltics' „ 'Baltic's* 

— 54 -^ 15. „ 'Falchion' „ 'Falcon" 

— 119 — 8. „ 'Nigthingales' „ 'Nightingales' 
—134 — 8, ,j "Gainst' „ ''Gainst* 



* The reader will remember that the printing of this work in a 
foreign Capital , has been attended with great delays and disadvantages. 



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